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PIRKE    DE    RABBI    ELIEZER 


pirk£  de 
rabbi  eliezer 

(THE  CHAPTERS  OF  RABBI  ELIEZER  THE  GREAT) 
ACCORDING  TO  THE  TEXT  OF  THE  MANUSCRIPT 
BELONGING     TO     ABRAHAM     EPSTEIN    OF     VIENNA 


TRANSLATED  AND  ANNOTATED 

WITH    INTRODUCTION   AND    INDICES 

BY 

GERALD    FRIEDLANDER 


LONDON 

KEGAN  PAUL,  TRENCH,  TRUBNER  &  CO.  LTD. 

New    York:    THE    BLOCH    PUBLISHING    COMPANY 

1916 


Printed  in  Scotland 
By  Morrison  &  Gibb  Limitsd 

Edinburgh 


TO 


ADOLPH    BUCKLER,   Ph.D. 

PRINCIPAL  OF  THE  JEWS*  COLLEGE,   LONDON 


PREFACE 

My  thanks  are  due  to  Dr.  A.  Marmorstein  for  much  general 
help  in  the  course  of  my  work.  He  has  verified  all  the 
Rabbinic  quotations  in  the  notes  and  has  added  many  addi- 
tional references.  I  have  further  to  express  my  gratitude 
to  Dr.  Biichler  for  valuable  counsel  in  the  preparation  of  the 
translation  and  also  for  reading  and  correcting  the  proof- 
sheets.  I  dedicate  this  book  to  him  as  a  mark  of  gratitude 
for  a  series  of  kindnesses  shown  to  me  during  many  years. 
It  is  mainly  owing  to  his  inspiration  and  encouragement 
that  I  have  ventured  to  offer  this  effort  as  a  contribution  to 
Jewish  literature. 

G.  F. 


GENERAL   CONTENTS 


Introduction 

Abbreviations  employed  in  Notes 

CHAPTER 

I.  Rabbi  Eliezer  and  the  Torah  . 
II.  Rabbi  Eliezer  and  his  Brethren 

III.  Premundane   Creation,  and   the   Work    of 

the  First  Day  . 

IV.  The  Creation  on  the  Second  Day 
V.  The    Creation    on    the    Third    Day  —  The 

Gathering  of  the  Waters 
VI.  The    Creation  on    the   Fourth    Day  — The 

Planets  ;  the  Course  of  the  Sun 
VII.  The  Course  of  the  Moon 
VIII.  The  Principle  of  Intercalation 
IX.  The  Creation  on  the   Fifth  Day 
X.  The  History  of  Jonah 

XI.  The  Work  of  Creation  on  the  Sixth  Day 
XII.  Adam  in  Paradise  . 

XIII.  The  Serpent  in  Paradise 

XIV.  The  Sin  of  Adam  and  Eve 
XV.  The  Two  Ways 

XVI.  The  Service  of  Loving-Kindness 
XVII.  Loving  Service  to  Mourners     . 
XVIII.  The   Creation    on    the    Eve    of    the    First 
Sabbath   . 
XIX.  The  Sabbath. 
XX.  Adam's  Penitence    . 
XXI.  Cain  and  Abel 
XXII.  The  Fall  of  the  Angels 

XXIII.  The  Ark  and  the  Flood 

XXIV.  NiMROD   AND  THE  TOVVER   OF   BaBEL 

XXV.  The  Sin  of  Sodom  . 
XXVI.  The  Ten  Trials  of  Abraham  (First  Five) 


XIU 

lix 
I 
5 

9 
20 

27 

31 
41 
52 
60 

65 

74 

84 

91 

97 

102 

106 

114 

124 
134 
143 
150 
158 
164 

174 
179 

187 


GENERAL  CONTENTS 


CHAPTER 

XXVII. 


XXVIII. 

XXIX. 

XXX. 

XXXI. 

XXXII. 

XXXIII. 

XXXIV. 

XXXV. 

XXXVI. 

XXXVII. 

XXXVIII. 

XXXIX. 

XL. 

XLI. 

XLII, 

XLIII. 

XLIV. 

XLV. 

XLVI. 

XLVII. 

XLVIII. 

XLIX. 

L. 

LI. 

LII. 

LIII, 


PAGE 

The    Ten    Trials     of     Abraham  —  continued 

(Battle  of  the  Kings)  .  .  -193 

The    Ten     Trials    ok    Abraham  —  continued 

(The  Vision  between  the  Pieces)  .  .     i97 

The    Ten     Trials    of    Abraham  —  continued 

(The  Covenant  of  Circumcision)  ,  .    203 

The    Ten    Trials    of    Abraham  —  continued 

(Abraham  and  Ishmael)        .  .  .215 

The  Ten  Trials  of  Abraham — continued  (The 

Binding  of  Isaac  on  the  Altar)    .  .    223 

The  Death  of  Sarah  and  the  Story  of  Isaac 

and  Rebecca      .  .  .  .  -231 

Elisha  and  the  Shunammite  Woman  .  .    239 

The  Resurrection  of  the  Dead  .  .    252 

The  Vision  of  Jacob  at  Bethel  .    261 

Jacob  and  Laban     .....    268 

Jacob  and  the  Angel        .  .  .  .281 

Joseph  and  his  Brethren  .  .  .    287 

Joseph  in  Egypt      .....    303 

Moses  at  the  Burning  Bush      .  .  .    312 

The  Revelation  on  Sinai  .  .  .    318 

The  Exodus  ......    328 

The  Power  of  Repentance         .  .  .    337 

Amalek  and  Israel  .  .  .  -345 

The  Golden  Calf   .  .  .  .  -352 

Moses  on  the  Mount        ....    359 

The  Zeal  of  Phineas        .  .  .  .367 

The  Egyptian  Bondage    ....    374 

The  Seed  of  Amalek        ....    388 

Haman  ......    396 

The  New  Heavens  and  Earth   .  .  .    ^lo 

The  Seven  Wonders  of  Old      .  .  .    420 

The  Sin  of  Slander  ....    428 

Note    .......    439 

Index  of  Subjects  and  Names   .  .  -441 

Index  of  Old  Testament  Passages  .    480 


CONTENTS   OF   INTRODUCTION 

PAGE 

§  I.  Short  Account  of  the  Book  and  its  History      .            .  xiii 

§  2.  Plan  and  Contents  of  the  Book      .            .           .           .  xv 

§  3.  P.R.E.  IN  Jewish  and  Christian  Literature         .            .  xviii 

§4.  P.R.E.    AND   Talmud,    Targum,    Midrash,    Zohar,    and 

Liturgy         ,..,...  xix 

§  5.  P.R.E.     AND     the     Pseudepigraphic     and    Apocryphal 

Literature  .......  xxi 

§  6.  P.R.E.  and  Patristic  Literature     ....  liii 

§  7.  Date  and  Origin  of  P.R.E.    .....  liii 

§  8.  Polemical  Tendency  in  P.R.E.         .           .           .           .  Iv 

§  9.  Theology  of  P.R.E.      .           .           .           .           .           .  Ivi 


XI 


INTRODUCTION 

§  1.  Short  Account  of  the  Book  and  its  History 

The  book  usually  designated  iry^K  'm  ""piD,  PirM  de 
Rabbi  Eliezer  {Chapters  of  Rabbi  Eliezer),  is  not  the  least 
important  of  the  Rabbinic  Pseudepigrapha.  The  attention 
recently  given  to  the  study  of  the  Apocrypha  and  Pseud- 
epigrapha has,  to  a  certain  extent,  been  limited  by  the  neglect 
of  the  Rabbinic  side  of  the  subject.  The  only  Hebrew  works 
translated  in  the  magnificent  Oxford  edition  of  the  Apoc- 
rypha and  Pseudepigrapha  are  the  PirM  Aboth  and  the 
Fragments  of  a  Zadokite  Work.  The  selection  of  these  two 
books  is  singularly  unfortunate,  since  neither  belongs  to 
the  Pseudepigrapha  proper.  More  appropriate  would  have 
been  the  inclusion  in  the  afore-mentioned  corpus  of  such 
works  as  the  Othijoth  de  Rabbi  'Akiba  or  the  PirM  de 
Rabbi  Eliezer,  now  presented,  for  the  first  time,  in  an  English 
translation. 

The  name  of  the  writer  of  the  book  is  unknown.  The 
putative  author  is  Rabbi  Eliezer,  son  of  Hyrkanos,  who 
lived  in  the  latter  half  of  the  first  century  c.e.  and  in  the 
first  decades  of  the  second  century.  He  was  famous  on 
account  of  his  great  erudition,  but  in  spite  of  his  reputation 
as  a  scholar  he  was  ultimately  excommunicated.  Was  it 
on  account  of  this  very  fact  that  the  actual  writer  of  our 
book  deliberately  selected  the  name  of  this  famous  master 
in  Israel  as  its  supposed  author  ?  In  many  respects  the 
book  is  polemical  and  unorthodox — polemical  in  opposing 
doctrines  and  traditions  current  in  certain  circles  in  former 
times,  unorthodox  in  revealing  certain  mysteries  which  were 
reputed  to  have  been  taught  in  the  school  of  Rabban 
Jochanan  ben  Zakkai,  the  teacher  of  our  Rabbi  Eliezer. 
Did  our  author  deem  it  dangerous  to  expose  his  own  identity  ? 
Did  he  not  run  the  risk  of  being  placed  under  the  ban  for  the 


XIU 


xiv  INTRODUCTION 

daring  displayed  in  writing  his  book  ?  What  name  was 
more  honoured,  in  spite  of  the  excommunication  which  had 
made  it  so  prominent,  than  Rabbi  EUezer  the  Great,  who  is 
quoted  in  Mishnah  and  Talmud  more  frequently  than  any 
one  of  his  contemporaries  ? 

The  book  enjoyed  considerable  popularity  in  Jewish 
circles  in  former  days,  for  there  are  more  than  two  dozen 
editions.  There  is  also  a  Latin  version  with  an  elaborate 
commentary  by  Vorstius  (1644),  indicating  a  certain  interest 
in  the  book  even  in  non- Jewish  circles.  The  first  edition 
was  printed  in  Constantinople  in  1514,  the  second  edition 
appeared  in  Venice,  1544,  the  third  edition  was  published  in 
Sabbioneta  in  1567.  Later  editions  of  value  are  those  of 
Amsterdam  and  Prague.  The  folio  edition  of  Rabbi 
David  Luria  (Vilna,  1837)  is  the  best  extant.  His  critical 
commentary  is  a  mine  of  valuable  information  which  has 
been  constantly  laid  under  contribution  in  the  preparation 
of  the  notes  in  the  present  volume.  The  editions  of  Erode 
and  Einhorn  have  also  been  consulted. 

The  text  adopted  for  translation  is  a  valuable  unedited 
MS.  belonging  to  Abraham  Epstein  of  Vienna.  This  treasure 
contains  not  only  the  entire  work  as  printed  in  the  various 
editions,  but  a  small  section  of  the  last  chapter  which  has 
never  been  printed.  Wertheimer's  Botte  Midrashoth,  iii.  pp. 
29-34,  contains  a  parallel  text  to  the  last  chapter,  but  not  as 
complete  as  our  MS.  text.  The  MS.  is  probably  the  work  of 
a  Spanish  scribe  of  the  twelfth  or  thirteenth  century.  It  was 
formerly  the  property  of  N.  Coronel.  In  very  many  instances 
the  text  preserved  in  the  MS.  is  superior  to  that  contained  in 
the  printed  editions.  The  MS.  used  by  the  editor  of  the  editio 
princeps  was  fairly  accurate,  as  this  text  is  on  the  whole 
correct  and  consecutive.  This  edition  was  used  by  the 
editor  of  the  beautiful  second  edition,  in  which  some  of  the 
errors  incidental  to  a  first  edition  have  been  rectified.  This 
text  has  been  used  by  all  subsequent  editors  and  was  adopted 
by  Vorstius  for  his  Latin  version. 

In  addition  to  Epstein's  MS.,  the  present  writer  has  used 
an  old  MS.  fragment  of  the  astronomical  chapters  (VI. -VIII.) 
belonging  to  the  Rev.  Dr.  M.  Gaster,  and  also  his  MS.  (9), 
which,  however,  is  incomplete.  Several  fragments  from 
the  Cairo  Geni?ah  belonging  to  Mr.  Elkan  N.  Adler,  M.A., 


INTRODUCTION  xv 

have  been  collated.  The  Geni?ah  fragments  belonging  to  the 
Cambridge  University  have  been  copied  by  Dr.  A.  Mar- 
morstein  and  his  transcript  has  been  used.  The  MSS.  of  the 
Bodleian  Library,  Oxford,  have  also  been  collated.  The 
fragment  MS.  in  the  British  Museum,  edited  by  Horowitz, 
has  likewise  been  consulted. 

In  the  printed  texts  there  are  fifty-four  chapters,  where- 
as in  our  MS.  there  are  only  fifty-three  chapters,  due  to  the 
fact  that  the  last  two  are  combined  into  one.  In  its  present 
form  the  book  is  undoubtedly  incomplete.  In  all  the  editions 
the  last  chapter  breaks  off  in  the  middle  of  a  sentence.  The 
MSS.  referred  to  in  the  Jewish  Encyclopedia  (x.  p.  59b)  have 
not  been  available. 

§  2.  Plan  and  Contents  of  the  Book 

The  book,  as  we  now  know  it,  is,  in  all  probability,  a 
composite  work,  consisting  of  three  originally  distinct 
sections.  The  object  of  one  of  these  parts  was  to  describe 
in  detail  the  "  ten  descents  "  from  heaven  to  earth,  which 
God  is  said  in  Holy  Scripture  to  have  made  in  the  past. 
The  books  of  old  told  of  the  Ascension  of  Isaiah,  as  well  as 
of  the  Assumption  of  Moses  and  other  worthies ;  our  book 
essayed  the  more  sacred  task  of  revealing  the  ten  Divine 
descents  on  earth.  The  purpose  of  the  Pistis  Sophia  is 
somewhat  similar,  of  course  from  the  standpoint  of  the 
Christian  gnostic.  The  last  chapter  in  our  book  deals  with 
the  eighth  descent.  The  missing  part  of  the  work  is  claimed 
to  be  preserved  in  the  text  published  by  M.  Friedmann  in 
the  Pseudo-Tanna  de  hi  Elijahu.  The  authenticity  of  this 
material  has,  however,  not  been  established  thus  far. 

Another  section  incorporated  in  our  present  work  pro- 
fessed to  give  a  detailed  account  of  Rabbinic  mysticism, 
more  particularly  the  ancient  mysteries  of  the  Creation 
(Ma'aseh  Bereshith),  the  Divine  Chariot  (Ma'aseh  Merkabah), 
as  well  as  the  secret  of  the  Calendar  (Sod  Ha-'Ibbur)  and 
the  secret  of  the  Redemption  (Sod  Ge'ullah).  The  mys- 
teries of  the  heaven  above,  the  earth  beneath,  and  the 
waters  under  the  earth  are  all  revealed.  Paradise  and 
Gehenna,  this  world  and  the  new  world,  are  all  explored. 
We  hear  of  the  Ministering  Angels,  Sammael  and  the  angels 


xvi  INTRODUCTION 

"  who  fell  from  their  holy  place  in  heaven,"  and  also  con- 
cerning Leviathan  and  Behemoth.  The  life  hereafter,  the 
resurrection  of  the  dead,  and  the  Messianic  Age  are  dis- 
cussed. The  doctrine  of  the  "  Last  Things,"  usually  known 
as  Eschatology,  is  not  entirely  forgotten. 

The  possibility  of  a  third  book  in  our  work  is  to  be 
detected  in  the  fragment  of  a  Midrash  on  the  Shemoneh  'Esreh 
(the  Jewish  prayer  par  excellence),  which  is  contained  in 
the  latter  part  of  the  "  Chapters."  AVhcther  the  three 
chapters  (VI.-VIII.)  dealing  with  the  Calendar  are  an 
integral  part  of  the  section  previously  discussed  or  whether 
they  belong  to  the  actual  Pirke  de  Rabbi  Eliezer  is  a  moot 
point,  which  cannot  be  decided  off-hand.  The  result  of  the 
combination  of  the  different  sections  may  be  seen  in  the 
repetition  of  several  narratives  {e.g.  the  creation  of  Adam), 
in  obvious  contradictions  {e.g.  Chapter  III.  and  Chapter 
XVIII.  ;  Chapter  XXX.  and  Chapter  XXXI.,  on  the 
question  of  the  difference  between  the  ages  of  Isaac  and 
Ishmael),  and  finally  in  the  absence  of  consecutive  order 
in  the  arrangement  of  the  material.  Likewise  the  order 
in  which  the  different  chapters  are  arranged  is  a  further 
proof  of  the  composite  nature  of  the  entire  book.  More- 
over, the  first  two  chapters  form  an  independent  section 
which  has  been  prefixed  for  the  purpose  of  providing  a 
preface  in  order  to  justify  the  authorship  attributed  to 
Rabbi  Eliezer.  The  two  chapters  are  entirely  biographical, 
setting  forth  the  call  of  Rabbi  Eliezer.  Our  contention 
as  to  the  relation  of  these  two  chapters  towards  the  rest  of 
the  book,  as  we  now  know  it,  seems  to  be  supported  by  the 
fact  that  the  MS.  of  the  first  part  of  our  book  in  the  British 
Museum  begins  at  Chapter  III.  of  the  printed  text.  The 
same  fact  applies  to  the  portion  of  our  book  which  has 
been  incorporated  by  R.  Asher  JIa-Levi  in  his  Sepher  Ua- 
Zikhronoth  (Bodleian  MS.  Heb.  d.  11,  No.  2797).  Dr. 
Marmorstcin  finds  in  MS.  Adler  (522,  p.  143b),  Chajiter  XLIV. 
quoted.  This  corresponds  to  Chapter  XLII.  in  the  printed 
texts.  Again,  on  p.  79a,  Chapter  XLI.  is  mentioned,  corre- 
sponding to  Chapter  XXXIX.  in  our  text.  In  Gaster  MS. 
(9)  ten  anciently  written  chapters  have  been  inserted  which 
are  all  enumerated  as  though  the  book  began  with  Chapter 
III.     This  clearly  shows  that  in  some  MSS.  the  first  two 


INTRODUCTION  xvii 

chapters  were  missing,  and,  as  we  have  suggested,  did  not 
form  part  of  the  original  work. 

Chapters  III.-XI.  deal  with  the  work  of  the  Creation. 

Chapters  XII.-XX.  refer  to  Adam  and  Eve. 

Chapters  XXI.  and  XXII.  give  the  story  of  Cain,  Abel, 

and  the  other  descendants  of  Adam  and  Eve. 
Chapters  XXIII.  and  XXIV.  contain  the  history  of  Noah 

and  his  sons  and  the  narrative  of  the  Flood. 
Chapter  XXV.  sets  forth  the  sin  and  doom  of  Sodom. 
Chapters  XXVI.-XXXI.  cover  the  life  story  of  Abraham, 
including  the  story  of  the  'Ak:edah  (or  the  binding 
of  Isaac). 
Chapters  XXXII.  and  XXXIII.  deal  with  the  life  of 

Isaac. 
Chapter  XXXIV.  is  devoted  to  an  account  of  the  resur- 
rection of  the  dead. 
Chapters  XXXV.-XXXVII.  present  the  story  of  Jacob's 

life. 
Chapters  XXXVIII.  and  XXXIX.  refer  to  Joseph. 
Chapter  XL.  discusses  the  signs  given  by  God  to  Moses. 
Chapter  XLI.  is  concerned  with  the  revelation  on  Sinai. 
Chapters  XLII.  and  XLIII.  (which  are  evidently  out  of 
place)  contain  the  narrative  of  the  Exodus  (which 
should  precede  the  story  of  the  revelation  on  Sinai). 
Chapter  XLIV.  unfolds  the  history  of  Amalek. 
Chapters    XLV.-XLVII.    set    forth    the    story    of    the 

Golden  Calf. 
Chapter  XLVIII.  resumes  the  subject  of  the  Exodus. 
Chapters  XLIX.  and  L.  give  the  story  of  Haman  and 

Mordecai. 
Chapter  LI.  is  eschatological. 
Chapter  LII.  describes  the  wonders  of  old. 
Chapter  LIII.  reverts  to  the  history  of  Israel  in  the 
wilderness,     e.g.     the     "  Brazen "     Serpent     and 
Miriam. 
In  the  second  half  of  the  book  we  see  the  fragment  of 
the  Midrash  on  the  Shemoneh  'Esreh,  furnishing  a  series 
of    links    connecting    the    various    sections    of    this    part 
of   the   book.      Thus   the   first   benediction   is   referred   to 
in    Chapter    XXVII.    in    connection    with    Abraham.     The 
second  benediction  occurs  in  Chapters  XXXI.  and  XXXIV., 


xviii  INTRODUCTION 

in  connection  with  Isaac.  The  third  in  Chapter  XXXV, 
(Jacob),  the  fourth  in  Chapter  XL.  (Moses),  the  fifth  in 
Chapter  XLIII.  in  connection  with  Manasseh  and  Nineveh, 
the  sixth  in  Chapter  XLVI.  in  connection  with  Israel  in 
the  wilderness,  the  seventh  in  Chapter  LI.  (Messianic),  and 
the  eighth  in  Chapters  LII.  and  LIII.  (Miriam).  The  fact 
that  only  eight  descents  and  only  eight  benedictions  are 
dealt  with  in  the  book  is  noteworthy,  and  points  to  the 
present  incomplete  condition  of  the  work. 

§  3.  Our  Book  in  Jewish  and  Christian  Literature 

The  book  is  usually  known  by  the  title  Pirke  de  Rabbi 
Eliezer.  Our  MS.  uses  this  designation,  adding  "  Ha-Gadol  " 
("  the  Great  ").  The  first  to  quote  our  book  are  the  Geonim 
or  Rabbis  of  Babylon,  see  Siddur  of  Rab  'Amram  (c.  850  c.e.), 
p.  32a.  Mach?;or  Vitry  (ed.  S.  Hurwitz),  p.  117,  quotes  our 
book  by  the  title  "  Perakim  "  ("The  Chapters  ").  In  the 
Tosaphoth  to  Kethuboth,  99a,  R.  Tarn  calls  it  "  Haggadath 
de  Rabbi  Eliezer  ben  Hyrkanos."  The  'Arukh  terms  it 
"  Baraitha  de  Rabbi  Eliezer."  Dr.  Marmorstein  finds  our 
book  mentioned  in  Midrash  Ha-Chefez  (B.M.  2351,  p.  89b) 
under  the  title  of  "  Mishnah  de  R.  Eliezer";  the  same 
designation  occurs  in  a  bookseller's  catalogue  of  the  twelfth 
to  thirteenth  century,  see  J.Q.R.  xiii.  p.  53. 

The  usual  title  PirkS  de  Rabbi  Eliezer  is  employed  by 
Rashi  {e.g.  on  Gen.  xxvii.  9  ;  Deut.  xii.  17  ;  Jonah  i.  7), 
Jehudah  Ha-Levi  (Khazari  iii.  65  and  iv.  29),  and  Mai- 
monides  (Moreh  Nebukhim  i.  70  and  ii.  26).  For  further 
references  see  the  excellent  chapter  on  our  book  in  Zunz, 
Gottesdienstliche    Vortrdge  der  Juden  (2nd  ed.),  p.  283,  note/. 

In  addition  to  the  writers  and  books  mentioned  in 
the  previous  paragraphs,  quotations  from  our  book  are  to 
be  found  in  R.  Achai  Gaon  in  She'eltoth,  in  Natronai  Gaon  in 
Chcmdah  Genu?ah  No.  93,  in  R.  Moses  of  Coucy's  S.M.G.,  in 
Halakhoth  Gedoloth  (ed.  Hildcshcimcr,  p.  5),  in  Midrash 
Haggadol  (ed.  Schechter),  Midrash  Agadah  (ed.  Buber), 
Jalkut  Shim'oni,  Jalkut  Makhiri,  Midrash  Sekhel  Tob  (ed. 
Buber),  also  in  the  commentaries  on  the  Pentateuch  by 
R.  Bcchai  and  Nachmanides,  as  well  as  in  the  latter's  Torath 
Ha-x\dam,  and  many  other  books  too  numerous  to  mention. 


INTRODUCTION  xix 

In  addition  to  the  bibliography  to  be  found  in  the  Jewish 
Encyclopedia  (x.  p.  60a)  and  in  Wolff,  Bibl.  Hebr.  i.  p.  173, 
iii.  p.  110,  and  iv.  p.  1032,  the  follo^ving  references  have  been 
furnished  by  Dr.  Marmorstein  : 

Zakuto,  Juchasin,  p.  52b  (the  first  to  cast  a  doubt  on 

the  authorship  of  R.  Eliezer). 
'Azariah  de  Rossi,  Meor  'Enayim,  ch.  xliii. 
Rapoport,  in  Kerem  Chemed,  vii.  p.  41. 
Steinschneider,    Polemische   und  Apologetische  Literatur, 

p.  339 ;    Z.D.M.G.   xxviii.  640 ;    H.B.    v.  15  and 

120,  viii.  7,  and  ix.  3. 
The  periodicals  Keneseth  Ha-Gedolah,  i.  165  ;  Ha-Maggid, 

xii.  nos.   26  ff.;    R.E.J,  iiv.  66;   M.G.W.J.,  1893, 

p.  253  ;  J.Q.R.   iv.   622,   and  J.Q.R.   (new  series) 

i.  pp.  64  f. 
Graetz,  M.G.W.J.,  1859,  p.  207  ;  H.B.  xiv.  7  ;  Geschichte, 

iv.  p.  223 ;  and  Z.D.M.G.  xxviii.  645. 
Epstein,  Eldad,  p.  76;  and 
Chwolson,  Ssabier,  i.  p.  98. 

§  4.  P.R.E.   AND  Talmud,  Targum,  Midrash,  Zohar, 

AND  Liturgy 

The  fact  that  with  two  exceptions  all  the  names  of  the 
Rabbis  quoted  in  our  book  are  Palestinian  teachers  has  been 
duly  noted  by  scholars,  see  J.E.  x.  p.  59a.  Equally  remark- 
able is  the  fact  that  the  direct  quotations  from  the  Talmud 
are  to  be  found  in  the  Palestinian  Talmud  only.  The 
inference  to  be  drawn  from  this  circumstance  is  that  the 
author  was  probably  a  Palestinian.  Again,  there  is  a  very 
close  connection  between  the  Palestinian  Targum  to  the 
Pentateuch,  usually  known  as  the  Pseudo-Jonathan  ben 
U^jiel,  and  our  author. 

The  present  writer  inclines  to  the  view  that  our  book 
was  one  of  the  sources  used  by  this  Targumist.  There  is  also 
evidence  which  goes  to  show  that  the  author  of  the  Second 
Targum  to  Esther  used  our  book.  Likewise  there  is  reason 
to  believe  that  the  Zohar  has  used  many  of  the  interpreta- 
tions and  doctrines  which  are  to  be  found  in  our  work. 
In  all  probability  a  similar  statement  applies  to  the  Book 
of  Jashar. 


XX  INTRODUCTION 

On  the  other  hand,  our  author  has  laid  Genesis  Rabbah 
under  contribution.  In  the  notes  attention  will  be  drawn 
to  some  of  the  parallels  to  be  found  in  Talmudic  and 
Midrashic  literature. 

The  question  of  interdependence  arises  in  connection 
with  the  Baraitha  de  Sh'muel.  The  date  776  c.e.  is  mentioned 
in  this  work,  and  shortly  after  this  date  the  work  was 
most  probably  written.  Have  we,  however,  the  original 
Baraitha  ?  Was  our  book  used  by  the  writer  of  this 
Baraitha  ?  Were  the  two  works  originally  united  in  one 
book  ?  Are  we  to  believe,  as  Dr.  Gaster  seems  to  urge  in 
his  valuable  Introduction  to  Jerahmeel,  that  the  three  astro- 
nomical chapters  (VI.-VIIL)are  part  of  the  original  Baraitha'i 
These  problems  must  remain  for  the  present  unsolved.  The 
views  of  Zunz  on  this  question  will  be  referred  to  in  the  notes. 
On  the  entire  problem  Bornstein's  note  on  pp.  177  f.  in 
Sokolow's  Jubilee  Volume  (1904)  should  be  consulted.  A 
similar  unsolved  problem  arises  in  connection  with  the 
Sepher  Jezirah ;  some  of  the  points  of  contact  between  this 
book  and  P.R.E.  will  be  mentioned  in  the  notes. 

Many  of  the  Midrashic  explanations  and  legends  con- 
tained in  our  book  have  been  utilized  by  the  Payetanim 
(liturgical  poets)  whose  poems  have  enriched  the  liturgy 
of  the  Synagogue.  The  commentary  to  the  Machzor  by 
Heidenheim  draws  attention  to  many  parallels  in  our  book. 

Recent  investigation  has  proved  that  the  date  hitherto 
assigned  to  Kalir  must  be  altered  to  an  earlier  period  (c. 
seventh  century).  According  to  Zunz,  G.V.  (p.  290)  Kalir 
used  P.R.E.  in  his  liturgical  compositions,  and  if  this  be  so, 
he  must  have  had  an  earlier  form  of  our  book  than  has  come 
down  to  us. 

The  Jozeroth  as  well  as  the  daily  and  Sabbath  liturgy 
of  the  Synagogue  point  to  the  direct  influence  exerted  by 
our  book.  One  instance  will  illustrate  this  point.  The 
Kedushah  of  the  Mussaph  for  Sabbath  and  Holyday  is  to 
be  found  in  its  earliest  form  in  our  book  (see  p.  26  and 
cf.  M.G.IV.J.,  1887,  pp.  550  If.).  Does  this  fact  enable  us 
to  determine  the  provenance  of  our  "  Chapters  "  ?  Dr. 
Biichler  has  pointed  out  to  the  present  writer  that  the 
phrase  on  p.  169,  "  Through  me  will  all  the  righteous  crown 
Thee  with  a  crown  of  sovereignty,"  shows  that  the  author 


INTRODUCTION  xxi 

knew  the  special  form  of  the  Kediishah  of  the  mystics 
known  as  the  "  Jorede  Merkabah,"  discussed  by  P.  Bloch 
in  M.G.W.J.,  1893  (37),  p.  310,  and  by  Dr.  Biichler  in  R.^.J. 
liii.  p.  220. 

In  connection  with  this  subject,  it  is  interesting  to  note 
that  the  tenth  chapter  seems  to  be  a  homily  for  the  Day 
of  Atonement.  According  to  Horowitz,  Beth  'Eked  Ha- 
Hagadoth,  p.  21,  Chapter  XXX.,  which  has  been  incorporated 
in  the  Midrash  of  the  Ten  Kings,  was  also  written  for  litur- 
gical purposes,  probably  as  a  Midrash  for  the  Sabbath  pre- 
ceding the  9th  of  Ab.  Possibly  Chapters  XXV.  and  XXVI. 
were  homilies  for  the  New  Year.  The  sections  from  Chapters 
III.,  IV.,  v.,  VI.,  IX.,  and  XI.  dealing  with  the  Creation  and 
Adam,  which  are  preserved  in  the  B.M.  MS.  27089  and 
printed  by  Horowitz,  Sammlung  kleiner  Midraschim,  i.  pp. 
4  ff.,  may  have  served  a  liturgical  purpose  in  connection 
with  the  New  Year,  because  according  to  our  author  Adam 
was  created  on  the  New  Year.  Similar  Midrashic  sections 
are — (1)  Chapter  XLII.,  for  Sabbath  Shirah  or  for  the  seventh 
Day  of  Passover ;  (2)  Chapter  XLI.,  for  Pentecost ;  (3) 
Chapter  IV.,  dealing  with  the  Cherubim  and  the  Divine 
Throne  for  Pentecost  (the  Haphtarah  being  Ezek.  i.) ;  and 
(4)  Chapter  XXXIII.,  for  the  Intermediate  Sabbath  in 
Passover  (the  Haphtarah  being  Ezek.  xxxvii.).  Several 
chapters  are  also  to  be  regarded  as  Midrashim  to  the  weekly 
Portion  (Sedra).  Finally,  Chapter  XLIV.  and  Chapter 
XLIX.  are  probably  Midrashim  for  Sabbath  Zakhor,  whilst 
Chapter  L.  is  a  Midrashic  reading  for  Purim.  Chapter 
XXXI.,  which  deals  with  the  'Akedah,  may  have  been  a 
homily  for  the  New  Year  or  for  Sabbath  Vayera.  Chapter 
XXXIII.  was  most  likely  the  Midrash  to  the  Haphtarah 
for  Sabbath  Vayera. 

§  5.  P.R.E.    AND  THE  PSEUDEPIGRAPHA  AND  APOCRYPHA 

Among  the  most  valuable  writings  in  the  second  volume 
of  the  Oxford  edition  of  the  Apocrypha  and  Pseudepi- 
grapha  are  Jubilees,  the  two  Books  of  Enoch,  the  Testa- 
ments of  the  XII  Patriarchs,  4  Ezra,  and  the  Books  of 
Adam  and  Eve.  With  all  these  books  there  are  points  of 
contact   in    the    Pirki   de   R.    Eliezer.     For   instance,    the 


xxii  INTRODUCTION 

Biblical  narrative  covered  by  our  book  agrees  to  a  consider- 
able extent  with  the  material  dealt  with  by  the  Book  of 
Jubilees.  We  shall  find  frequent  occasion  in  the  notes  to 
refer  not  only  to  the  points  of  similarity  between  the  two 
works,  but  also  to  several  points  of  dissimilarity.  There 
seems  to  be  reasonable  ground  for  assuming  that  the  author 
of  our  book  was  acquainted  not  only  with  Jubilees,  but  also 
with  the  pseudepigraphic  Books  of  Enoch  (Ethiopic  and 
Slavonic),  and  very  probably  with  the  Testaments  of  the 
XII  Patriarchs,  or  with  the  sources  of  these  books. 

Jubilees  and  our  book  are  alike  in  being  practically 
Midrashic  paraphrases  and  expansions  of  the  narratives 
contained  in  the  Book  of  Genesis  and  part  of  the  Book 
of  Exodus.  Our  book  contains  more  than  this,  but  it  is 
a  later  compilation.  Both  books  deal  with  the  Calendar 
(see  Jubilees  vi.  28-33),  and  in  this  respect  they  recall  the 
Books  of  Enoch  (Eth.  Enoch  Ixxii.-lxxxii.).  In  all  these 
books  we  have  chapters  setting  forth  the  story  of  the  Creation 
(Ma'aseh  Bereshith).  The  mysteries  and  secrets  con- 
tained in  some  of  the  above-mentioned  books  of  the  Pseud- 
epigrapha  reappear  in  our  book.  The  past  is  recalled  and 
the  future  revealed.  The  nature  of  God,  angels,  and  man  is 
unfolded.  We  read  of  sin  and  grace,  repentance  and  atone- 
ment, good  and  evil,  life  and  death.  Paradise  and  Gehenna, 
Satan  and  Messiah.  The  same  anthropomorphic  expres- 
sions occur  in  all  this  literature  and  reappear  in  our  book. 
The  Index  will  enable  the  reader  to  find  easily  in  our  book 
its  teaching  on  all  these  points. 

Our  book  does  not  merely  re-echo  the  esoteric  doctrines 
of  Apocalypse,  it  occasionally  dares  to  speak  with  its  own 
voice  and  at  times  deliberately  modifies  the  teaching  of  the 
old  Pseudepigrapha.  For  instance,  the  Calendar  doctrines 
set  forth  in  Jubilees  and  part  of  the  Enoch  literature  are 
rejected  and  opposed.  The  Calendar  section  in  our  book 
is  of  more  than  passing  interest,  because  it  may  indicate — 
(1)  The  probable  date  when  our  book  was  written,  (2)  its 
provenance,  and  (3)  the  motive  for  its  composition.  Accord- 
ing to  S.  Poznanski  (Hastings'  Ency.  of  Religion  and  Ethics, 
iii.  117)  the  probable  date  is  in  the  period  of  the  Geonim 
(c.  800),  its  origin  was  in  Babylon,  and  the  i)urposc  of  the 
book  was  to  oppose  factions  or  sects  who  at  this  period  had 


INTRODUCTION  xxiii 

their  individual  calendars.  Reference  should  be  made  to 
the  J.Q.R.  X.  152-161  for  the  discussion  on  the  Calendar 
disputes  in  the  days  of  Sa'adiah  (892-942),  see  also  J.Q.R. 
xiv.  pp.  37  ff.  and  (new  series)  v.  4,  pp.  543  ff. 

The  various  forms  of  the  Calendar,  which  were  probably 
the  occasion  of  attack  or  defence,  e.g.  the  systems  set  forth 
in  Jubilees  and  the  Books  of  Enoch,  as  well  as  the  calendars 
of  the  Samaritans  and  Karaites,  and  the  systems  elaborated 
in  the  Rabbinic  and  Patristic  literature  and  also  in  the 
Hellenistic  Jewish  writings,  would  have  to  be  carefully 
considered  before  we  can  be  in  a  position  to  formulate  the 
purpose  of  the  Calendar  in  our  book. 

To  revert  to  the  Book  of  Jubilees  in  relation  to  our  book, 
the  following  passages  in  the  former  seem  to  have  some 
connection  with  our  text. 

Jub.  i.  29  refers  to  the  renewal  of  the  heavens  and  the 
earth  (cf.  ibid.  iv.  26  and  xxiii.  26-28,  and  Charles'  note  on 
p.  10  of  his  edition  of  Jubilees) ;  Chapter  LI.  (pp.  410  ff.) 
in  our  book  is  devoted  to  this  theme. 

In  Jub.  i.  and  ii.  reference  is  made  to  the  intercourse 
between  Moses  and  the  angels ;  the  same  subject  reappears 
in  our  book  (Chapter  XLVI.  pp.  361  f.),  where  we  also  read 
of  "  letters  and  tablets  for  heahng  "  (p.  362)  given  to  Moses 
by  the  angels,  this  is  similar  to  Jub.  x.  12,  13. 

According  to  Jub.  ii.  17-21,  when  the  Israehtes  observe 
the  Sabbath,  they  resemble  the  angels ;  this  belief  reappears 
in  our  book  (Chapter  XLVI.  p.  364),  except  for  the  fact  that 
Sabbath  is  replaced  by  the  Day  of  Atonement  {i.e.  the 
Sabbath  of  Sabbaths). 

Very  striking  is  the  passage  in  Jub.  ii.  dealing  with 
the  selection  of  Israel  to  keep  the  Sabbath  and  the  nature 
of  the  Sabbath  observance,  "  eating,  drinking,  and  blessing 
God  "  (ii.  21).  This  must  be  compared  with  P.R.E.  xix. 
p.  138  :  "  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  blessed  and  hallowed 
the  Sabbath  day,  and  Israel  is  bound  only  to  keep  and  to 
hallow  the  Sabbath  day.  .  .  .  Whosoever  says  the  bene- 
diction and  sanctification  over  the  wine  on  the  eves  of 
Sabbaths."  Jub.  ii.  29,  30,  should  also  be  compared  with 
P.R.E. ,  loc.  cit. 

Both  books  protest  against  the  exposure  of  the  person ; 
thus  in  Jub.  iii.  31  and  vii.  20  this  ordinance  is  laid  down  in 


xxiv  INTRODUCTION 

connection  with  Noah,  whilst  in  our  book,  xxii.  p.  IGO,  this 
sin  is  one  of  the  causes  of  the  Hood. 

The  offering  brought  by  Noah,  according  to  Jub.  vi.  3, 
consisted  of  an  ox,  a  goat,  a  sheep,  kids,  salt,  a  turtle-dove, 
and  the  young  of  a  dove  ;  in  our  book,  xxiii.  p.  171,  this 
reappears  as  "  ox,  a  sheep,  a  turtle-dove,  and  pigeons." 

Jub.  vi.  17  f.  lays  great  stress  on  the  importance  of  the 
festival  of  Pentecost,  even  attributing  its  institution  to 
Noah  and  the  patriarchs  ;  our  book  varies  this  by  connecting 
the  institution  of  Passover  with  Adam  and  the  patriarchs 
(pp.  153,  236). 

Jub.  vi.  23-29  dwells  on  the  importance  of  the  New 
Moon;  this  occurs  also  in  our  book,  p.  410. 

Jub.  vii.  2,  35  ff.,  xvi.  20-31,  and  xxi.  7-17  refers  to 
the  age  of  the  patriarchs  various  laws  other  than  the  seven 
precepts  of  the  sons  of  Noah.  This  tendency  is  followed 
by  our  book,  which  mentions  Sha'atne?  (p.  154;  see  Lev. 
xix.  19),  Sabbath  (p.  142),  Habdalah  (pp.  145  f.),  and  the 
wedding  benediction  (pp.  89  f.)  in  connection  with  the  life  of 
Adam. 

Noah  divides  the  earth  among  his  three  sons  (Jub.  viii. 
11).  Dr.  Charles  {in  loc.)  refers  to  Beer,  who  quotes  P.R.E. 
xxiv.  The  actual  text  in  Jub.  viii.  11-30  should  be  compared 
with  the  last  paragraph  in  P.R.E.  xxiii.  (pp.  172  f.),  which 
might  reasonably  be  looked  upon  as  a  condensed  version  of  the 
twenty  verses  in  Jubilees.  Thus  the  first  sentence  in  P.R.E. 
{loc.  cit.)  reads  :  "  Noah  brought  his  sons  and  his  grandsons, 
and  he  blessed  them  with  their  (several)  settlements,  and 
he  gave  them  as  an  inheritance  all  the  earth."  Jubilees 
(viii.  11)  reads  :  "  And  he  called  his  sons,  and  they  drew 
nigh  to  him,  they  and  their  children,  and  he  divided  the 
earth  into  the  lots,  which  his  three  sons  were  to  take  in 
possession."  Shem  receives  according  to  Jubilees  (viii.  12) 
"  the  middle  of  the  earth,"  and  according  to  P.R.E.  {loc. 
cit.)  he  inherits  "  the  habitable  land."  Ham  receives 
"  beyond  the  Gihon  .  .  .  and  it  extends  towards  the  west 
to  the  sea  of  'Atel,  and  it  extends  .  .  .  till  it  reaches  the 
sea  of  Ma'uk  "  (Jub.  viii.  22).  Dr.  Charles  {in  loc.)  thinks 
that  Ma'uk  is  a  distortion  of  'fiKcavos,  the  great  ocean 
stream.  P.R.E.  {loc.  cit.)  reads  :  "  He  blessed  Ham  and  his 
sons  .  .  .  and  he  gave  them  as  an  inheritance  the  coast  of 


INTRODUCTION  xxv 

the  sea."  Japhet's  portion  is  Northern  Asia,  Europe,  and 
five  great  islands  (Jub.  viii.  25-29a) ;  and  according  to  P.R.E. 
(loc.  cit.)  he  receives  "  for  an  inheritance  the  desert  and  its 
fields." 

Both  books  agree  (Jub.  xii.  26,  P.R.E.  p.  188)  in  saying 
that  Abraham  spoke  Hebrew,  the  holy  language  of  the 
Creation.  In  both  books  Satan  (or  Sammael  in  P.R.E., 
Mastema  in  Jubilees)  plays  a  striking  part,  he  is  a  chief  or 
prince  (see  Jub.  xvii.  16  and  xlviii.  2,  and  P.R.E.  p.  92). 
Jub.  X.  11  identifies  Satan  and  Mastema;  a  parallel  to  this 
section  of  Jubilees  (x.  8-11)  is  to  be  found  in  our  book 
(p.  363  f.).  According  to  Jub.  iii.  17  the  serpent  alone  was 
the  cause  of  the  fall  of  Eve ;  our  author  (p.  92),  following 
other  legends,  describes  Sammael  as  using  the  serpent  in  his 
plot  against  Eve.  In  Jub.  xviii.  9,  12,  Mastema  is  put  to 
shame  at  the  sacrifice  of  Isaac ;  this  legend  reappears  in 
P.R.E.  (pp.  228,  233  f.),  according  to  which  Sammael  attempts 
to  hinder  Abraham. 

The  fundamental  importance  of  circumcision  is  insisted 
upon  in  both  books  (Jub.  xv.  11  ff.  and  P.R.E.  xxix.),  and 
they  both  refer  to  the  serious  neglect  of  the  rite  (Jub.  xv. 
33  f.  and  P.R.E.  pp.  212  ff.).  According  to  Jub.  xv.  30-32 
and  P.R.E.  p.  177,  Israel  alone  is  subject  to  God,  whilst 
the  nations  of  the  world  are  subject  to  the  dominion  of  the 
angels.  Both  books,  Jub.  xvii.  17  and  P.R.E.  pp.  187  ff., 
refer  to  the  ten  trials  of  Abraham.  Again,  both  books 
(.lub.  xxi.  17  ;  P.R.E.  pp.  61,  212)  lay  stress  on  the  duty  of 
covering  the  blood  with  dust.  They  also  agree  (Jub.  xxii. 
16;  P.R.E.  pp.  208,  301)  in  ordaining  restrictions  as  to 
the  food  of  non-Jews.  Isaac's  oath  to  the  Philistines 
(Jub.  xxiv.  25, 33)  reappears  in  our  book,  pp.  278  f.  Jub.  xxxii. 
2  f.  has  a  close  parallel  in  our  book  (p.  284),  about  the 
story  of  the  choice  of  Levi  as  the  tithe  devoted  to  God. 

There  is  considerable  agreement  in  both  books  on 
Angelology  and  Demonology.  Both  books  teach  the 
eternal  validity  of  the  Law,  older  than  creation  and  coming 
from  the  custody  of  the  angels  in  heaven. 

On  the  other  hand,  there  are  many  divergent  teachings. 
We  have  already  referred  to  the  Calendar.  According  to 
Jub.  i.  27  (see  Charles'  ed.  p.  Ixiv  f.)  an  angel  reveals  the 
Law  to  Moses ;  our  author  (p.  320)  opposes  this  doctrine, 


xxvi  INTRODUCTION 

which  was  taught  in  Hellenistic  Jewish  and  Christian  circles 
(see  LXX  to  Deut.  xxxiii.  2   and  Acts  of  the  Apostles  vii. 
53,  and  cf.  Josephus  quoted  in  the  Westminster  N.T.  ed. 
of  Acts,  loc.  cit.).     In  P.R.E.  {loc.  cit.  and  pp.  324  f.  and  327) 
God  alone  gives  the  Law,  although  myriads  of  ministering 
angels  are  present.     Jub.  ii.  2-3  fixes  the  first  day  for  the 
creation  of  the  angels,  our  book  (p.  20)  gives  the  second  day. 
Aecordinjj  to  Jub.  ii.  7  the  "arden  of  Eden  was  created  on 
the  third  day,  whereas  in  our  book  (p.  11)  it  belongs  to  the 
premundane  creation.     Jub.  iv.  15,  22,  identifies  the  angels 
of  the  Lord  who  descended  on  the  earth  with  the  Watchers 
who  sinned  with  the  daughters  of  men.     This  interpretation 
of  the  "  sons  of  Elohim  "  is  accepted  by  our  author  (p.  160), 
who  qualifies  it  by  adding  that  the  Israelites  are  also  called 
"sons  of  God"  (p.  161).     Dr.  Charles  {Jubilees,  pp.  33  ff., 
note  14)  refers  to  the  Christian  interpretation  of  "  the  sons 
of  God  "   as   indicating   "  the   good   among   mankind,    the 
descendants  of  Seth,  and  the  daughters  of  men  to  be  the 
descendants  of  Cain."     Our  author  (p.  158  f.)  tells  us  that, 
"  all   the   generations   of  the   righteous   arose   from   Seth," 
whereas    "  from    Cain    arose   and    were   descended    all    the 
generations  of  the   wicked."     Jub.   v.   7  teaches  that  the 
sons  of  the  angels  who  rebelled  against  God  slew  one  another 
with  the  sword,  but  our  author  (p.  162)  varies  this  by  letting 
them  perish  in  the  flood.     In  Jub.  xii.  14,  Haran,  the  brother 
of  Abraham,  is  burnt  in  the  fire,  whereas  according  to  our 
book  (p.  188)  it  is  Abraham  who  is  cast  into  the  fire  and 
rescued  by  Divine  interposition. 

In  Jub.  xix.  11  the  marriage  of  Abraham  \vith  Keturah 
is  spoken  of  as  his  third  marriage,  "  for  Hagar  had  died 
before  Sarah  ";  this  is  contradicted  by  our  author  (p.  219), 
who  identifies  Keturah  and  Hagar.  Jub.  xxx.  2  ff.  gives 
the  praise  of  Simeon  and  Levi  in  connection  with  the 
punishment  which  they  inflicted  upon  Shechem;  this  is 
omitted  in  our  book  (pp.  288  f.),  which  speaks  of  Jacob 
cursing  the  wrath  of  his  sons,  "  and  he  also  cursed  their 
sword  in  the  Greek  language  "  ;  Jubilees  (xxx.  25)  adds, 
"  And  he  reproached  them  because  they  had  put  the  city 
to  the  sword  and  he  feared  those  who  dwelt  in  the  land." 
In  Jub.  xxxiv.  12,  18  f.,  the  institution  of  the  Day  of  Atone- 
ment is  connected   with  the  sale  of  Joseph ;  this  view  is 


INTRODUCTION  xxvii 

controverted  by  our  book  (p.  204)  by  associating  the  Day 
with  Abraham.  In  Jub.  xxxviii.  2,  Jacob  is  represented 
as  slaying  Esati;  our  author  (p.  309)  varies  this  tradition 
by  referring  the  incident  to  the  action  of  Chushim,  the 
son  of  Dan,  a  deaf  mute,  on  the  occasion  of  the  burial  of 
Jacob.  Jub.  xl.  10  rejects  the  legend  which  formed  the 
basis  of  the  Hellenistic  Jewish  romance  dealing  with  the 
history  of  Asenath  (see  Hastings'  Bible  Diet.  i.  162),  accord- 
ing to  which  Asenath  was  of  the  house  of  Israel ;  our 
book  (pp.  272  f,,  287  f.)  adopts  this  legend,  and  states  that 
she  was  the  daughter  of  Dinah.  Our  book  differs  from  Jubilees 
by  omitting  the  sins  of  Reuben  and  Judah  and  by  enun- 
ciating the  doctrine  of  the  resurrection.  There  are  many 
other  points  of  connection  between  the  two  books,  some 
of  which  will  be  indicated  in  the  notes. 

The  most  valuable  contribution  to  the  study  of  Jubilees 
in  its  relation  to  the  Midrashim  is  B.  Beer's  Das  Bueh  der 
Juhilaen  (1856).  This  was  amplified  by  a  second  essay 
by  the  same  author.  These  important  pioneer  works  are 
indispensable.  Dr.  Marmorstein  has  a  chapter  on  "  Jubilees 
and  Pal.  Targum "  in  his  Studien  zum  Pseud-Jonathan 
Targum  (1905),  pp.  22-26.  Dr.  Kohler's  article  on  Jubilees 
in  J.E.  vii.  pp.  301  ff.  should  also  be  consulted  in  this 
connection. 

Ethiopic  Enoch,  usually  known  as  1  Enoch,  also  contains 
many  ideas  which  seem  to  be  repeated  or  reflected  in  our 
book.  The  notes  contain  the  references  to  many  of  these 
similar  thoughts.  Some  of  the  most  interesting  points 
of  contact  are  the  following  : 

1  Enoch  vi.  2  :  "  The  angels  "  are  "  the  children  of  heaven  "  ; 
cf.  P.E.E.  p.  161 :  "  Whilst  they  (the  angels)  were  still 
in  their  holy  place  in  heaven,  these  were  called  the  sons 
of  God." 

—  vi.  4  :    "  Let  us  all  swear  an  oath  and  all  bind  ourselves 

by  mutual  imprecations,"  cf.  P.E.E.  (p.  293),  which 
reads  :  "  Let  us  swear  among  ourselves  .  .  .  and 
they  proclaimed  the  ban  "  (mn). 

—  vii.  1-5  :   "  And  all  the  others  together  with  them  took 

unto  themselves  wives  .  .  .  and  they  began  to  go 
in  unto  them  .  .  .  and  they  bare  great  giants  .  .  . 


xxviii  INTRODUCTION 

who  consumed  nil  the  acquisitions  of  men.  The 
giants  turned  against  them  and  devoured  mankind 
.  .  .  and  drunk  the  blood."  Cf.  P.R.E.  (pp.  160  f.)  : 
"  The  angels  .  .  ,  took  wives  from  amongst  them 
.  .  .  from  them  were  born  the  giants  .  .  .  who 
stretched  forth  their  hands  to  all  (kinds  of)  robbery 
and  violence,  and  shedding  of  blood." 
1  Enoch  viii.  1,2:  "  And  the  beautifying  of  the  eyelids  .  .  . 
and  they  committed  fornication,  and  they  were  led 
astray";  cf.  P.R.E.  (p.  160):  "their  eyes  painted 
like  harlots,  and  they  went  astray  after  them." 

—  ix.  1 :  "  Michael,  Uriel,  Raphael,  and  Gabriel  "  ;  cf.  P.R.E. 

(p.  22)  :  "  Michael  .  .  .  Gabriel  .  .  .  Uriel  .  .  . 
and  Raphael." 

—  ix.  1,  2  and  x.  2  :  "  Much  blood  being  shed  upon  the  earth, 

and  all  lawlessness  being  wrought  upon  the  earth.  .  .  . 
The  earth  made  without  inhabitant  cries  the  voice 
of  their  crying  up  to  the  gates  of  heaven  .  .  .  and 
a  deluge  is  about  to  come  " ;  cf.  P.R.E.,  loc.  cit.  and 
also  p.  162  :  "  Behold,  we  will  restrain  ourselves 
from  multiplying  and  increasing,  so  as  not  to  produce 
the  offspring  of  the  children  of  men.  .  .  .  They  said. 
If  He  bring  from  heaven  the  waters  of  the  flood." 

—  X.  4  :   "  Bind  Azazel  .  .  .  and  make  an  opening  in  the 

desert  .  .  .  and  cast  him  therein  " ;  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  363  : 
"  and  the  lot  for  Azazel  was  the  goat  as  a  sin  offering  " 
(cf.  Charles'  note  on  p.  22  of  Jubilees). 

—  xii.  4  (and  cf.  xv.  3) :  "  The  Watchers  of  the  heaven  who 

have  left  the  high  heaven,  the  holy  eternal  place  " ; 
cf.  P.R.E.  p.  160  :  "  The  angels  who  fell  from  their 
holy  place  in  heaven,"  cf.  ibid.  pp.  46,  92,  and  194. 

—  xiv.  9  ff.  :    "  Crystals  .  .  .  and  fiery  cherubim  between 

them,  (that  house)  was  hot  as  fire  and  cold  as  ice  .  .  . 
fear  covered  me  and  tremblings  gat  hold  upon  me  .  .  . 
and  I  looked  and  saw  therein  a  lofty  throne,  its 
appearance  was  as  crystal,  and  the  wheels  thereof  as 
the  shining  sun,  and  there  was  the  vision  of  the 
Cherubim,  And  from  underneath  the  throne  came 
streams  of  flaming  fire  so  that  I  could  not  look 
thereon.  And  the  Great  Glory  sat  thereon.  None 
of   the    angels    could    enter    and    could    behold    His 


INTRODUCTION  xxix 

face.  .  .  .  The  flaming  fire  was  round  about  Him  .  .  . 
ten  thousand  times  ten  thousand  (angels  stood)  before 
Him."  Cf.  P.R.E.,  Chapter  IV.  (pp.  21-25),  where 
we  read  of  the  "  crystal  .  .  .  and  the  fiery  minister- 
ing angels  and  the  Shekhinah  of  the  Holy  One  .  .  . 
sitting  on  a  throne  high  and  exalted.  The  appearance 
of  His  Glory  is  like  the  colour  of  amber  (or  crystal).  One 
half  (of  His  Glory)  is  fire  and  the  other  half  is  hail  .  .  . 
and  a  veil  is  spread  before  Him,  and  the  seven 
angels  .  .  .  minister  before  Him.  .  .  .  Fire  is  flashing 
continually  around  His  throne,  and  the  Chajjoth 
(around  the  throne)  .  .  .  are  the  Cherubim  .  .  .  the 
whirling  wheels  of  the  Chariot,  lightnings  ...  go 
forth.  .  .  .  The  Chajjoth  ...  do  not  know  the 
place  of  His  Glory  ...  a  river  of  fire  arises  and  goes 
forth  before  Him.  .  .  .  The  Seraphim  .  .  .  cover 
their  face  so  as  not  to  behold  the  presence  of  the 
Shekhinah." 
1  Enoch  xvii.  5  refers  to  the  river  of  fire,  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  25 
and  412. 

—  xviii.  2:    "And  I  saw  the  Corner  Stone  of  the  Earth," 

cf.  P.R.E.  p.  71 :  "  and  he  saw  there  the  Foundation 
Stone,"  and  cf.  ibid.  p.  266. 

—  xviii.   5  :    "  The  firmament  of  the  heaven  above,"   cf. 

P.R.E.  p.  21 :  "  The  firmament  which  is  above  the 
head  of  the  four  Chajjoth." 

—  xviii.  8  :  "  And  the  summit  of  the  throne  was  of  sapphire," 

cf.  P.R.E.  p.  23 :  "  And  the  likeness  of  His  throne 
is  like  a  sapphire  throne."  ^ 

—  XX.    2-8 :    here   the    Seven   Archangels    are   mentioned ; 

P.R.E.  p.  23  refers  to  "  the  seven  angels,  which  were 
created  first,  (who)  minister  before  God."  Four  of  these 
seven  angels  mentioned  in  1  Enoch  are  Uriel,  Raphael, 
Michael,  and  Gabriel ;  these  four  names  occur  also  in 
P.R.E.  p.  22  ;   cf.  also  1  Enoch  xl.  9. 

—  XXV,   5  :    "  Its  fruit  shall  be  good  for  the  elect :  it  shall 

be  transplanted  to  the  holy  place,  to  the  temple  of 
the  Lord,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  418  f. 

—  XXV.  6  :    "  And  they  shall  live  a  long  life  on  earth  .  .  . 

and  in  their  days  shall  no  sorrow  or  plague  or  torment 
1  Cf.  Ezek.  i.  26. 


XXX  INTRODUCTION 

or  calamity  touch  them  " ;  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  411  f.  and 
418,  for  a  similar  expression  and  idea. 
1  Enoch  xxvi.  1 :  "  The  middle  of  the  earth,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  266, 
for  parallel  expression. 

—  xxxii.  1 :  Seven  mountains  are  referred  to,  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  71. 

—  xxxiii.  2 :  "  The  ends  of  the  earth  whereon  the  heavens 

rest,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  16. 

—  xxxiv.  3  :  The  north  is  described,  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  17. 

—  xxxvi.  1  :    "  I  went  to  the  south  to  the  ends  of  the  earth 

.  .  .  and  thence  there  come  dew,  rain,  and  wind"; 
P.R.E.  p.  17  reads  :  "  From  the  quarter  facing  south 
the  dews  of  blessing  and  the  rains  of  blessing  go 
forth  to  the  world." 

—  xxxvi.  4  :  "  That  they  might  praise  His  work,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

pp.  8  f. 

—  xxxvii.  2  :    "It  had  been  good  for  them  if  they  had  not 

been  born,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  104  f. 

—  xxxvii.  4  :    "  Has  caused  His  light  to  appear  on  the  face 

of  the  holy,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  7. 

—  xxxix.  7  :    "  And  all  the  righteous  .  .  .  shall  be  strong 

as  fiery  lights,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  21. 

—  xxxix.   11  :    "  He  knows  before  the  world  was  created 

what  is  for  ever,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  11. 
Cf.  1  Enoch  xxxix.  12-13  and  P.R.E.  p.  26,  on  the  trisagion. 
1  Enoch  xl.  1  :   "  And  on  the  four  sides  of  the  Lord  of  Spirits 

I  saw  four  presences,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  22  f. 

—  xli.  7  :   "  The  one  (sun)  holding  a  position  opposite  to  the 

other,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  44. 

—  xlv.  4,  5  :    "I  will  transform  the  heaven  .  .  .  and  I  will 

transform  the  earth,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  410  ff. 

—  xlvii.  3  :    "  The  books  of  the  living,"  of.  P.R.E.  p.  104 

(note  6). 

—  xlviii.  3:  "  Yea  before  the  sun  .  .  .  his  name  was  named," 

cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  12  and  233. 

—  li.  1  :  "  The  earth  shall  give  back  that  which  has   been 

entrusted  to  it,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  258  and  335. 

—  lii.  7  :  "  None  shall  be  saved,  either  by  gold  or  by  silver," 

cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  256  f. 

—  liv.   6  :    "  And    cast   them   into    the    burning  furnace," 

cf.  P.R.E.  p.  103. 

—  liv.  8  :   "  The  waters  shall  be  joined  with  the  waters,  that 


INTRODUCTION  xxxi 

which  is  above  the  heavens  is  the  mascuhne  and 
the  water  which  is  beneath  the  earth  is  the  feminine," 
cf.  P.R.E.  p.  167. 
1  Enoch  Iv.  2  :  "  This  shall  be  a  pledge  of  good  faith  between 
Me  and  them  for  ever  as  long  as  heaven  is  above  the 
earth,"  cf.  P.B.E.  p.  172. 

—  Ivi.  7  :  "  And  they  shall  begin  to  fight  among  themselves," 

cf.  P.R.E.  p.  62. 

—  Iviii.  3  :    "  The  righteous  shall  be  in  the  light  of  the  sun 

.  .  .  the  days  of  their  life  shall  be  unending,"  cf. 
P.R.E.  pp.  21,  412,  and  418. 

—  Ix.  4 :  "  Michael  sent  another  angel  .  .  .  and  he  raised  me 

up  .  .  .  and  my  spirit  returned,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  325. 

—  Ix.  7  :   "  Leviathan,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  63  f.  and  70. 

—  Ix.  8  :  "  Behemoth,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  75  f. 

—  Ix.  20  :  "  The  waters  are  for  those  who  dwell  on  the  earth, 

for  they  are  nourishment   for  the  earth,"  cf.  P.R.E. 
p.  87 

—  Ixi.  5  :    "  Those  who  have  been  destroyed  by  the  desert, 

and  those  who  have  been  devoured  by  the  beasts, 
and  those  who  have  been  devoured  by  the  fish  of  the 
sea,  that  they  may  return,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  249. 

—  Ixii.  2  :    "  The  word  of  his  mouth   slays  all  the  sinners," 

cf.  P.R.E.  p.  379. 

—  Ixii.  16  :    "  They  shall  have  been  clothed  with  garments 

of  glory,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  98. 

—  Ixv.  7  :    "  How  silver  is  produced  from  the  dust  of  the 

earth,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  181. 

—  Ixvii.  8  :    "  And  those   waters  .  .  .  shall  serve  for  the 

heahng  of  the  body,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  418. 

—  Ixix.  6  :  "  And  he  led  astray  Eve,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  92,  94  f., 

and  150  f. 

—  Ixix.  11  :  "  For  men  were  created  exactly  like  the  angels," 

cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  85,  151,  and  378. 

—  Ixix.  18  :  "  The  sea  was  created,  and  as  its  foundation 

He  set  for  it  the  sand  against  the  time  of  its  anger," 
cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  27  f. 

—  Ixx.  3  :   "  He  set  me  between  the  two  winds,  between  the 

north  and  the  west,  where  the  angels  took  the  cords 
to  measure,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  416  f. 

—  Ixxi.  4  :  "  The  ends  of  the  heaven,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  16. 


Ixxii.  3 
Ixxii.  5 


xxxii  INTRODUCTION 

1  Enoch  Ixxi.  15:  "The  world  to  come,"  cf.  P.E.E.  pp.  112, 
228,  and  230. 

—  Ixxi.  15  :    "  Since  the  creation  of  the  world,"  ef,  P.R.E. 

p.  420. 

—  Ixxii.  1  :    "  Till  the  new  creation,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  411. 

—  Ixxii.  2  :  "  The  portals  which  are  in  the  east,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

pp.  37  ff. 

—  Ixxii.  3  :    "  The  leaders  of  the  stars,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  34. 
"  Windows,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  37  ff. 
"  The  chariot  on  which  he  {i.e.  the  sun)  ascends," 

cf.  P.R.E.  p.  40. 

—  Ixxii.   14  :    "  The  day  becomes  double  the  night,"   cf. 

P.R.E.  p.  322. 

—  Ixxii.  37  :    "  But  as  regards  size  they  are  both  equal,"  cf. 

P.R.E.  p.  31. 

—  Ixxv.  1  :    "  And  the  leaders  render  service,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

p.  34. 

—  Ixxvii.  1-3  refers  to  the  four  quarters  of  the  world,  cf. 

P.R.E.  p.  17. 

—  Ixxvii.  4  :  "  Seven  mountains,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  71. 

—  Ixxvii.  5  :    "  Seven  rivers,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  140  f. 

—  Ixxviii.  3  :    "  The  size  ...  of  both  is  alike,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

p.  31. 

—  Ixxviii.  12  :    "  She    becomes   full    moon    exactly  on  the 

day   when    the   sun   sets   in   the   west,"    cf.    P.R.E. 
pp.  50  f. 

—  Ixxxii.   1  :    "So  preserve  the  books  .  .  .  and   see  that 

thou  deliver  them  to  the  generations  of  the  world," 
cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  52  f. 

—  Ixxxix.  9  :   "  One  was  white  .  .  .  one  .  .  .  red,  and  one 

black,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  172  f. 

—  Ixxxix.    59  :    "  And    he    called    seventy   shepherds,"    cf. 

P.R.E.  pp.  67,  176  f.,  and  221. 

—  xci.  16  :   "  All  the  powers  of  the  heavens  shall  give  seven- 

fold light,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  412. 

—  xciii.  11  :    "  Who  is  there  of  all  the  children  of  men  that 

is  able  to  hear  the  voice  of  the  Holy  One  ?  "  etc.,  cf. 
P.R.E.  p.  9. 

—  xcviii.  9  :    "  Wherefore  do  not  hope  to  live,  ye  sinners 

.  .  .  for  ye   have   no   ransom,"   cf.   P.R.E.   pp.   256 
and  416. 


INTRODUCTION  xxxiii 

1  Enoch  c.  1 :  "  And  brothers,  one  with  another  shall  fall  in 
death,"  of.  P.R.E.  pp.  220  f. 

—  ci.  6  :    "  Has  He  not  set  limits  to  the  doings  (of  the  sea) 

and  confined  it  throughout  by  the  sand  ?  "  cf.  P.R.E. 
pp.  27  f. 

—  civ,  1  :    "  Remember  you  for  good,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  2. 

—  cvi.  2  :   "  And  when  he  opened  his  eyes,  he  lighted  up  the 

whole  house  like  the  sun,  and  the  whole  house  was 
very  bright,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  7. 

—  cvi.  5  :    "  Resembling  the  sons  of  the  God  of  heaven  .  ,  . 

sprung  from  the  angels,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  161. 

The  similar  phrases  and  ideas  which  occur  in  P.R.E.  and 
in  the  Book  of  the  Secrets  of  Enoch,  usually  known  as  the 
Slavonic  Enoch,  are  noteworthy.  Many  of  the  following 
references  are  given  in  the  notes  on  our  book  : 
Slav.  Enoch  iv.  1  :  "  The  rulers  of  the  orders  of  the  stars," 
cf.  P.R.E.  p.  34. 

—  iv.  1  :    "  Angels  who  rule  the  stars  and  their  heavenly 

service,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  34  and  46. 

—  V.  1  :    "  The  treasuries  of  the  snow  and  ice,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

p.  17. 

—  vi.  :   "  The  treasuries  of  the  dew,"  cf.  P.R.E.    pp.    17, 

236. 

—  X.  3  :   "  The  angels  terrible  and  without  pity,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

p.  103. 

—  xi.  3  :   "  The  chariot  of  the  sun,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  40. 

—  xi.  4  :    "  Angels   go  with   the   sun,  each  angel  has   six 

wings,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  40. 

—  xii.  2  :    "  Their  wings  were  like  those  of  angels,  each  with 

twelve,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  92. 

—  xiii.    2  :     "  Six  .  .  .  gates,    each   gate   having   sixty-one 

stadia,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  37. 

—  xiv.  2  :  "  Angels  take  his  {i.e.  the  sun's)  crown,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

p.  40. 

—  xvi.  8  :  "  And  seven  (months)  are  computed  to  the  circle 

of  the  moon  during  a  revolution  of  nineteen  years," 
cf.  P.R.E.  p.  57. 

—  xviii.  4  and  5  :  "  The  Watchers  with  their  prince  Satanail, 

.  .  .  and  of  them  there  went  three  to  the  earth  from 
the  throne  of  God  .  .  .  and  took  unto  themselves  wives 


xxxiv  INTRODUCTION 

.  .  .  and  the  giants  were  born  and  .  .  .  there  was 
much  wickedness,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  160  fv 
Slav.  Enoch  xix.  1 :  "  Seven  bands  of  angels  .  .  .  superintend 
the  good  or  evil  condition  of  the  world,"  cf.  P.R.E. 
pp.  103  f. 

—  xix.  3  :    "  They  hold  in  subjection  all  living  things  both 

in  heaven  and  earth,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  48  f. 

—  xix.  6  :   "  Seven  Cherubim  .  .  .  and  they  rejoice  before 

the  Lord  at  His  footstool  "  (cf.  Rev.  iv.  6).  See 
P.R.E.  p.  23. 

—  XX.  3  :   "  The  Lord  from  afar  sitting  on  His  lofty  throne," 

cf.  P.R.E.  p.  22. 

—  xxi.  1  :    "  The  six-winged  creatures  overshadow  all  His 

throne,  singing :  Holy,  Holy,  Holy,  Lord  God  of 
Sabaoth  !  heaven  and  earth  are  full  of  Thy  glory," 
cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  25  f. 

—  xxii.  6  :    "  Michael,  the  chief  captain,  lifted  me  up  and 

brought  me  before  the  face  of  the  Lord,"  cf.  P.R.E. 
p.  284. 

—  xxiii.  6  :    "  366  books,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  37  and  165. 

—  xxiv.  3  :    "  Nor  have  (My  angels)  understood  ]My  infinite 

creation,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  25. 

—  xxiv.  4  :  "  For  before  anything  which  is  visible  existed,  I 

alone  held  my  course,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  10. 

—  xxiv.   5  :  "  And  I  planned  to  lay  the  foundations,"  cf. 

P.R.E.  p.  10. 

—  XXV.  4  :  "  And  I  made  for  Myself  a  throne,  and  sat  upon 

it,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  11. 

—  xxviii.  4  :    "I  gathered  the  sea  .  .  .  and  I  restrained  it 

with  a  yoke,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  27  f. 

—  xxix.  3  :   "  From  the  fire  I  made  the  ranks  of  the  spiritual 

hosts,  ten  thousand  angels  .  .  .  and  their  garment 
is  a  burning  flame,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  21  and  25. 

—  xxix.  5  :    "  And  I  hurled  (Satanail)  from  the  heights  with 

his  angels,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  99  and  193  f. 

—  XXX.  11  :    "  And  I  placed  (Adam)  upon  the  earth,  like  a 

second  angel,  in  an  honourable,  great,  and  glorious 
way,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  85  and  89. 

—  XXX.  12  :    "  And    I  made   him  a  ruler  to  rule  upon  the 

earth,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  79  and  80. 

—  XXX.  15  :   "  And  I  showed  him  the  two  ways,  the  light  and 


INTRODUCTION  xxxv 

the  darkness,  and  I  said  unto  him  :    '  This  is  good  and 
this  is  evil,'  "  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  102. 
Slav.  Enoch  xxxi.  1 :  "  And  I  made  a  garden  in  Eden  .  .  .  and 
(I  ordained)  that  he  should  observe  the  law  and  keep 
the  instruction,"  cf,  P.R.E.  pp.  84  f. 

—  xxxi.  2  :    "  And  I  made  for  him  the  heavens  open  that 

he  should  perceive  the  angels  singing  the  song  of 
triumph,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  89  f. 

—  xxxi.  3  :    "  And    the  devil   took  thought,   as   if  wishing 

to  make  another  world,  because  things  were  sub- 
servient to  Adam  on  earth,  to  rule  it  and  have  lord- 
ship over  it,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  91  f. 

—  xxxi.  4  :   "  He  became  Satan  after  he  left  the  heavens,"  cf. 

P.R.E.  pp.  92  and  193  f. 

—  xxxi.  6  :  "  He  conceived  designs  against  Adam  ;    in  such  a 

manner  he  entered  and  deceived  Eve.  But  he  did  not 
touch  Adam  "  ;  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  92,  94  and  150  f. 

—  xl.  2  :   "  The  heavens  and  the  end  of  them,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

p.  16. 

—  xl.  6  :   "I  have  laid  down  the  four  seasons,  and  from  the 

seasons  I  made  four  circles,  and  in  the  circles  I  placed 
the  years,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  35. 

—  xl.  12  :   "  The  lowest  hell,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  340  f. 

—  xli.  2  :  "  Blessed  is  the  man  who  was  not  born,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

pp.  104  f. 

—  xlii.  1  :   "  The  guardians  of  the  gates  of  hell,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

p.  103. 

—  xlii.  3  :   "  Rest  has  been  prepared  for  the  just,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

pp.  128,  255  (note  4). 

—  xlii.  4  :  "  Blessed  is  he  who  turns  from  the  unstable  path 

of  this  vain  world,  and  walks  by  the  righteous  path 
which  leads  to  eternal  hfe,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  103. 

—  xliv.  1  :   "  God  made  man  with  His  own  hands,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

p.  148. 

—  xliv.  3  :  "  If  a  man  spits  at  the  face  of  another,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

p.  434. 

—  xlviii.  1,2:  "I  gave  (the  sun)  182  thrones  when  he  goes  on 

a  short  day,  and  also  182  thrones  when  he  goes  on  a 
long  day,  and  he  has  two  thrones  on  which  he  rests," 
cf.  P.R.E.  p.  37. 

—  xlviii.  2  :   "  From  the  month  Si  van  after  seventeen  days 


xxxvi  INTRODUCTION 

he  descends  to  the  month  Thevan  (?  Kislev)  and  from 
the  17th  day  of  Thevad  (?  Tebeth)  he  ascends,"  cf. 
P.R.E.  p.  38. 
Slav.  Enoch  1.  2  :   "  Ye  shall  inherit  the  endless  life  that  is 
to  come,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  137. 

—  1.  5  :    "  Whoever  shall  spend  gold  or  silver  for  the  sake  of 

a  brother  shall  receive  abundant  treasure  in  the  day  of 
judgment,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  238. 

—  Hi.  11  :    "  Blessed  is  he  who  establishes  peace  and  love," 

cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  102  f. 

—  lii.  12  :    "  Cursed  is  he  who  troubles  those  who  are  at 

peace,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  310  f. 

—  liii.  1  :   "  For  there  is  no  person  there  to  help  any  man  who 

has  sinned,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  104  f.  and  341. 

—  Iviii.  1  :    "  In  those  days  when  the  Lord  came  upon  the 

earth  for  the  sake  of  Adam,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  89. 

—  lix.  5  :    "If  any  one  does  an  injury  to  an  animal  secretly, 

it  is  an  evil  custom,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  291. 

—  Ixi.  2  :    "  Mansions  :   good  for  the  good,  evil  for  the  evil," 

cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  104  f.  and  255. 

—  Ixii.  2  :    "If  he  let  the  appointed  time  pass  and  does  not 

perform  the  works,  he  is  not  blessed,  for  there  is  no 
repentance  after  death,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  341. 

—  Ixiii.  1  :    "  When  a  man  .  .  .  feeds  the  hungry,  he  gets  a 

recompense  from  God,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  181  f. 

—  Ixv.  3  :    "  The  Lord  contemplated  the  world  for  the  sake 

of  man,  and  made  all  the  creation  for  his  sake,"  cf. 
P.R.E.  pp.  29  and  86  f. 

—  Ixv.  9  :    "  There  shall  be  ...  no  sickness  nor  anxiety," 

cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  411  f. 

—  Ixvi.  6  :    "  They  (the  just)  shall  be  seven  times  brighter 

than  the  sun,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  412. 
Appendix,  p.  90  (iii.  17)  :    At  the  birth  of  Melchizedek,  "  the 
child  was  complete  in  its  body  like  one  of  three  years 
old ;  and  spake  with  its  lips  and  blessed  the  Lord  " ; 
cf.  P.R.E.  p.  161. 

—  p.  91  (iii.  35)  :    "  The  middle  of  the  earth  where  Adam 

was  created,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  143. 

(iii.  36)  :  "  As  Adam  buried  his  son  Abel  there,  .  .  . 

wherefore  he  lay  unburicd  .  .  .  till  he  saw  a  bird  called 
a  jackdaw  burying  its  fledgling  "  ;  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  156. 


INTRODUCTION  xxxvii 


Testaments  of  the  Twelve  Patriarchs,  and  P.R.E. 

Test.  Reuben  v.  5-7  :  "  Command  your  wives  and  daughters 
that  they  adorn  not  their  heads  and  faces  .  .  .  for  thus 
they  allured  the  Watchers  who  were  before  the  flood 
.  .  .  and  the  women  gave  birth  to  giants  " ;  cf.  P.R.E. 
pp.  160  f. 

Test.  Simeon  ii.  8  :  "  His  God  .  .  sent  forth  His  angel  and 
deUvered  "  (Joseph),  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  292. 

—  ii.    10  :   "  When   Reuben   heard   (of   the   sale   of  Joseph) 

he  was  grieved,  for  he  wished  to  restore  him  to  his 
father,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  292  f. 

—  iv.  4  :    "  Now  Joseph  .  .  .  had  the  Spirit  of  God  within 

him,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  305. 

—  V.   3  :    "  Then  shall   perish  the  seed  of  Canaan,   and  a 

remnant  shall  not  be  unto  Amalek,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  347. 
Test.  Levi  ii.  7  :    "  And    I   saw  there  a  great  sea  hanging 
between "  (the  first  and  second   heaven),  cf.  P.R.E. 
pp.  16  and  39. 

—  ii.  10  :    "  The  redemption  of  Israel,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  62 

and  72. 

—  iii.  4  :    "  In  the  highest  (heaven)  of  all  dwelleth  the  Great 

Glory,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  22. 

—  iii.  5  :    "  And  in  ...  it  are  the  angels  of  the  presence  of 

the  Lord,  who  minister,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  22. 

—  iii.   9 :     "  When,   therefore,   the   Lord   looketh   upon   all 

creation,  the  heavens  and  the  earth  and  the  abysses 
are  shaken,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  23  ff. 

—  iv.  2  :    (Levi)  to  be  "  a  servant  and  a  minister  of  His 

presence,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  284. 

—  V.  1,  3  :    "  The  angel  opened  to  me  the  gates  of  heaven 

and  I  saw  .  .  .  upon  a  throne  of  glory  the  Most  High 
.  .  .  then  the  angel  brought  me  down  to  the  earth  " ; 
cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  22  and  284. 

—  vi.  8  :    "  They  sought  to  do  to  .  .  .  Rebecca  as  they  had 

done  to  Dinah,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  110  f. 

—  viii.  3,  4  :    "  When  we  came  to  Bethel,  my  father  Jacob 

saw  a  vision  concerning  me,  that  I  should  be  their 
priest  unto  God  .  .  .  and  he  paid  tithes  of  all  to  the 
Lord  through  me  " ;  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  283  f. 


xxxviii  INTRODUCTION 

Test.  Levi  xiii.  5,  6  :  "  Work  righteousness  .  .  .  upon  the 
earth,  that  ye  may  have  a  treasure  in  heaven,  and  soro 
good  things  in  your  souls,  that  yc  may  find  them  in 
your  hfe  " ;  cf.  P.K.E.  p.  238. 

—  xvi.  4  :    "  And  your  holy  plaecs  shall  be  laid  waste  .  .  . 

and  ye  shall  have  no  place  that  is  clean,"  cf.  P.R.E. 
p.  221. 

—  xviii.  9,  11:  "Sin  shall  come  to  an  end,  and  tlie  lawless 

shall  cease  to  do  evil.  .  .  .  And  he  shall  give  to  the 
saints  to  eat  from  the  tree  of  life,"  cf.  P.R^E.  pp.  411 
and  418. 
Test.  Judah  vii.  7 :  (And  the  Canaanites)  "  besought  my  father 
(Jacob)  and  he  made  peace  with  them,"  cf.  P.R.E. 
pp.  279  f. 

—  ix.  2,  3  :    "  Esau,  the  brother  of  my  father,  came  upon  us 

with  a  mighty  and  strong  people,  and  Jacob  smote 
Esau  with  an  arrow  and  he  was  taken  up  wounded 
on  Mount  Seir  " ;  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  309  f. 

—  xxii.    2    and     ef.    Test.    Naph.     viii.     2 :     "  Until     the 

salvation  of  Israel  shall  come,"  ef.  P.R.E.  pp.  62 
and  72. 

—  xxiii.  2  ff. :  Messianic  woes  are  described,  cf.  P.R.E.  pp. 

62  and  221  f. 

—  xxiii.  4  :    "  And  they  shall  make  some  of  you  eunuchs," 

cf.  P.R.E.  p.  426. 

—  xxiv.  4  :  Messiah  called  "  branch,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  384. 

—  XXV.  4  :   "  They  who  have  died  in  grief  shall  arise  in  joy, 

and  they  who  were  poor  for  the  Lord's  sake  shall 
awake  to  Hfe,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  252. 
Test.  Zebulun  i.  5,  6  :  "  For  I  covenanted  with  my  brethren 
not  to  tell  my  father  what  had  been  done  ...  be- 
cause they  had  all  agreed,  that  if  any  one  should 
declare  the  secret,  he  should  be  slain,"  cf.  P.R.E. 
p.  293. 

—  iii.   2  :    (They)  "  took  the  price  of  Joseph  and  bought 

sandals  for  themselves,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  293. 

—  iv.  5  :   "  Reuben's  sorrow,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  293. 

—  ix.  4  :    "  Be  not  ye,  therefore,  divided   into  two  heads, 

for   everything  which  the  Lord  made  hath  but  one 
head  " ;  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  333. 
Test.  Dan.  ii.  2,  3 :  "  For  anger  is  blindness  .  .  .  though  it  be 


INTRODUCTION  xxxix 

a  prophet  of  the  Lord,  he  disobey eth  him,"  of.  P.R.E. 
p.  373. 
Test.  Dan.  iv.  7  :  "  When  the  soul  is  .  .  .  disturbed,  the  Lord 
departeth  from  it,"  of.  P.R.E. ,  loc.  cit. 

—  V.  6  :   "  Your  prince  is  Satan,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  92. 

—  V.   12  :    "And  the  saints  shall  rest  in  Eden,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

pp.  58  and  128. 

—  vi.  4  :    "  On  the   day  on  which  Israel  shall  repent,  the 

kingdom  of  the  enemy  shall  be  brought  to  an  end, 

for  the  very  angel  of  peace  ^  shall  strengthen  Israel  "  ; 

cf.  P.R.E.  p.  344. 
In  Test.  Naphtali  i.  11,  12,  Zilpah  and  Bilhah  are  sisters, 

cf.  P.R.E.  p.  271. 
Test.  Naphtali  ii.  1 :    "I  was  swift  on  my  feet  like  the  deer," 

cf.  P.R.E.  p.  309. 

—  iii.  4  :    "  Sodom,  which  changed  the  order  of  nature,"  cf. 

P.R.E.  pp.  181  ff. 

—  iii.  5  :    "  The  Watchers,  .  .  .  whom  the  Lord  cursed  at 

the   flood,    on    whose   account   He   made   the    earth 
without  inhabitant  and  fruitless,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  162. 

—  V.  6,  7  :    "A  bull  .  .  .  ^vith  two  great  horns  .  .  .  and 

Joseph  came  and  seized  him,  and  ascended  up  with 
him  on  high,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  131. 

—  V.  8  :    "  Assyrians,  Medes,  Persians,  Syrians  shall  possess 

in  captivity  the  twelve  tribes  of  Israel,"  cf.  P.R.E. 
pp.  128,  201  f.,  and  265. 

—  vii.  4  :    "To  declare  that  Joseph  had  been  sold,  but  I 

feared  my  brethren,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  293. 

—  viii.  5  :    "  For  a  good  work  there  is  a  good  remembrance 

before  God,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  290  and  309. 
Test.  Gad  i.  6,  7  :  "  Joseph  told  our  father  that  the  sons  of 
Zilpah  and  Bilhah  were  slaying  the  best  of  the 
flock  ...  for  he  saw  that  I  had  delivered  a  lamb 
out  of  the  mouth  of  the  bear  .  .  .  and  had  slain  the 
lamb,  being  grieved  concerning  it  that  it  could  not 
live  "  ;  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  291. 

—  ii.  3  :    "  Therefore  I  and  Simeon  sold  him  to  the  Ishmael- 

ites  for  thirty  pieces  of  gold,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  292  f. 

—  V.  10  :   "  For  by  what  things  a  man  transgresseth,  by  the 

same  also  is  he  punished,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  185  and  331  f. 
1  Elijah=Phineas. 


xl  INTRODUCTION 

Test.  Gad  vii.  4  :  "  Though  a  man  became  rich  by  evil 
means,  even  as  Esau,  the  brother  of  my  father,"  of. 
PM.E.  p.  290. 

—  vii.  5  :    "  The  unrepentant  is  reserved  for  eternal  punish- 

ment," cf.  P.R.E.  p.  105. 
Test.  Asher  i.  3  :   "  Two  ways  hath  God  given  to  the  sons  of 
men,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  102. 

—  vii.  4,  5,  6  :    "  For  the  latter  end  of  men  do  show  their 

righteousness  (or  unrighteousness),  when  they  meet 
the  angels  of  the  Lord  and  of  Satan.  For  when  the 
soul  departs  troubled,  it  is  tormented  by  the  evil 
spirit  .  .  .  but  if  he  is  peaceful  with  joy  he  meeteth 
the  angel  of  peace,  and  he  leadeth  him  into  eternal 
life  "  ;  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  103  ff.,  255. 

—  vii.    1  :      "  Sodom    which  .  .  .  perished    for    ever,"    cf. 

P.R.E.  p.  186. 
Test.   Joseph  ii.  1 :    "  The  God  of  Israel  my  father  delivered 
me   (Joseph)   from   the   burning   flame,"   cf.   P.R.E. 
p.  305. 

—  ii.  7  :   "  In  ten  temptations  He  showed  me  approved,"  cf. 

P.R.E.  p.  187. 

—  iii.  3  :    "  But  I  remembered  the  words  of  my  father  " 

(and  sinned  not  with  the  Egyptian  woman) ;  cf.  P.R.E. 
p.  305. 

—  iii.  7  :    "  Because  she  had  no  male  child  she  pretended  to 

regard  me  as  a  son,  and  so  I  prayed  to  the  Lord,  and 
she  bare  a  male  child,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  288. 

—  vi.  6  :    "  The  God  of  my  father  hath  revealed  unto  me 

by  His  angel  thy  wickedness,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  305. 

—  X.   2  :     "  The  Lord   will  dwell  among  you,   because  He 

loveth  chastity,"  cf.  P.RE.  pp.  305  f. 
Test.  Benjamin  iv.  1  :    "  That  ye  also  may  wear  crowns  of 
glory,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  367  f. 

The  Greek  Apocalypse  of  Baruch  or  3  Baruch  contains 

several  phrases  and  ideas  common  to  P.R.E. 

Both   books  profess  to  reveal  the  mysteries  of  God,  thus 

3  Baruch  ii.  1  refers  to  the  firmament  and  "  where  there 

was  a  river  "  ;  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  16,  and  see  also  A.  and  P. 

ii.  p.  534. 

3  Baruch  iii.  5,  6  :    "A  woman  making  bricks  .  .  .  brought 


INTRODUCTION  xli 

forth  while  she  was  making  bricks  .  .  .  and  the  Lord 
appeared  to  them,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  385  f. 
3  Baruch  iv.  6  and  v.  2  :  "  Dragon  .  .  .  also  drinks  about 
a  cubit  from  the  sea,  which  does  not  sink  at  all "  ; 
cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  75  f.,  and  see  A.  and  P.  p.  535, 
note  3. 

—  iv.  8  :  "  Tree  which  led  Adam  astray  .  .  .  which  Sammael 

planted,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  95. 

—  iv.   10  :    "  The  flood  .  .  .  removed  without  the  bounds 

(of  Paradise)  the  shoot  of  the  vine  and  cast  it  outside," 
cf.  P.R.E.  p.  170. 
• — iv.  11  :    (Noah)  "  found  also  the  shoot  of  the  vine,"  cf. 
P.R.E.,  loc.  cit. 

—  iv.   16  :    (Adam)  "  was  divested  of  the  glory  of  God," 

P.R.E.  p.  98. 

—  vi.  1,  2,  and  vii.  4  :   "  The  sun  .  .  .  chariot  .  .  .  crown  of 

fire,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  40. 

—  vi.  5  :    "  Expanding  his  wings  receives  its  fiery  rays,"  cf. 

P.R.E.  pp.  25  and  40. 

—  vi.  7  :    "  On  his  right  wing  very  large  letters,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

p.  40. 

—  ix.  7  :  "  Sammael  when  he  took  the  serpent  as  a  garment," 

cf.  P.R.E.  p.  92. 

—  xiv.  2  :    "  Michael  .  .  .  presenting  the  merits  of  men  to 

God,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  386. 

The  (Syriac)  Apocalypse  nf  Baruch,  and  P.R.E. 

Baruch  iv.  3  :  (The  city)  "  which  was  prepared  beforehand 
here  from  the  time  when  I  took  counsel  to  make 
Paradise,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  14,  note  10. 

—  iv.    3  :     "  And   showed    (Paradise)   to   Adam    before    he 

sinned,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  128. 

—  vi.   9  :     "  Jerusalem  ...  is   again   (to   be)   restored   for 

ever,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  414. 

—  X.  6  :    "  Blessed  is  he  who  was  not  born,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

pp.  104  f. 

—  xi.  4  :    "  The  righteous  sleep  in  the  earth,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

p.  260. 

—  xiv.  18  :    (Man)  "  was  by  no  means  made  on  account  of 

the  world,  but  the  world  on  account  of  him  .  .  . 


xlii  INTRODUCTION 

on  account  of  the  righteous  has  this  world  come," 
cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  62  f.,  76,  and  86  f. 
Baruch  xvii.  2 :  "  Adam  .  .  .  Hved  nine  hundred  and  thirty- 
years,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  128,  and  see  Gen.  v.  5. 

—  xviii.  2  :   "  Darkness  of  Adam,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  144. 

—  xxi.    6  :     "  The   holy  living  creatures  .  .  .  which   Thou 

didst  make  from  the  beginning,  of  flame  and  fire, 
which  stand  around  Thy  throne,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  21 
and  23  f. 

—  xxiv.  2  :  "  Who  has  been  long-suffering  towards  all  those 

born  that  sin  and  are  righteous,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  76. 

—  xxviii.  2  :    "  For  the  measure  and  reckoning  of  that  time 

are  two  parts  weeks  of  seven  weeks,"  cf.  P.R.E. 
pp.  62  and  200  f. 

—  xxix.    4  :     "  And    Behemoth   will   be   revealed   from   his 

place,  and  Leviathan  will  ascend  from  the  sea  .  .  . 
then  they  will  be  for  food  for  all  that  are  left,"  cf. 
P.R.E.  pp.  70,  72,  and  76. 

—  xxix.  7  :  "  The  dew  of  health,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  238  and  260. 

—  XXX.  2  :    "  The  treasuries  will  be  opened  in  which  is  pre- 

served the  number  of  the  souls  of  the  righteous,"  cf. 
P.R.E.  pp.  255  and  259. 

—  xxxii.    4  :     (The   building   of  Zion)    "  must   be   renewed 

afterwards  in  glory,  and  it  will  be  perfected  for 
evermore,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  414. 

—  xxxix.  7  :    "  The  prmcipate  of  My  Messiah  will  be  re- 

vealed," cf.  P.R.E.  p.  83. 

—  xlviii.  46  :    "  For  Thou  didst  of  old  command  the  dust 

to  produce  Adam,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  76  ff. 

—  1.   2  :     "  For  the  earth   will  then   assuredly  restore  the 

dead,  which  it  now  receives,  in  order  to  preserve 
them,  making  no  change  in  their  form,  but  as  it  has 
received  so  will  it  restore  them  "  ;  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  258. 

—  li.  3  :    "  Their  splendour  will  be  glorified  in  changes,  and 

the  form  of  their  face  will  be  turned  into  the  light 
of  their  beauty,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  412. 

—  H.  11  :     "The   living   creatures    which   are   beneath   the 

throne,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  23  f. 

—  Ivii.  2  :    "At  that   time  (in   the  days  of  Abraham  and 

Isaac)  the  unwritten  law  was  named  amongst  them," 
cf.  P.R.E.  p.  223. 


INTRODUCTION  xliii 

Baruch  lix.  3 :  "  And  those  who  were  under  the  throne  of 
the  Mighty  One  were  perturbed,  when  He  was  taking 
Moses  unto  Himself,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  361  and  365. 

—  Hx.  5-7  :    "  He  showed  to  him  .  .  .  the  suppression  of 

anger  and  the  multitude  of  long-suffering  .  .  . 
wisdom  .  .  ,  understanding  .  .  .  and  knowledge," 
cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  76  and  365  f. 

—  lix.   10  :    "  The  mouth  of  Gehenna,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  29, 

71,  and  432. 

—  Ixiv.   8  :     "  When  (Manasseh)  was   cast  into  the  brazen 

horse,"  of.  P.R.E.  p.  340,  note  1. 

—  Ixxiii.  2  :   "  Then  healing  will  descend  in  dew,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

p.  260. 

—  Ixxv.  4  :    "  Who  is  able  to  recount  the  thoughts  of  Thy 

mind  ?  "  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  9. 

The  Book  of  Wisdofn,  and  P.R.E. 

Book  of  Wisdom  i.  13  :    "Nor  hath  (God)  pleasure  in  the 
destruction  of  them  that  live,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  104. 

—  ii.  13  :    (Having)  "  knowledge  of  God,  and  calleth  himself 

the  Lord's  child,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  161. 

—  ii.  18  and  cf.  v.  5  :    "  For  if  the  righteous  be  God's  son," 

cf.  P.R.E.  p.  161. 

—  ii.  22  :    "  Yea,  they  know  not  the  mysteries  of  God,"  cf. 

P.R.E.  p.  9. 

—  ii.  24  :    "  But  through  the  Devil's  envy  came  death  into 

the  world,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  100. 

—  iii.  7,  8  :    "  And  in  the  day  of  their  inspection  they  shall 

shine  forth  .  .  .  and  their  Lord  shall  be  King  for 
ever,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  83  and  260. 

—  iv.  4  :    "  For  even  if  in  their  shoots  they  blossom  for  a 

season,  standing  unstably  they  shall  be  shaken  by 
the  wind,  and  be  rooted  out  by  the  violence  of  the 
winds,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  132. 

—  V.   15  :    "  But  the  righteous  live  for  ever,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

pp.  104  and  260. 

—  vii.  18,  19  :    "  The  turn  of  the  solstices  and  the  changes 

of  seasons,  the  cycles  of  years  and  the  positions  of 
the  stars,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  52. 

—  ix.  2  :    "  And  through  Thy  wisdom  didst  form  man  to 


xliv  INTRODUCTION 

have  rule   over  the   creatures   made   by  Thee,"   of. 
P.B.E.  p.  79. 
Book  of  Wisdom  ix.  6  :  "  For  though  one  be  perfect  among 
the  sons  of  men,  if  the  wisdom  from  Thee  be  lacking, 
he  shall  be  accounted  for  naught,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  129. 

—  ix.    8  :     "  The  holy  Tabernacle  which  Thou  preparedst 

from  the  beginning,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  12. 

—  ix.  9,  10  :    "  And  with  Thee  is  wisdom  that  knoweth  Thy 

works,  and  was  present  when  Thou  madest  the 
world.  .  .  .  Send  her  forth  out  of  the  holy  heavens. 
And  despatch  her  from  the  throne  of  Thy  glory,"  cf. 
P.R.E.  p.  12. 

—  X.   1,  2  :    "  She  it  was  that  protected  the  first  formed 

father  of  the  world  throughout,  created  alone  as  he 
was,  and  rescued  him  from  his  own  transgression, 
and  gave  him  strength  to  rule  over  all  things  " ;  cf. 
P.R.E.  pp.  79  and  127. 

—  X.  4  :    "  Through  whom  (Cain's  descendants)  when  the 

earth  was  drowned,"  cf,  P.R.E.  p.  162,  and  cf. 
Josephus,  Ant.  i.  2.  2. 

—  X.  5  :    "  She  also,  when  the  nations  were  confounded  in  a 

conspiracy  of  wickedness,  found  the  just  man  and 
preserved  him  blameless  unto  God,  yea,  and  kept  him 
firm  against  pity  for  a  son  "  ;  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  176  and 
224,  and  Jerome,  Quaest.  Heb.  in  Gen.,  quoted  by 
Deane  in  loc. 

—  X.  7  :    "  And  plants  that  bear  fruit  of  bloom  that  never 

ripeneth  ;  a  pillar  of  salt  standing  as  a  memorial  of  an 
unbelieving  soul,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  186. 

—  X.  10  :  Wisdom  guided  "  in  straight  paths  "  ;  and  showed 

"  to  him  (Jacob)  God's  kingdom  and  gave  him 
knowledge  of  holy  things  "  ;  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  265. 

—  X.  12  :    "  She  preserved  him  throughout  from  enemies, 

and  made  him  safe  from  licrs  in  wait,  yea,  and  a 
sore  conflict  she  decided  for  him  "  ;  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  309  f. 

—  X.  13,  14  :    "  She  deserted  not  a  righteous  one  that  was 

sold,  but  delivered  him  from  sin  .  .  .  until  she  brought 
him  the  sceptre  of  a  kingdom,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  305. 

—  X.   19  :     "  But  their  enemies  did   she   drown,   and   cast 

them  up  out  of  the  depths  of  the  abyss,"  cf.  P.R.E. 
p.  332. 


INTRODUCTION  xlv 

Book  of  Wisdom  xi.  16  :  "  That  they  might  know  that  by 
what  things  a  man  sinneth,  thereby  he  is  punished," 
cf.  P.R.E.  p.  332. 

—  xi.   23  :     "  Thou  hast  mercy  on  all  because  Thou  hast 

power  over  all,  and  dost  overlook  the  faults  of  men 
in  order  to  their  repentance,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  76. 

—  xi.   24  :    "  Thou  cherishest  all  things  that  are  and  ab- 

horrest  nothing  which  Thou  madest,  for  Thou  never 
wouldst  have  formed  anything  in  hatred  thereof," 
cf.  P.R.E.  p.  76. 

—  xii.  10  :    "  But  executing  judgment  upon  them  by  little 

and  little  Thou  gavest  them  a  place  of  repentance," 
cf.  P.R.E.  p.  10. 

—  xii.   19  :    "  And  madest  Thy  sons  to  be  of  good  hope 

that  Thou  grantest  for  sins  repentance,"  cf.  P.R.E. 
p.  10. 

—  xiv.  6  :    "  For  in  the  beginning  also,  when  the  haughty 

giants  perished,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  161. 

—  xiv.   15  :     "  For  a  father  afflicted   with   untimely  grief, 

having  made  an  image  of  a  child  quickl}^  reft  away, 
now  honoured  as  a  god  him  which  was  then  a  dead 
human  being,  and  enjoined  on  his  dependants 
mysteries  and  initiations  " ;    of.  P.R.E.  pp.  273  f. 

—  xvi.  7  (and  cf.  ibid.  12)  :    "  For  he  that  turned  towards 

it  was  not  saved  by  that  which  was  beheld,  but 
through  Thee,  the  preserver  of  all,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  437. 

—  xviii.   6  :    "  That   night  was  known   beforehand  to  our 

fathers,  that  knowing  surely  on  what  oaths  they 
trusted  they  might  be  cheered,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  195. 

—  xviii.  16  :    (The  Logos)  "  bearing  as  a  sharp  sword  Thine 

irrevocable  commandment,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  367. 

—  xviii.  22  :    "  And  he  (Aaron)  overcame  the  wrath  .  .  . 

but  by  word  he  subdued  the  chastiser,  appealing  to 
the  oaths  and  covenants  of  the  fathers,"  cf.  P.R.E. 
p.  357  f. 

—  xviii.  25  :    "  To  these  the  destroyer  yielded,"  cf.  P.R.E., 

loc.  cit. 

—  xix.  8  :  Cf.  P.R.E.  p.  330,  note  7. 


xlvi  INTRODUCTION 

The  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve,  and  P.R.E. 

"  The  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve,"  also  called  the  "  Conflict 
of  Adam  and  Eve  \vith  Satan,"  offers  many  passages  which 
seem   to   recall   phrases   and   thoughts   in   our   book.     The 
quotations  given  refer  to  the  edition  of  Malan. 
Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  i.  i.  :   "  Water  that  encompasses  the 

world    and    reaches    unto    the    borders    of   heaven," 

cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  16,  39. 

—  I.  i.  :   "  To  dwell  there  in  a  cave,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  148. 

—  I.  iv.  and  i.  xxiii.  :   "  When  Adam  looked  at  his  flesh  that 

was  altered,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  98,  147. 

—  I.  v.,  xi.,  and  xii.  :    "  From  light  into  this  darkness," 

cf.  P.R.E.  p.  144. 

—  I.  V.  :    "  Thou  art  (He)  who  made  us  both  in  one  day," 

cf.  P.R.E.  p.  78. 

—  I.  vi.  :    "  If  only  you  had  not  transgressed  My  command- 

ment and  had  kept  My  law  "  (in  the  Garden),  cf. 
P.R.E.  p.  85. 

—  I.  vi.  :     "  The  wicked   Satan   who   continued   not  in  his 

first  estate  ...  so  that  I  hurled  him  down  from 
heaven,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  99,  193. 

—  I.  vii.  :    "  Thou  madest  them  all  {i.e.  the  beasts)  subject 

to  me,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  79. 

—  I.  vii.  :    "  The  beasts  did  obeisance  to  Adam,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

p.  79. 

—  I.  X.  :    "  While  thou  wast  under  My  command  and  wast 

a  bright  angel,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  85,  98. 

—  I.  xiii.  :    The   first   dark   night   is   described,   cf.    P.R.E. 

p.  144. 

—  I.  xiii.  :    "  Thou  didst  not  keep  one  day  My  command- 

ment," cf.  P.R.E.  p.  125. 

—  I.   xvii.  :     "  Wriggling  on  its  breast   on   the  ground   by 

reason  of  the  curse  that  fell  upon  it  from  God," 
cf.  P.R.E.  p.  99. 

—  I.  xvii.  :    "  Aforetime  the  serpent  was  the  most  exalted 

of  all  beasts,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  92. 

—  I.   xxii.  :    "  We  did  transgress  Thy  commandment,  and 

forsook  Thy  law,  and  sought  to  become  gods  like 
unto  Thee  when  Satan  the  enemy  deceived  us " ; 
cf.  P.R.E.  p.  94. 


INTRODUCTION  xlvii 

Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  i.  xxiii. :  "  Adam  and  Eve  .  .  .  offered 
upon  the  altar  as  an  offering  unto  God,"  cf.  P.R.E. 
p.  171,  note  8. 

—  I.  xxiv.  :   "  God  accepted  their  offering  and  showed  them 

mercy,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  147. 

—  I.  XXV.  :   "  And  thereby  it  will  be  made  known  that  Thou 

art  a  merciful  God,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  147. 

—  I.  xxvii.  ;    "  And  he  shed  light  into  the  cave,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

p.  144. 

—  I.   xxvii.  :     "  Angels   filled   with  light  and  sent  ...  to 

keep  us,"  cf.  P.R.E.,  loc.  cit. 

—  I.  xxvii.  :   "  Satan  was  hidden  in  the  serpent,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

p.  93. 

—  I.  xxix.  ;   God  sends  Michael  to  fetch  golden  rods  to  be 

with  Adam  in  the  cave,  and  to  "  shine  forth  with  light 
in  the  night  around  him  and  put  an  end  to  his  fear 
of  the  darkness,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  144. 

—  I.    XXX.  :     "  Gabriel    fetches    for    Adam    from    Paradise 

sweet-smelling  incense,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p,  146,  note  7. 

—  I.  xxxi.  :    Cave  of  Treasures,  (so  called)  by  reason  of  the 

bodies  of  righteous  men  that  were  in  it,  ct  P.R.E.  p.  148. 

—  I.  xxxii.  :    "On  the  eighth  day  .  .  .  Eve  went  down  into 

the  water  .  .  .  Adam  also  went  down  into  the 
water,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  147. 

—  I.    xxxiii.  :     "  They   fasted   in   the   water,"    cf.    P.R.E., 

loc.  cit. 

—  I.  xxxiv.  :   "  Their  bodies  were  lean,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  147. 

—  I.  xxxiv.  :   "  Thou  .  .  .  didst  create  me  out  of  .  .  .  dust 

.  .  .  and  didst  bring  me  into  the  garden  at  the 
third  hour,  on  a  Friday,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  78  f.,  84,  128. 

—  I.   xxxvii.  :     "  We   transgressed   Thy   commandment   at 

the  sixth  hour  of  Friday,  we  were  stripped  of  the 
bright  nature  we  had,  and  did  not  continue  in  the 
garden  after  our  transgression,  more  than  three 
hours.  On  the  evening  Thou  madest  us  come  out 
of  it  "  ;  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  94,  98,  125. 

—  I.  xxxviii.  :   "  Thy  righteous  seed,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  336. 

—  I.  xliv.  :   "  See  this  fire  of  which  we  have  a  portion  in  us," 

cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  20,  88. 

—  I.  xlviii. :    "  Satan  called  to  his  hosts  .  .  .  and  said  to 

them,     '  Ye     know    that    this    Adam,    whom     God 


xlviii  INTRODUCTION 

created  out  of  the  dust,   is  he  who  has  taken  our 
kingdom.    Come,  let  us  gather  together  and  kill  him ' " ; 
cf.  P.B.E.  pp.  91  f. 
Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  i.  xlviii. :   "  Spread  over  us  like  a 
tent,"  cf.  P.E.E.  p.  16. 

—  I.  11.  :    "  And  bound  (Satan)  by  the  side  of  those  skins 

until  Adam  and  Eve  came  near,"  cf.  P.B.E.  p.  99. 

—  I.  li.  and  cf.  Ivii. :    "  This  is  (Satan)  who  was  hidden  in  the 

serpent,  and  who  deceived  you,  and  stripped  you  of 
the  garment  of  light  and  glory  in  which  you  were. 
This  is  he  who  promised  you  majesty  and  divinity  "  ; 
cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  93  f.,  98. 

—  I.  Iv.  :   "  You  (angels)  do  not  serve  me  as  you  were  wont," 

cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  89,  125. 

—  I.  I  v.  :    "  (Satan)  gathered  together  his  hosts,  and  made 

war  with  us  (angels).  And  if  it  had  not  been  for 
God's  strength  that  was  with  us,  we  could  not  have 
prevailed  against  him  to  hurl  him  down  from  heaven  "  ; 
cf.  P.E.E.  pp.  193  f. 

—  I.  Ivi. :   "  A  day  of  rest  as  I  gave  thee,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  125  f. 

—  I.   Ivi.  :     "  And  God   commanded   His   angels   to   escort 

Adam  (and  Eve)  to  the  cave  with  joy.  .  .  .  And  the 
angels  took  up  Adam  and  Eve  and  brought  them  .  .  . 
with  songs  and  psalms  until  they  brought  them  to 
the  cave  "  ;  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  89  f. 

—  I.   lix.  :    "  See  (Satan)  is  lord   and   master   of  all   thou 

(Adam)  hast,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  93. 

—  I.  Ix.  :    Apparition   of  Satan  as   an   old   man  described, 

cf.  P.R.E.  p.  234. 

—  I.  Ixii.,  Ixix.,  Ixxii. :    "  But  Satan,  the  wicked,  was  envi- 

ous," cf.  P.R.E.  p.  91. 

—  I.  Ixii.  :   "  Then  Satan  went  away  ashamed  of  not  having 

wrought  out  his  design,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  233. 

—  I.  Ixvii.  (and  cf.  Ixxii.)  :   (Adam  and  Eve)  "  may,  perhaps, 

deny  God,  and  He  (will)  destroy  them.     So  shall  we 
be  rid  of  them  "  ;  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  91. 

—  I.  Ixviii.  (i.  Ixxv.  and  it.  xviii.)  :  "  They  offered  ...  on 

the  altar  they  had  built  at  first,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  227, 
note  2. 

—  I.  Ixxiii.    and   ii.    iii.  :    Angels    arrange    the    wedding    of 

Adam  and  Eve;  "the  wedding"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  89  f. 


INTRODUCTION  xlix 

Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  i.  Ixxiv. :  (Eve)  "  brought  forth  her 
first-born  son,  and  with  him  a  daughter,"  of.  P.R.E. 
p.  152. 

—  I.  Ixxv. :  (Eve)  "  brought  forth  another  son  and  daughter," 

cf.  P.R.E.,  loc.  cit.  and  p.  154. 

—  I.  Ixxv.  :    "  After  the  birth  of  these,  Eve  ceased  from 

child-bearing,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  152,  note  11. 

—  I.  Ixxv.  :    "  Cain,  moved  by  Satan  to  kill  Abel  on  account 

of  the  twin-sister  of  the  former,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  154. 

—  I.  Ixxix.  :   "  Cain  took  a  large  stone,  and  smote  his  brother 

with  it  upon  the  head,"  cf.  P.R.E.,  loc.  cit. 

—  I.  Ixxix.  :    "  The  earth,  when  the  blood  of  .  .  .  Abel  fell 

upon  it,  trembled,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  155  f. 

—  I.  Ixxix.  :    "  Cain  began  at  once  to  dig  the  earth  (wherein 

to  lay)  his  brother  ...  he  ...  cast  his  brother  into 
the  pit  (he  made)  .  .  .  but  the  earth  would  not  receive 
him ;  but  it  threw  him  up  at  once  "  ;  cf.  P.R.E.,  loc.  cit. 

—  I.  Ixxix.  :   "  God  (said)  to  Cain,  'Where  is  thy  brother?  ' 

...  in  mercy  ...  to  try  and  make  him  repent,"  cf. 
P.R.E.,  loc.  cit. 

—  II.  i.  :   (Adam  and  Eve)  "  foimd  (Abel)  lying  on  the  earth, 

and  beasts  around  him,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  156. 

—  II.  i.  :  "  Adam  .  .  .  laid  him  in  the  Cave  of  Treasures," 

cf.  P.R.E.,  loc.  cit. 

—  II.  i.  :   "  They  placed  a  lamp  (in  the  Cave  of  Treasures)  to 

burn,  by  night  and  by  day,  before  the  body  of  Abel," 
cf.  P.R.E.  p.  275. 

—  II.  viii.  and  ii.  xxi.  :    Adam  directs  his  body  to  be  placed 

in  the  Cave  of  Treasures,  and  finally  to  be  buried  in 
the  middle  of  the  earth,  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  78,  148,  266. 

—  II.  viii.  and  ii.  x.,  xi.  :    Seth's  children  are  to  be  kept 

apart  from  those  of  Cain,  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  158  f. 

—  II.  ix.  :    Adam  came  out  of  the  garden  on  Friday  at  the 

ninth  hour,  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  125. 

—  II.  ix.  :  Adam's  body  was  in  the  cave  and  "  in  front  of  him 

a  lamp-stand  (was)  kept  burning,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  275. 

—  II.  ix.  :   "  The  altar  upon  which  Adam  offered,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

p.  227,  note  2. 

—  II.  xi.,  III.  iv.  :   The  children  of  Seth  are  named  "  children 

of  God  "   or  "  angels   of  God,"   by  reason  of  their 

purity;  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  158  f.,  161. 

d 


1  INTRODUCTION 

Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  ii.  xvii.  :  "  The  land,  north  of  the 
garden,  which  God  created  before  the  world,"  cf. 
P.R.E.  p.  11. 

—  II.  xvii.  :  "  The  chosen  garments,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  175, 178. 

—  II.  xviii.  :    "  The  fathers  themselves  were  praying  for  his 

deliverance,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  310  f.,  432  f. 

—  II.  XX.  deals  with  the  immorality  of  the  children  of  Cain, 

cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  159  f. 

—  II.  XX.  :    Genun  misleads  the  children  of  Seth,  cf.  P.R.E. 

p.  377. 

—  II.  XX. :  "  And  when  they  looked  at  the  daughters  of  Cain, 

at  their  beautiful  figiu'e  and  at  their  hands  and  feet 
dyed  with  colour,  and  tattooed  in  ornaments  on  their 
faces,  the  fire  of  sin  was  kindled  in  them,"  .  .  .  and 
they  committed  abominations ;  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  159  f. 

—  III.  ii.  :    (Noah)  builds   the   ark   in  the   presence  of  the 

children  of  Cain,  that  "  they  may  see  thee  working  at 
it ;  and  if  they  will  not  repent,  they  shall  perish," 
cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  161,  165. 

—  III.  ii.  :    "  The  first  storey  shall  be  for  lions,  and  beasts, 

animals  and  ostriches  all  together.  The  second 
storey  shall  be  for  birds  and  creeping  things. 

"  And  the  third  storey  shall  be  for  thee  and  thy 
wife,  and  for  thy  sons  and  their  wi\'es. 

"  And  make  in  the  ark  wells  for  water,  and  open- 
ings to  them  .  .  .  and  thou  shall  line  these  wells 
with  lead  " ;  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  165. 

—  III.  V.  :   God  made  Adam  king  over  His  works,  cf.  P.R.E. 

pp.  79  f. 

—  III.  V.  :    "  To  watch  over  the  body  of  our  father  Adam, 

for  it  is  a  body  of  great  value  before  God,"  cf.  P.R.E. 
p.  148. 

—  III.  vii.  (viii.  and  xi.)  :    "  Thy  wife,  and  the  wives  of  thy 

sons,  shall  be  on  the  western  side  of  the  ark  ;  and 
they  and  their  wives  shall  not  come  together " ;  cf. 
P.R.E.  p.  169. 

—  III.  viii.  :    "  All  the  animals  shall  be  gathered  unto  thee," 

cf.  P.R.E.  p.  166. 

—  III.  ix.  :   "  An  angel  of  God  sat  upon  the  ark,"  cf.  P.R.E. 

p.  167. 

—  III.  xi.  :   When  the  flood  was  over,  they  (men  and  women 


INTRODUCTION  li 

in  the  ark)  "  came  together,  the  husband  with  his 
wife,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  169. 
Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  iii.  xiii. :   "  Noah  took  a  root  of  vine 
and  planted  it,  and  dressed   it  until  it  yielded  fruit," 
cf.  P.R.E.  p.  170. 

—  III.  xiv.  :    Noah  divides  the  earth  among  (his  sons),  cf. 

P.R.E.  pp.  172  f. 

—  III.  xvii.  :   "  The  house  full  of  light,"  cf.  P.R.E.  pp.  166  f. 

—  III.  xvii.  :    "  And  (lest)  they  hang  on   to  the  body  of 

Adam,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  148. 

—  III.  xxiii.  :    "  One  of  the  first  kings  that  ever  reigned  on 

the  earth,  whose  name  was   Nimrud,  a  giant,"  cf. 
P.R.E.  p.  80. 

—  III.  xxiv.  :    "  Satan  entered   into  the  idol  of  gold,"  cf. 

P.R.E.  p.  355. 

—  III.  xxv.  :  Nimrod  sacrifices  victims  to  the  fire,  cf.  P.R.E. 

pp.  188,  420. 

—  IV.  ii.  :   (Pharaoh)  "  gave  to  Sarah,  Hagar  the  Egyptian," 

cf.  P.R.E.  p.  190. 

—  IV.  ii.  refers  to  Ishmael  as  being  thirteen  years  older  than 

Isaac,  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  217,  note  3. 

—  IV.  ii.  states  that  Isaac  was  fourteen  years  old  when  put 

on  the  altar,  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  225. 

—  IV.  iii.  :   "  Jerusalem  that  means  the  middle  of  the  earth," 

cf.  P.R.E.  p.  266. 

—  IV.  V.  :   "  And  this  Naasson  was  great  among  the  sons  of 

Judah,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  331,  note  1. 

—  IV.  ix. :  Lion-proselytes  and  Samar[itans],  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  299. 

—  IV.  xi.  :   "  The  fire  ...  is  the  Divine  fire  that  was  all  the 

time  in  the  house  of  God,"  cf.  P.R.E.  p.  429. 

Dr.  Ginzberg's  article  on  the  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  in 
the  first  volume  of  the  Jezvish  Encyclopedia  should  be  read, 
and  the  notes  on  the  Books  of  Adam  and  Eve  in  A.  and  P.  ii. 
might  be  consulted.  Many  of  the  references  to  similar 
phrases  and  ideas  given  in  this  Introduction  are  not  repeated 
in  the  notes  to  P.R.E. 

The  Apocalypse  of  Abraham  (see  P.R.E.  pp.  70,  76)  should 
also  be  read  as  a  side-light  to  our  book.  Thus,  the  interpre- 
tation of  "  Ur  of  the  Chaldees  "  as  the  fire  of  the  Chaldees 
is  common  to  both.      The  attempt  of  Azazel  to  disturb 


Hi  INTRODUCTION 

Abraham  when  offering  his  sacrifice  to  God  is  somewhat 
similar  to  the  attempt  of  Sammael  to  hinder  Abraham's 
sacrifice  of  the  ram  instead  of  Isaac.  The  "  unclean  bird  " 
which  swoops  down  upon  the  carcasses,  as  well  as  "  the 
vision  "  of  Abraham  between  the  pieces,  beholding  the 
world  in  its  future  career,  reappear  in  our  book.  Both 
writings  refer  to  the  Divine  throne  and  the  Cherubim  as 
well  as  to  the  revelation  of  the  secrets  of  the  deep  (Leviathan). 
Sammael  (or  Azazel)  had  twelve  wings  according  to  our 
book  and  the  Apocalypse.  Dr.  Ginzberg,  in  his  interesting 
article  on  the  Apocalypse  in  the  J.E.  i.  92,  refers  to  Chapters 
IX.,  XIII.,  XX.,  XXL,  and  XXVIII.  of  the  Pirke  de  Rabbi 
Eliezer. 

For  parallel  or  similar  expressions  and  teaching  in — 

(a)  4  Ezra,  see  pp.  11,    60,    63,    70,   87,  136,  198,  202, 

257  ff.,  260,  350,  and  357. 

(b)  Ascension  of  Isaiah,  see  pp.  17,  21,  92,  and  24.5. 

(c)  Assumption  of  Moses,  see  pp.  11,  63,  194,  266,  339, 

344,  357,  393,  and  412. 

We  have  by  no  means  exhausted  the  material  in  the 
foregoing  paragraphs.  Such  books  as  Schatzhohle,  Kehra 
Nagast,  and  the  Book  of  the  Bee,  not  to  mention  the  Koran 
and  its  famous  commentaries,  contain  much  material  in 
common  Avith  our  "  Chapters."  Philo  and  Ecclesiasticus  also 
offer  several  interesting  parallels. 

It  is  not  by  any  means  definitely  established  that  our 
author  actually  copied  any  of  the  afore-mentioned  books. 
^Yhat  is  maintained,  however,  is  the  existence  of  some 
sort  of  literary  connection  between  P.R.E.  and  these  books. 
This  may  be  explained  by  the  existence  of  compositions 
based  on  the  Pseudepigrapha  or  used  by  the  authors  of 
this  class  of  literature.  The  link  is  missing  and  it  would 
be  extremely  hazardous  to  do  more  than  point  out  the 
existence  of  similar  ideas  and  occasionally  actual  parallel 
phrases.  It  must  not  be  forgotten  that  many  of  the  ideas 
common  to  the  Midrashim  and  the  Pseudepigrapha  were, 
so  to  say,  common  property,  floating  traditions  which  were 
recorded  not  only  in  Enoch  or  Jubilees,  but  also  in  the 
Books  of  Adam  and  Eve,  and  later  in  our  book,  and  later 
still  in  such  compositions  as  the  Book  of  the  Bee. 

One  lesson  seems  to   be  driven   home  from  our  study, 


INTRODUCTION  liii 

and  that  is  the  impossibih'ty  of  propeilji^  understanding  the 
Apocryphal  and  Pseudepigraphic  wiitings  Avithont  the 
assistance  of  the  teaching  of  Rabbinic:^.  •  So  abo  vice  versa, 
we  must  ilhistrate  Rabbinical  literature  by  the  teaching  of 
the  Apocrypha  and  Pseudepigrapha. 

§  6.  P.R.E.  AND  Patristic  Literature 

Ginzberg,  Goldfahn,  Graetz,  Kohler,  Rahraer,  and  others 
have  discussed  various  aspects  of  Patristic  literature  in 
connection  with  Midrashic  teaching.  This  field  of  inquiry 
is  by  no  means  exhausted.  Very  many  interesting  parallels 
to  some  of  the  teaching  in  our  "  Chapters  "  are  to  be 
found  in  the  writings  of  the  Church  Fathers.  It  would  be 
advantageous  to  read  the  Patristic  literature  in  the  light 
of  Midrashic  exegesis  and  interpretation  and  vice  versa. 
One  or  two  instances  will  explain  this  standpoint. 

The  Statutes  of  the  Apostles  (ed.  Horner),  §  70,  p.  215, 
direct  that  "  seven  days  should  be  kept  for  a  memorial  of 
the  living  and  the  dead."  This  rule  will  be  appreciated 
if  compared  with  the  Jewish  institution  of  the  "  seven  days 
of  mourning  "  (see  P.R.E.  p.  115),  Again,  the  48th  statute 
directs  prayers  to  be  said  five  times  daily  {op.  cit.  pp.  182  f.). 
This  rule  should  be  illustrated  by  the  Rabbinic  custom  of 
praying  thrice  daily  (see  P.R.E.  p.  110). 

Vorstius  and  manv  scholars  after  him  have  not  dis- 
guised  their  profound  contempt  for  the  legends  contained 
in  our  "  Chapters  "  and  in  other  Midrashic  writings.  This 
attitude  must  give  place  to  a  more  sympathetic  understand- 
ing of  the  fact  that  Midrash  exists  not  only  in  the  works  of 
the  Rabbis  but  also  in  the  New  Testament  and  in  Patristic 
literature.  Many  legends  preserved  in  our  "  Chapters  "  are 
also  to  be  found  in  the  interesting  volumes  of  the  "  Ante- 
Nicene  Christian  Library."  Many  of  these  parallels  are 
mentioned  in  the  notes  to  our  "  Chapters." 

§  7.  Date  and  Origin  of  P.R.E. 

A  few  historical  and  literary  clues,  disclosed  by  a  careful 
study  of  our  book,  enable  us  to  fix  the  date  of  its  final 
redaction,     This  is  probably  either  the  second  or  the  third 


liv  IMTRODUCTTON 

decade  of  tlie  nirvth  century.  This  late  date  does  not, 
however,  indicate  |:'iat  most  of  the  material  at  the  disposal 
of  the  redaptor  dJi.  not  belong  to  a  much  earlier  period. 
We  have  already  m^itioned  776  c.e.  in  connection  with 
the  BaraiUid  de  R.  Sh'muel,  and  if  this  treatise  proved  to  be 
an  independent  work,  which  has  been  partially  incorporated 
into  our  book,  we  can  safely  assert  that  the  three  astro- 
nomical chapters  belong  to  a  date  at  least  half  a  century 
prior  to  the  final  redaction  of  the  book.  The  Creation 
legends,  which  go  back  to  the  Books  of  Enoch  and  Jubilees 
as  well  as  to  the  Books  of  Adam  and  Eve,  contain  material 
which  is  earlier  than  the  first  century  c.e.  Again,  the  legends 
dealing  with  the  Flood  have  elements  in  common  with 
traditions  pi'cserved  by  Hippolytus,  whose  activity  was  in 
the  first  decades  of  the  third  century  (c.  200-236).  Jean 
Gagnier,  who  was  at  Oxford  in  the  eighteenth  century, 
drew  attention  to  a  parallel  in  Hippolytus  to  P.R.E.,  duly 
noted  by  Fabricius  in  his  stately  edition  of  the  writings 
of  the  Church  Father. 

Scholars    are    by   no   means   agreed   as   to   the   locality 

whence  P.R.E.  emanated.     The  latest  opinion  is  that  of  Dr. 

Samuel  Krauss,  who  refers  to  it  as  a  Byzantine  production, 

see    Studien    zur    Byzantinisch-Judischen   Geschichte  (1914), 

pp.  145  f.     M.  Griinbaum  in  his  learned  book,  Neue  Beitrdge 

zur  Semitischen  Sagenkunde  (1893),  inclines  to  the  view  that 

P.R.E.  was  written  in  an  Arabian  atmosphere.     There  are 

clear   indications   of  contact    with   Mohammedan    material 

(cf,  P.R.E.  XXX.),  the  names  Fatimah  (p.  219)  and  'Ayeshah 

(p.    218)   as   wives   of   Ishmael   occur   and    betray   Islamic 

influence.     In  Chapter  XXX.  (pp.  221  f.)  two  brothers  who 

are  reigning  simultaneously  are  indicated ;  Graetz  has  long 

ago  pointed  to  this  passage  as  referring  to  the  two  sons  of 

Harun  al-Rashid,  Alemin  and  Elmamum,  who  ruled  in  the 

early  years  of  the  ninth  century.     Miiller  has  drawn  attention 

to  the  Minhagim  or  religious  customs  which  are  peculiar  to 

our  book,  and  as  a  result  of  his  investigation  he  is  of  opinion 

that  P.R.E.  is  a  Palestinian  production.     There  are  many 

subsidiary  points  which  seem  to  support  this  view.     The 

fact   already  mentioned,  that   the   direct   quotations   from 

the    Talmud    are    only    from    the    Palestinian    recension ; 

and   the  use   made   of  another    Palestinian    work,   Genesis 


INTRODUCTION  Iv 

Rabbah,  seem  to  support  a  Palestinian  origin.  There  are 
striking  references  to  the  Holy  Land,  its  privileges  and 
superiority,  which  point  to  a  Palestinian  authorship. 
On  the  other  hand,  there  are  reasons  for  regarding  Babylon 
as  the  home  of  P.R.E.  Dr.  Biichler's  studies  dealing  with 
the  ban,  which  will  be  quoted  in  the  notes  (pp.  301  f.), 
seem  to  point  to  Babylon  as  the  source  whence  our 
book  came.  Other  lines  of  inquiry,  e.g.  the  punishment 
inflicted  on  a  woman  guilty  of  immorality  (see  p.  100), 
point  in  the  same  direction.  It  is  extremely  difficult  to 
decide  in  a  question  of  this  kind,  especially  when  eminent 
authorities  hold  such  divergent  views.  It  is  right  to  point 
out  that  the  views  of  Graetz  referred  to  on  pp.  221  f.  have 
been  refuted  by  Steinschneider  (see  note  on  p.  222). 
Likewise  his  theory  {Geschichte,  v.  p.  446)  that  our  book  in 
Chapter  XXX.  is  indebted  to  the  Secrets  of  R.  Simeon 
ben  Jochai  in  connection  with  the  misrule  of  the  Ishmaelites, 
has  been  controverted  by  Horowitz,  Beth  'Eked  Ha-Hagadoth, 
p.  24.  Both,  however,  agree  that  the  date  of  the  composi- 
tion of  our  book  is  about  750  c.e. 


§  8.  Polemical  Tendency  in  P.R.E. 

Apparently  there  is  no  direct  reference  to  Christianity. 
On  the  other  hand,  there  are  several  allusions  to  Islam  as 
the  "  Fourth  Kingdom  "  destined  to  persecute  the  Chosen 
People  prior  to  the  dawn  of  the  Messianic  Kingdom.  There 
are  also  several  echoes  from  the  old  controversies  which 
the  ancient  teachers  in  Israel  waged  against  the  Gnostics 
(cf.  pp.  17,  79  f.).  One  of  the  set  purposes  of  part  of  the 
work  is  to  combat  certain  teachings  contained  in  some 
of  the  Pseudepigrapha,  especially  in  the  Book  of  Jubilees. 
It  is  noteworthy  that  the  Cairo  Geni?ah  has  restored  to  us 
Aramaic  fragments  based  on  the  Book  of  Jubilees  and  also 
on  the  Testaments  of  the  XII  Patriarchs.  The  Zohar  refers 
to  a  book  of  Enoch  (Lev.  10a)  which  seems  to  have  been  in 
Aramaic.  We  believe  we  have  established  the  fact  that 
there  is  close  connection  between  our  "  Chapters  "  and  the 
afore-mentioned  pseudepigraphic  books. 

Our  author  lays  great  stress  on  the  doctrine  of  the 
resurrection  of  the  body  (cf.  pp.  228,  249  f.).     This  may  be 


Ivi  INTRODUCTION 

directed  against  the  teaching  set  forth  in  many  of  the 
pseudcpigraphic  and  apocryphal  books,  which  deny  the 
physical  resiuTcction. 

On  page  254  he  opposes,  as  the  Talmud,  the  destruction 
of  fruit-bearing  trees  (see  Krauss  in  n^^'C'n,  1908,  xix.  28  ff. ; 
and  T.A.  ii.  p.  205). 

There  may  be  a  polemical  interest  in  the  description  of 
the  Teraphim  (pp.  273  f.),  possibly  the  worship  of  relics  is 
attacked  here.  The  belief  in  the  possibility  of  the  Deity 
having  physical  offspring  (see  p.  85,  note  10)  is  opposed. 
Celibacy  (p.  89,  note  2)  seems  to  be  regarded  with 
disfavour,  and  possibly  divorce  (see  p.  219)  is  likewise  dis- 
approved. 

§  9.  Theology  of  P.R.E. 

The  note  struck  in  the  first  two  chapters,  proclaiming 
the  supreme  value  of  the  Torah,  the  Law  of  God,  is  in 
harmony  with  the  teaching  in  the  rest  of  the  book.  The 
Law  belongs  to  the  premundane  creation  (p.  11),  it  was 
with  God  at  the  Creation  (p.  12),  even  consulted  by  the 
Divine  Architect  when  lie  was  planning  the  Universe 
(ibid.)  and  creating  man  (p.  76).  The  Torah  had  its  home 
in  heaven  and  was  entrusted  to  Israel  because  the  other 
nations  refused  to  accept  its  teaching  (p.  319).  Some  of  the 
precepts  of  the  Torah  were  kept  in  heaven  by  God  and 
the  Angels  (pp.  137  f.),  and  also  by  Adam  and  the  patriarchs 
(pp.  126,  143,  204)  prior  to  the  revelation  on  Sinai. 

The  love  or  goodness  of  God  impelled  Him  to  the  creation 
of  man  (p.  76).  The  belief  in  original  sin  is  not  coimtenanced 
(pp.  158  f.).  Moral  evil  was  brought  into  the  world  by 
Sammael  (p.  158)  and  the  offspring  of  the  fallen  angels 
(pp.  160  f.).  The  angelology  in  our  book  is  interesting  on 
account  of  its  connection  with  the  Pseudepigrapha.  Michael, 
Sammael  (with  whom  Azazel  is  identified),  demons  and 
merciful  angels,  the  fall  of  the  angels.  Cherubim,  Chajjoth, 
Seraphim,  and  the  heavenly  host,  are  all  dealt  with.  The 
Index  will  enable  the  reader  to  find  our  author's  views  on 
this  theme. 

The  ethical  tone  is  excellently  expressed  in  the  chapter 
on  the  Two  Ways  (pp.  102  f.).  The  duty  of  loving  service  is 
set  forth  in  two  chapters  (pp.  106  ff.)  and  in  many  passages 


INTRODUCTION  Ivii 

throughout  the  book.  The  sacredness  of  human  Hfe  (pp. 
176,  386)  is  emphasized.  The  day  of  judgment  and  retri- 
bution is  not  forgotten  (p.  416),  The  vakie  of  repentance 
is  dealt  with  in  a  special  chapter  (pp.  337  ff.).  There  are 
chapters  devoted  to  eschatology  (pp.  410  ff.)  and  the  resur- 
rection (pp.  252  ff.).  For  references  to  God,  Shekhinah,  the 
Divine  throne,  Messiah,  Leviathan  and  Behemoth,  Gehenna 
and  Paradise,  the  future  world  and  death,  the  reader  can 
consult  the  Index. 

The  quotations  from  the  O.T.  are  given  according  to 
the  chapters  and  verses  in  the  Revised  Version.  This 
translation  has  frequently  been  modified  in  order  to  express 
the  Haggadic  interpretation  of  our  author.  The  quota- 
tions in  the  original  are  rarely  given  in  full,  but  in  order 
to  understand  the  teaching  in  question  the  entire  verse 
should  be  read.  To  facilitate  reference  the  source  of  every 
Biblical  quotation  is  given,  a  labour  already  done  by 
Vorstius  and  Luria.  The  headings  at  the  head  of  each 
chapter  have  been  added  by  the  present  writer.  Most 
of  the  printed  editions  contain  a  summary  of  the  contents 
of  each  chapter.  The  method  of  transliteration  adopted 
has  not  been  uniformly  followed,  especially  when  a  name 
is  well  known  by  reason  of  appearing  in  the  Revised  Version, 
e.g.  Eliezer.  The  R.V.  names  have  generally  been  retained. 
The  letter  n  is  represented  by  ch,  D  by  t,  2  by  kh,  3  by  fe, 
p  by  k,  T  by  2,  ^f  by  z,  V  by  '. 


ABBREVIATIONS    EMPLOYED 

IN    NOTES 


A.T.  =Altes  Testament. 

A.N.C.L.  =  Ante-Nicene     Christian 

Library. 
Apoc.  =  Apocalypse. 
A.  and  P.  —Apocrypha  and  Pseudepi- 

grapha,  ed.  Charles  (Oxford). 
A.R.W.  =Archiv    fiir    Religionswis- 

senschaft. 
Bacher,     T.  =Bacher's     Agada     der 

Tannaiten. 
Bacher,  Terminologie  =  Bacher's  Die 

alteste  Terminologie  der  judischen 

Schriftauslegung. 
B.H.M.  =  Beth  Ha-Midrash. 
B.M.  =  British  Museum. 
C,=  column. 
C.E.  =  Common  Era. 
Comm.  =  Commentary. 
C.W.  =  Cohn,  Wendland. 
D.B.  =  Dictionary  of  the  Bible, 
d.  R.=de  Rabbi, 
ed.  =:  edition, 
eds.  =  editions. 

Enc.  Bib.  =  Encyclopedia  Biblica. 
E.T.=  English  Translation. 
Eth.  =  Ethiopic. 
Geiger,     Was     hat      Mohammed  = 

Geiger's     Was     hat      Mohammed 

aus     dem     Judentume     aufgenom- 

men? 
Ginzberg,   Die  Haggada  =  Ginzberg's 

Die    Haggada    bei    dem    Kirchen- 

vatern. 
Grtinbaum,     Beitrage  =  Griinbaum's 

Neue     Beitrage     zur     Semitischen 

Sagenkunde. 
G.T.  =  German  Translation. 


G.V.  =  Die  Gottesdienstlichen  Vor- 
trage. 

I. C. C.  =  International  Critical  Com- 
mentary. 

Jahrbucher  =  Jahrbucher  fiir  jiidische 
Geschichte. 

J.  E.=  Jewish  Encyclopedia. 

J. Q.R.  =  Jewish  Quarterly  Re- 
view. 

Lazarus,  Ethik  =  Lazarus'  Die  Ethik 
des  Judentums. 

LXX  =  Septuagint  Version. 

M.  =  Mangey. 

Monatsschrift  —  Monatsschrift  fiir  Ges- 
chichte und  Wissenschaft  des  Ju- 
dentums. 

MS.  =  Manuscript. 

M.T.  =  Massoretic  text. 

N.  H.W.B.  =Neuhebraisches  Worter- 
buch. 

N.T.  =New  Testament. 

O.T.=01d  Testament. 

p.,  pp.  =  page,  pages. 

Pal.  Targum  =  Palestinian  Targum 
(Pseudo- Jonathan). 

Pesh.  =Peshitta. 

P.R.E.  =Pirke  de  Rabbi  Eliezer. 

R.  =  Rabbi  or  Rabban. 

Rab.  =Rabbah. 

Real-Ency.  s.  =  Real  Encyclopadie 
Supplementband. 

R.E.J.  =  Revue  des  Etudes  Juives. 

R.  V.  =  Revised  Version. 

Schechter,  Aspects  =  Schechter's 
Aspects  of  Rabbinic  Theology. 

Schiirer  =  Schurer's  Geschichte  des 
judischen  Volkes. 


lix 


1 


X 


ABBREVIATIONS   IN   NOTES 


Singer  =  Authorized      Daily      Prayer 

Book. 
Slav,  =  Slavonic. 
T.  =  Testament. 
T.A.  =  Talmudische         Archaologie 

(Krauss). 
Targ.  =Targum. 
T.  B.  =  Babylonian  Talmud. 
T.D.  =Targum  Dictionary. 
Test.   XII    Pat.  :=  Testaments   of  the 

Twelve  Patriarchs. 


T.J.^Talmud  of  Jerusalem  (Pales- 
tinian Talmud). 

Z.A.T.W.  =Zeitschrift  fur  die  A.T. 
Wissenschaft. 

Z.D.M.G.  =  Zeitschrift  der  Deutschen 
Morgenlandischen  Gesellschaft. 

Z.f.N.T.  Wissensch  —  Zeitschrift  fiir 
die  Neutestamentliche  Wissen. 
schaft. 

Zur  Gesch.  =Zur  Geschichte 
(Zunz). 


THE    CHAPTERS    OF 
RABBI    ELIEZER    THE    GREAT  ^ 

CHAPTER    I 

RABBI  ELIEZER  AND  THE  TORAH  "  [1b.  i.J 

The  following  befell  Rabbi  Eliezer,  son  of  Hyrkanos.  His 
father  had  many  ploughmen  ^  who  were  ploughing  arable 
ground/  whereas  he  was  ploughing  a  stony  plot ;  he  sat 
down  and  wept.     His  father  said  to  him  :   O  my  son  !   Why 

1  Also  called  "  Baraitha  of  Rabbi  Eliezer  "  ;  see  supra,  Introduction, 
and  cf.  Zunz,  G.V.,  p.  283,  Weiss,  Dor  Dor  veDorshav,  iii.  p.  290,  and 
Hamburger,  Real-Ency.  s.  11.  i.  pp.  162  ff.,  on  the  P.R.E.  The  first  two 
chapters  are  probably  a  later  addition  to  the  Midrash  contained  in  the 
rest  oi  the  "  Chapters."  They  form  a  very  good  introduction  to  this 
pseudepigraphic  book,  which  was  attributed  to  the  famous  teacher. 
Rabbi  EUezer  the  Great.  The  third  chapter  opens  with  the  name  of 
Rabbi  Eliezer.  The  MS.  fragment  of  our  book  in  the  British  Museum 
which  Horowitz  has  edited  in  his  Sarnmlung  Kleiner  Midraschim,  i.  4  flf., 
begins  with  the  third  chapter.  The  same  fact  obtains  in  some  of  the 
fragments  contained  in  the  Bodleian  Library.  For  the  biography  of 
Rabbi  Eliezer  ben  Hj'rkanos  see  Bacher,  T.  i.  pp.  96  fi.,  and/.£.  v.  113  ff., 
where  a  bibhography  is  added.  Our  "  Chapters  "  contain  about  twenty 
dicta  attributed  to  R.  EUezer;  see  Bacher,  op.  cit.  pp.  122  f.,  who  con- 
siders all  these  sayings  as  pseudepigraphic.  The  subject-matter  of  the 
first  two  chapters  of  our  book  is  to  be  found  in  Aboth  d.  R.  Nathan 
(a)  vi.,  {b)  xiii.,  Jalkut,  Gen.  §72,  and  Gen.  Rab.  xhi.  (in  the  new 
edition  of  Theodor,  cli.  xh.,  where  further  parallels  are  given  in  the 
notes  on  p.  397).  Various  recensions  of  the  first  two  chapters  have 
been  published  by  Horo%vitz,  Beth  'Eked  Ha-Hagadoth,  pp.  7  fi. 
■-  2  The  headings  to  the  chapters  have  been  added  by  the  translator. 
The  numbers  in  the  square  brackets  after  the  headings  indicate  the 
pages  and  columns  of  the  MS. 

3  Gen.  Rab.  xlii.  i  and  Jalkut,  Gen.,  loc.  cit.,  read:  "  his  brethren 
were  ploughing  in  the  plain,  whereas  he  was  ploughing  on  the  mountain." 
The  1st  and  2nd  eds.  omit  the  word  "  many." 

*  Lit.  "  were  ploughing  upon  the  surface  of  the  furrow."  Cf.  Ps, 
cxxix.  3  for  the  word  "  furrows." 


2  RABBI  ELIEZER 

dost  thou  weep  ?  Art  thou  perchance  distressed  because 
thou  dost  plough  a  stony  plot  ?  In  the  past  thou  hast 
ploughed  a  stony  plot/  now  behold  thou  shalt  plough  with 
us  arable  soil.-  He  sat  down  on  the  arable  ground  and 
wept.  His  father  said  to  him :  But  why  dost  thou  weep  ? 
Art  thou  perchance  distressed  because  thou  art  ploughing 
the  arable  land  ?  He  replied  to  him :  No.  (Hyrkanos) 
said  to  him :  Why  dost  thou  weep  ?  He  answered  him  :  I 
weep  only  because  I  desire  to  learn  Torah.^  (Hyrkanos)  said 
to  him :  Verily  thou  art  twenty-eight  years  old  ^ — yet  dost 
thou  desire  to  learn  Torah  ?  Nay,  go,  take  thee  a  wife  and 
beget  sons  and  thou  wilt  take  them  to  the  school.''  He 
fasted  two  weeks  ^  not  tasting  1|  anything,  until  Elijah  ^ — 
may  he  be  remembered  for  good  ^ — appeared  to  him  and 
said  to  him :  Son  of  Hyrkanos  !  Why  dost  thou  weep  ? 
He  replied  to  him  :  Because  I  desire  to  learn  Torah.  (Elijah) 
said  to  him :  If  thou  desirest  to  learn  Torah  get  thee  up  to 
Jerusalem  to  Rabban  Jochanan  ben  Zakkai.^  He  arose  and 
went  up  to  Jerusalem  to  R.  Jochanan  ben  Zakkai  and  sat 
down  and  wept.  (R.  Jochanan)  said  to  him :  Why  dost 
thou  weep  ?     He  answered  him :  Because  I  wish  to  learn 

1  These  words  are  omitted  in  the  ist  and  2nd  eds. 

'^  This  would  be  easier  labour.  At  this  point  the  MS.  adds  the 
second  letter  of  the  Hebrew  alphabet  to  signify  the  beginning  of  the 
second  paragraph.     The  ist  and  2nd  eds.  omit  "  with  us." 

^  Torah  is  not  merely  the  written  word  of  God,  but  also  its  oral 
interpretation.  The  term  sums  up  all  that  is  implied  by  Religion  and 
Ethics. 

*  Aboth  d.  R.  Nathan  (a)  vi.  reads  "  22  years,"  and  cf.  ibid,  (b)  xiii. 

*  Thy  merit  will  be  accounted  as  though  thou  didst  study  the 
Torah ;  see  T.B.  Kiddushin,  30a,  for  this  doctrine.  The  second 
paragraph  in  MS.  ends  here. 

*  "  He  was  distressed  for  three  weeks  "  is  the  reading  in  Aboth  d. 
R.  Nathan  (b)  xiii.  On  "  weeks"  see  Krauss,  T.A.  ii.  pp.  422  f. ;  and 
note  784. 

'  On  Elijah  in  Rabbinical  literature  see  J.E.  v.  122  ff.  In  our 
work  the  Elijah  story  and  legends  are  treated  at  considerable  length. 
In  Christian  books  Elijah  also  appears ;  see  Mark  ix.  4  ff .  and  Matt.  xvii. 
II.  In  the  Gospel  of  Barnabas  (124a)  Elijah  rebukes  a  man  for  weeping. 
See  also  Coptic  Apocrypha,  ed.  Budge,  p.  265,  for  a  further  parallel. 
Elijah  is  the  "  comforter  "  in  Jewish  and  Christian  literature,  and  in 
this  capacity  he  is  the  forerunner  of  the  Messiah. 

*  On  this  expression  sec  Zunz,  Zur  Gesch.  pp.  321  ff. 

*  The  greatest  teacher  of  his  day,  who  preserved  J  udaism  in  spite  of 
the  overthrow  of  the  Jewish  State  by  the  Romans,  in  the  year  70  c.E. 
For  his  biography  see  Bacher,  T.  i.  pp.  22  If.,  and  J.E.  vii.  214  ff. 
Graetz,  Geschichte  der  Juden,  iv.  pp.  ii  ff.,  Schiirer,  ii.  366  ff.,  and 
Schlatter's  biography  should  be  consulted. 


RABBI  ELIEZER  AND  THE  TORAH  3 

Torah.     (R.  Jochanan)  said  to  him :  Whose  son  art  thou  ? 
But  he  did  not  tell  him. 

(R.  Jochanan)  asked  him :  Hast  thou  never  learnt  i  to 
read  the  Shema,^  or  the  Tephillah,^  or  the  Grace  after 
meals  ?  ^  He  replied  to  him :  No.  He  arose  ^  and  (R. 
Jochanan)  taught  him  the  three  (prayers).*'  (Again)  he 
sat  down  and  wept.  (R.  Jochanan)  said  to  him :  My  son, 
why  dost  thou  weep  ?  He  replied :  Because  I  desire  to 
learn  Torah.'  He  (thereupon)  taught  him  two  rules  (of 
the  Law)  ^  every  day  of  the  week,  and  on  the  Sabbath  ^ 
(Eliezer)  repeated  them  and  assimilated  them.^*'  He  kept  a 
fast  for  eight  days  without  tasting  anything  until  the  odour 
of  his  mouth  attracted  the  attention  of  R.  Jochanan  ben 
Zakkai,  who  directed  him  to  withdraw  from  his  presence. 
He  sat  down  and  wept.  (R.  Jochanan)  said  to  him :  My 
son,  why  dost  thou  weep  ?  He  rejoined :  Because  thou 
didst  make  me  withdraw  from  thy  presence  just  as  a  man 
makes  his  fellow  withdraw,  when  the  latter  is  afflicted  with 
leprosy.  (R.  Jochanan)  said  to  him :  My  son,  just  as  ||  the 
odour  of  thy  mouth  has  ascended  before  me,  so  may  the 
savour  of  the  statutes  of  the  Torah  ascend  from  thy  mouth 
to  Heaven.  1^    He  said  to  him  :  My  son  !    Whose  son  art  thou  ? 

1  Aboth  d.  R.  Nathan  {b)  xiii.  reads :  "  Didst  thou  never  go  to 
school  ?  " 

-  The  "  Shema  "  is  the  Jewish  confession  of  faith.  It  is  set  fortli 
in  Deut.  vi.  4-9,  etc.  ;  see  Singer,  pp.  40  ff.,  and  J.E.  xi.  266. 

*  The  "  Tephillah  "  or  "  Shemoneh  'Esreh,"  tlie  Jewish  prayer 
par  excellence,  is  to  be  found  in  Singer,  pp.  44  ff. ;  see  R.£,.J .  xix. 
pp.  17  ff.,  and  J.E.  xi.  270  ff.  Our  "  Chapters"  deal  with  the  subject- 
matter  of  the  "  Shemoneh  'Esreh  "  ;  cf.  Zunz,  G.  V.,  p.  285,  and  S.  Sachs 
in  "  Ha-Techiyah,"  pp.  21  f.  On  the  question  as  to  the  relation  between 
Sirach  and  the  "  Shemoneh  'Esreh  "  see  Oesterley's  edition  of 
Ecclesiasticus,  pp.  232  and  349  f. 

*  The  Genizah  Fragment  has :  "  the  reading  of  the  Grace  after 
meals."     On  Grace  after  meals  see  Singer,  pp.  280  ff.,  and  J .E.  vi.  61  f. 

*  The  student  stood  whilst  learning;  see  T.B.  Megillah,  21a.  The 
1st  and  2nd  eds.  read  :  "  He  said.  Stand,  and  I  will  teach  thee  the 
three  (prayers)." 

*  In  the  MS.  the  fourth  paragraph  begins  here. 
'  And  not  merely  prayers. 

*  "  Halakhoth,"  i.e.  laws  to  be  observed  by  the  Jews,  based  upon  the 
Torah.  Thus,  according  to  Matt.  xii.  1-8,  Jesus  discusses  Halakhah. 
The  final  decisions  become  Halakhoth ;  cf.  Mark  vii.  5  and  Luke  xi. 
40  f.     See  Bacher,  Terminologie,  i.  s.v.  n^hn,  pp.  42  f. 

"  The  first  two  editions  omit  "  on  the  Sabbath." 
1°  In  the  MS.  this  is  the  end  of  the  fourth  paragraph. 
"In  Aboth  d.  R.  Nathan  (b)  xiii.  the  reading   is:    "  So  may  the 
teaching  of  thy  mouth  go  forth  from  one  end  of  the  world  to  the  other." 


4  RABBI  ELTEZER 

He  replied :  I  am  the  son  of  Hyrkanos.  Then  said  (R. 
Jochanan) :  Art  thou  not  the  son  of  one  of  the  great  men 
of  the  world, ^  and  thou  didst  not  tell  me  ?  By  thy  life  ! 
he  continued,  This  day  shalt  thou  eat  with  me.-  (Eliezer) 
answered :  I  have  eaten  already  with  my  host.^  (R.  Jochanan) 
asked  :  Who  is  thy  host  ?  He  replied  :  R.  Joshua  ben  Chan- 
anjah^  and  R.  Jose  the  Priest.^ 

(R.  Jochanan)  sent  to  inquire  of  his  hosts,  saying  to 
them  :  Did  Eliezer  eat  with  you  this  day  ?  They  answered  : 
No  ;  moreover  has  he  not  fasted  eight  days  without  tasting 
any  food  ?  '•  R.  Joshua  ben  Chananjah  and  R.  Jose  the 
Priest '  went  and  said  ^  to  R.  Jochanan  ben  Zakkai :  Verily 
during  the  last  eight  days  (Eliezer)  has  not  partaken  of  any 
food.^ 

1  Hyrkanos  was  a  very  wealthy  man. 

2  In  MS.  the  sixth  paragraph  begins  here. 

^  Akhsania  i^evia),  hospitality,  lodging,  host.  According  to  Aboth 
d.  R.  Natlian  (a)  vi.,  Eliezer  was  silent  when  R.  Jochanan  asked  him 
whether  he  had  partaken  of  food. 

*  See  Bachcr,  T.  i.  pp.  123  ff.,  and  J.E.  vii.  290  ff. 

*  See  Bachcr.  T.  i.  pp.  67  ff.,  and  J.E.  vii.  243  ff. 

*  Here  begins  the  seventh  paragraph  in  the  MS.  The  Genizah 
Fragment  continues  :    "  Moreover." 

'  Aboth  d.  R.  Nathan  (b)  xiii.  adds :  "  R.  Simeon  ben  Nathaniel." 
'  Some  of  the  old  printed  editions  read  here  :  "  Has  he  not  been 
without  food  for  the  last  eight  days  ?  "  Luria,  in  loc,  thinks  that  the 
last  clause  was  spoken  by  R.  Jochanan  to  the  Rabbis  who  visited  him, 
telling  them  that  Eliezer  had  not  eaten  at  his  table.  Aboth  d.  R. 
Nathan  (Inc.  cit.)  refers  to  R.  Jochanan's  grief  at  this  neglect,  which 
might  have  cost  Eli^zer's  life. 

*  The  Genizah  Fragment  adds  :  "  And  he  compelled  him  to  eat 
and  to  drink,  and  on  the  morrow  "  (also). 


CHAPTER    II 

R.    ELIEZER   AND    HIS    BRETHREN    [2a.  i.] 

The  sons  of  Hyrkanos  said  to  their  father:  Get  thee  rip 
to  Jerusalem  and  vow  that  thy  son  Eliezer  should  not  enjoy 
any  of  thy  possessions.^  He  went  up  to  Jerusalem  to 
disinherit  him,  and  it  happened  that  a  festival  was  being 
celebrated  there  by  R.  Jochanan  ben  Zakkai.  All  the 
magnates  of  the  district  were  dining  with  him  ;  (such  as) 
Ben  Zizith  Hakkeseth,-  Nicodemus  ben  Gorion,^  and  Ben 
Kalba  S'bu  a.^  1| 

Why  was  his  name  called  Ben  Zizith  Hakkeseth  ?  Be- 
cause he  reclined  at  table  in  a  higher  position  than  the  other 
magnates  of  Jerusalem.^  Concerning  Nicodemus  ben  Gorion, 
people  said  that  he  had  (stored)  provisions  containing  3  S'ah  ^ 
of  fine  flour  for  every  inhabitant  of  Jerusalem.     When  the 

1  Lit.  "  and  ban  thy  son  Eliezer  from  thy  possessions."  The 
Genizah  Fragment  reads:  "to  put  him  in  the  ban."  The  brothers 
claimed  that  Eliezer  should  be  disinherited  because  he  had  left  his  old 
father  without  permission.  For  a  parallel  text  see  Gen.  Rab.  xlii. 
(ed.  Theodor,  p.  398),  Aboth  d.  R.  Nathan  (a)  vi.  Was  it  the  custom  to 
resort  to  the  Synhedrion  in  order  to  disinherit  one's  son  ? 

2  See  Lam.  Rab.  i.  5  (31),  Eccles.  Rab.  to  Eccles.  vii.  11,  and  T.B. 
Gittin,  56a.  According  to  the  Talmud  (loc.  cit.)  the  name  Ben  Zizith 
Hakkeseth  was  due  to  his  intercourse  {Rise,  i.e.  seat)  with  the  great 
men  of  Rome. 

^  See  J .E.  ix.  300,  where  the  reference  to  T.B.  Ta'anith  should  be 
emended  to  20a. 

*  Ben  Kalba  S'bu  a,  this  name  is  the  result  of  a  pun.  According  to 
T.B.  Gittin,  loc.  cit.,  anyone  who  came  to  him  even  as  hungry  as  a  dog 
{keleb)  was  dismissed  fully  satisfied  {sat) a). 

^  T.B.  Gittin,  loc.  cit.,  gives  another  explanation  of  this  name,  due  to 
the  tradition  that  the  fringes  {Zizith)  of  the  man's  garments  were 
hanging  over  the  cushions  of  his  seat.  The '  Arukh  (ed.  Kohut,  vii.  40a, 
s.v.)  appears  to  have  had  a  text  of  our  passage  in  accordance  with  the 
Talmudic  reading,  but  unlike  our  text. 

*  S'ah,  a  dry  measure,  the  size  of  which  is  held  to  equal  12-148  litres 
or  io'696  qts.  The  Genizah  Fragment  reads  "  three  years  "  instead 
of  "  three  S'ah." 


6  RABBT  ELIRZER 

zealots  '  arose  and  burnt  all  the  storehouses,  they  measured 
and  found  that  he  had  had  provisions  for  three  years  for  every 
inhabitant  in  Jerusalem. ^  Concerning  Ben  Kalba  S'bu'a 
it  was  told  that  he  had  a  house  measuring  4  Kors  ^  with 
roofs  covered  with  gold. '  The  people  said  (to  R.  Jochanan) : 
Behold,  the  father  of  R.  Eliezer  has  arrived.  He  bade  them 
saying :  Prepare  a  place  for  him,  and  seat  him  next  to  us.^ 
(R.  Jochanan)  fixed  his  gaze  ®  on  R.  Eliezer,  saying  to  him,' 
Tell  us  some  words  ^  of  the  Torah.  (R.  Eliezer)  answered 
him  saying  :  Rabbi !  ^  I  will  tell  thee  a  parable.  To  what  is 
the  matter  like  ?  To  this  well  which  cannot  yield  more 
water  than  the  amount  which  it  has  drawn  (from  the 
earth) ;  likewise  am  I  unable  to  speak  words  of  the  Torah 
in  excess  of  what  I  have  received  from  thee.^" 

(R.  Jochanan)  said  to  him,  I  will  (also)  tell  thee  a  parable. 
To  what  is  the  matter  like  ?  To  this  fountain  which  is 
bubbling  and  sending  forth  its  water,  and  it  is  able  to  effect 
a  discharge  more  powerful  ||  than  what  it  secretes  ;  in  like 
manner  art  thou  able  to  speak  words  of  the  Torah  in  excess  of 
what  Moses  ^^  received  at  Sinai.  (R.  Jochanan)  continued : 
Lest  thou  shouldst  feel  ashamed  on  my  account,  behold  I 

*  On  the  Zealots  or  Sicarii  see  Josephus,  Wars,  iw  3.  q  ff. 

*  This  passage  is  missing  in  the  printed  editions,  but  it  occurs  in  the 
Genizah  Fragment. 

^  The  Kor  is  assumed  by  Gesenius  (Oxford  ed.  p.  499)  to  be  the 
same  as  the  Chomer,  which  was  thirty  times  the  S'ah.  On  these  measures 
see  Enc.  Bib.  iv.  5294  ff. 

*  The  first  printed  editions  read  :  "  gardens  crushed  with  gold."  Luria 
reads :  "  he  had  a  palace  with  an  area  covering  4  Kors,  all  the  beams 
were  overlaid  with  gold."  He  thinks  that  the  text  should  read  :  "  he 
had  a  palace  covering  4  Kors  with  treasuries  containing  gold."  The 
MS.  seems  to  have  preserved  the  true  reading,  which  is  also  the  reading 
in  the  Genizah  Fragment. 


*e>' 


*  The  1st  and  2nd  eds.  read  :  "  They  prepared  a  place  for  him  and 
seated  him  next  to  him  "  (i.e.  R.  Jochanan).  The  Genizah  Fragment 
reads:  "  and  seat  him  next  to  yourselves  ;  they  prepared  a  place  for 
him  and  placed  him  next  to  him  "  (R.  Jochanan).  In  the  MS.  the 
first  paragraph  ends  here. 

'For  this  expression  see  T.B.  Synhedrin,  iia:  "the  sages  fixed 
their  gaze  upon  Hillel  the  Elder." 

'  The  Genizah  Fragment  adds :  "  O  my  son  !  " 

*  Lit.  "  One  word." 

*  Perhaps  "  Rabban  "  would  be  more  correct.  The  MS.  uses  an 
abbreviation. 

^°  Sec  Aboth  ii.  10,  where  Eliezer  is  described  as  a  "  plastered 
cistern  which  loses  not  a  drop,"  and  cf.  Taylor's  note  on  p.  34  of  his 
(2nd)  edition  of  Abolh.     The  second  paragraph  ends  here  in  the  MS. 

"  The  1st  and  2nd  eds.  read,  "  they  received." 


R.  ELIEZER  AND  HIS  BRETHREN     7 

will  arise  and  go  away  from  thee.  Rabban  Jochanan  ben 
Zakkai  arose  and  went  outside.  (Thereupon)  R.  Eliezer 
sat  down  and  expounded. ^  His  face  shone  like  the  light  of 
the  sun  and  his  effulgence  beamed  forth  like  that  of  Moses,^ 
so  that  no  one  knew  whether  it  was  day  or  night.  ^  They 
went  and  said  to  Rabban  Jochanan  ben  Zakkai :  Come  and 
see  R.  Eliezer  sitting  and  expounding,  his  face  shining  like 
the  light  of  the  sun  and  his  effulgence  beaming  like  that  of 
Moses,  so  that  no  one  knows  whether  it  be  day  or  night.* 
He  came  from  (his  place)  behind  him  ^  and  kissed  him  on 
his  head,  saying  to  him :  Happy  are  ye,  Abraham,  Isaac, 
and  Jacob,  because  this  one  has  come  forth  from  your 
loins. 

Hyrkanos  his  father  said :  To  whom  does  (R.  Jochanan) 
speak  thus  ?  The  people  answered :  To  Eliezer  thy  son. 
He  said  to  them :  (R.  Jochanan)  should  not  have  spoken  in 
that  manner,  but  (in  this  wise),  "  Happy  am  I  because  he 
has  come  forth  from  my  loins."  Whilst  R.  Eliezer  was 
sitting  and  expounding,  his  father  was  standing  upon  his 
feet.  When  ||  (Eliezer)  saw  his  father  standing  upon  his  feet, 
he  became  agitated  and  said  to  him :  My  father !  be  seated, 
for  I  cannot  utter  the  words  of  the  Torah  when  thou  art 
standing  on  thy  feet.*^  (Hyrkanos)  replied  to  him  :  My  son, 
it  was  not  for  this  reason  that  I  came,  but  my  intention  was 
to   disinherit  thee.     Now  that   I   have   come   and   I   have 


1  According  to  Gen.  Rab.  xlii.  i.,  the  text  of  Eliezer's  exposition 
was  Ps.  xxxvii.  14,  "  The  wicked  have  drawn  out  the  sword,  and  have 
bent  their  bow ;  to  cast  down  the  poor  and  needy,  to  slay  such  as 
be  upright  in  the  way."  The  brothers  of  EUezer  might  possibly  be 
described  in  the  terms  of  this  text. 

2  The  reference  is  to  Ex.  xxxiv.  35,  "  And  the  skin  of  Moses'  face 
shone."     See  also  Eccles.  viii.  i. 

^  The  third  paragraph  ends  here. 

*  This  sentence  is  wanting  in  the  printed  editions.  There  seems 
to  be  some  confusion  in  the  text.  The  MS.  concludes  here  the  fourth 
paragraph. 

*  According  to  Aboth  d.  R.  Nathan  (6)  xiii.  R.  Jochanan  had  gone 
forth  from  the  assembly  so  as  not  to  embarrass  R.  Eliezer.  While 
Eliezer  is  expounding,  R.  Joshua  and  R.  Simeon  ben  Nathaniel  leave 
the  assembly  to  find  R.  Jochanan,  to  whom  they  say,  "  Come  and  see! 
R.  Eliezer  is  'sitting  and  expounding  things  more  profoundly  than 
(the  things)  told  to  Moses  at  Sinai."  For  another  instance  of  kissing 
by  the  same  teacher  see  T.B.  Chagigah,  14b. 

*  It  would  be  disrespectful  for  a  son  to  sit  in  the  presence  of  his 
parent,  who  would  be  standing;  cf.  T.B.  Kiddushin,  33b,  where  this 
theme  is  discussed. 


8  RABBI  ELIEZER 

witnessed    all    this    praise ;     behold   thy   brothers   are  dis- 
inherited and  their  portion  is  given  to  thee  as  a  gift.^ 

(Eliezer)  replied :  Verily  I  am  not  equal  to  one  of  them.^ 
If  I  had  asked  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  for  land,  it  would 
be  possible  for  Him  to  give  this  to  me,  as  it  is  said,  "  The 
earth  is  the  Lord's,  and  the  fidness  thereof"  (Ps.  xxiv.  1). 
Had  I  asked  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  for  silver  and 
gold,  He  could  have  given  them  to  me,  as  it  is  said,  "  The 
silver  is  mine,  and  the  gold  is  mine  "  ^  (Hag.  ii.  8).  But  I 
asked  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  that  I  might  be  worthy 
(to  learn  the)  Torah  only,  as  it  is  said,  "•  Therefore  I  esteem 
all  precepts  concerning  all  things  to  be  right ;  and  I  hate 
every  false  way  "  (Ps.  cxix.  128). 

'  The  fifth  paragraph  ends  here  in  the  MS. 

•  This  section  to  the  end  of  the  chapter  is  to  be  found  in  Jalkut 
Makhiri  to  Psalms  (Ps.  cxix.),  §  77,  with  sUght  variations  in  the  reading. 
The  last  sentence  reads :  "  But  I  prayed  to  Him  only  that  I  might  be 
found  worthy,  as  it  is  said,  '  Therefore  I  esteem  all  precepts,'  "  etc. 

*  The  ist  ed.  and  subsequent  editions  continue  the  rest  of  the  verse, 
but  a  strange  error  has  crept  into  their  texts  ;  they  read  "  amar  "  instead 
of  "  n'um,"  which  is  the  actual  reading  in  Haggai.  This  error  is  also 
in  the  Talmud  (B.)  Kiddushin,  82b. 


CHAPTER    nil 

PREMUNDANE    CREATION,   AND  THE  WORK  OF  THE  FIRST  DAY 

[2b.  ii.] 

R.  Eliezer  2  BEN  Hyrkanos  opened  ^  (his  discourse  with 
the  text),  "  Who  can  utter  the  mighty  acts  of  the  Lord,  or  * 
shew  forth  all  his  praise  ?  "  (Ps.  cvi.  2).^  Is  there  any 
man  ^  who  can  utter  the  mighty  acts  of  the  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  or  who  can  shew  forth  all  His  praise  ?  ' 
Not  even  the  ministering  angels  ^  are  able  to  narrate  (the 
Divine  praise).  But  to  investigate  a  part  of  His  mighty 
deeds  with  reference  to  what  He  has  done,  and  what  He 
will  do  in  the  future  (is  permissible),  so  that  His  name 
should   be   exalted   among   His   creatures,    whom   He   has 

1  This  is  probably  the  beginning  of  the  Baraitha  or  Pirke  de  R. 
Eliezer.  The  Chronicles  of  Jerahmeel  begin  with  this  section  of  our 
work.  The  following  chapters  up  to  Chapter  XI.  form  a  treatise 
dealing  with  Maaseh  Bereshith  (The  Work  of^the  Creation)  and  Ma  aseh 
Merkabah  (The  theme  of  God  s  Chariot) .  Cosmological  and  theosophical 
themes  were  favourite  ones  in  the  school  of  R.  Eliezer 's  famous  teacher, 
R.  Jochanan  ben  Zakkai ;  see  T.B.  Chagigah,  14b,  for  the  story  of  R. 
Jochanan  ben  Zakkai  listening  to  R.  Elazar  ben  'Arakh  expounding  the 
Maaseh  Merkabah. 

^  This  gives  the  title  to  the  book. 

'  i.e.  explained  (the  text). 

*  The  Venice  edition  and  several  later  editions  are  at  variance  with 
the  actual  text  of  the  psalm  by  adding  "  and  who,"  which  is  not  in 
the  Biblical  quotation.  The  quotation  is  correctly  given  in  B.M.  MS. 
and  in  the  first  printed  text  (Constantinople,  1514). 

*  See  Jalkut,  in  loc. 

*  The  printed  editions  add  .  "  in  the  world." 

'  See  T.B.  Megillah,  i8a,  for  the  view  that  the  one  who  utters  the 
praise  of  God  to  excess  will  be  taken  from  the  world,  based  on 
Job  xxxvii.  20.     Cf.  Slav.  Enoch  xxiv.  3. 

*  The  ministering  angels  are  identified  by  Siphre  (Deut.  §  306,  end) 
with  "  the  sons  of  Elohim  "  of  Job  i.  6,  and  they  are  probably  to  be 
identified  with  "  the  angels  of  sanctification  "  mentioned  in  the  Book 
of  Jubilees  ii.  2,  18 ;  cf.  Eth.  Enoch  Ixi.  10  ff.  For  "  the  heavenly 
host  praising  God  "  see  Luke  ii.  13,  and  for  angelology  see  J.E.  i. 
5832- 


10  RABBI  ELIEZER 

created,  from  one  end  of  the  world  ||  to  the  other,  as  it  is 
said,  "■  One  generation  to  another  shall  laud  thy  works  " 
{ibid.  cxlv.  4).^ 

Before  the  world  was  created,  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be 
He,  with  His  Name  -  alone  existed,  and  the  thought  arose 
in  Him  to  create  the  world.  He  began  to  trace  (the  founda- 
tions of)'"'  the  world  before  Himself,  but  it  would  not  stand. 
They  '  told  a  parable.  To  what  is  the  matter  like  ?  To  a 
king  who  wshes  to  build  a  palace  ^  for  himself.  If  he 
had  not  traced  in  the  earth  its  foundations,  its  exits  and 
its  entrances,^  he  does  not  begin  to  build.'  Likewise  the 
Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  was  tracing  (the  plans  of)  the 
world  before  Himself,  but  it  did  not  remain  standing  until 
He  created  repentance.^ 

Seven  things  ^  were  created  before  the  world  was  created. 

'  Our  text  has  been  used  by  Jalkut,  Psalms,  §  864.  Here  ends  the 
first  paragraph  in  MS. 

^  On  the  Tetragrammaton  see  Nestle,  Z.D.M.G.  xxxii. ;  Fiirst,  ibid. 
xxxiii.  ;  and  Nager,  ibid.  xxxv.  The  printed  editions  read  here:  "  The 
Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  and  His  great  Name."  On  "  God  and  His 
Name  "  see  D.  H.  Joel's  die  Religionsphilosophie  da  Sohar,  p.  235. 

••  The  words  in  brackets  are  based  on  B.M.  MS.,  which  reads :  "  He 
traced  its  foundations,  its  exits  and  entrances,  on  the  earth,  but  it  did 
not  stand  firm  until  He  created  repentance,  because  seven  (things) 
were  created  before  the  world." 

*  i.e.  the  Rabbis. 

*  Paltin  =  iraKdTLov ,  paLitium,  palace. 

*  The  phraseology  is  based  on  Ezek.  xliii.  11.  The  printed  editions 
reverse  the  order  and  read :  "  its  entrances  and  its  exits." 

'  The  architect's  plans  must  be  prepared  prior  to  the  erection  of 
the  building.  What  holds  good  for  our  earthly  experience  is  assumed 
to  have  its  counterpart  in  the  experience  of  the  Creator.  Philo  {de 
Mundi  opiftc.  4.  i.  M.  4,  C.W.  i.  p.  4,  ij  19)  offers  a  good  parallel  to  the 
idea  of  preparing  plans  prior  to  the  Creation ;  see  also  Gen.  Rab.  i.  i. 
and  my  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  p.  4. 

*  Repentance  is  the  sole  condition  whereby  harmony,  divine  and 
human,  can  obtain,  of.  Wisdom  xii.  10,  10.  On  the  subject  of  Repent- 
ance see  J.E.  X.  376  ff.  Lazarus,  Ethik,  i.  pp.  44  1.,  and  Schechter, 
Aspects,  see  index,  s.v.  "  Repentance"  and  "Penitence,"  and  cf.  my 
Grace  of  God,  pp.  30  ff.     The  second  paragraph  in  the  MS.  ends  here. 

"  This  passage  is  borrowed  from  T.B.  Pesachim,  54a,  or  T.B. 
Nedarim,  39b,  the  order  being  varied  by  Repentance  coming  after  the 
Torah.  See  also  Jalkut  on  Jeremiah.  §  298,  and  cf.  Gen.  Rab.  i.  4  (Theo- 
dor,  p.  6  note,  iti  loc.)  and  Tanna  dc  be  Elijahu  Rab.  xxxi.  p.  160,  where 
only  six  subjects  are  enumerated.  Fricdmann  (note  33,  in  loc.)  points 
out  that  by  comparing  the  various  readings  in  Talmud  and  Midrash 
we  find  that  there  were  nine  prcmundane  things,  cf.  Zohar.  L<  v.  34b. 
It  is  important  to  bear  in  mind,  in  reading  Gen.  Rab.  i.  4.  that  of 
the  six  prcmundane  things  some  were  actually  created  and  .some  were 
only  ideally  present  in  the  mind  of  the  Creator.  The  Torah  and  the 
Throne  of  Glory  were  created,  but  the  patriarchs,  Israel,  the  Temple, 


PREMUNDANE  CREATION  11 

They  are :  The  Torah,  Gehinnom,  the  Garden  of  Eden,^  the 
Throne  of  Glory,  the  Temple,  Repentance,  and  the  Name 
of  the  Messiah. 

Whence  do  we  know  that  this  applies  to  the  Torah  ? 
Because  it  is  said,  "  The  Lord  possessed  me  ■^  in  the  beginning 
of  his  way,  before  his  works  of  old"  (Prov.  viii.  22).  "Of 
old "  ^  means  before  the  world  was  created.'*  Whence  do 
we  know  this  with  regard  to  the  Garden  of  Eden  ?  Because 
it  is  said,  "  And  the  Lord  God  planted  a  garden  of  old  "  ^ 
(Gen.  ii.  8).  "  Of  old,"  whilst  as  yet  the  world  had  not 
been  created.  Whence  do  we  know  this  with  reference 
to  the  Throne  of  Glory  ?  ^  Because  it  is  said,  "  Thy  throne 
is  established  of  old  "  (Ps.  xciii.  2).  "  Of  old,"  whilst  as 
yet  the  world  had  not  been  created.     Whence  do  we  know 

and  the  Name  of  the  Messiah  were  only  in  the  thought  of  God.  In 
the  Book  of  Enoch  (Ethiopic)  xlviii.  3,  the  Messiah  is  said  to  have  had 
his  name  named  before  the  sun  and  the  signs  were  created ;  see  my 
Hellenism  and  Christianity,  pp.  15  ft.,  on  the  question  of  the  pre-existence 
of  the  Messiah,  and  cf.  Assump'.ion  of  Moses  i.  14. 

1  The  "  Garden  of  Eden  "  is  usually  rendered  by  the  term  Paradise. 
The  fact  that  Gehenna  is  in  juxtaposition  to  "  Gan  Eden  "  would  lead 
one  to  infer  that  Paradise  was  referred  to  in  this  context.  Our  author 
is  probably  opposing  the  view  that  the  Garden  of  Eden  was  created 
on  the  "  third  day  "  ;  see  Jubilees  ii.  7. 

2  The  verse  might  be  rendered  :  "  The  Lord  formed  me  as  the  begin- 
ning of  his  way."  The  reference  is  to  Wisdom,  which  is  here  personified  ; 
see  Hellenism  and  Christianity ,  pp.  64  ft.  Christianity  under  the 
influence  of  Alexandrian  Jewish  thought  identified  Wisdom  with  its 
Messiah,  whilst  Palestinian  Judaism  identified  Wisdom  with  the  Torah. 

2  The  ist  ed.  and  later  editions  derive  the  inference  from  the  word 
"  before." 

*"  Whence  do  we  know  this  with  reference  to  Gehinnom  ?  Because 
it  is  said,  '  For  a  Topheth  is  prepared  of  old  '  (Isa.  xxx.  33).  '  Of 
old  '  means  whilst  yet  the  world  had  not  been  created."  This  paragraph 
is  omitted  by  the  MS.,  but  it  occurs  in  the  ist  ed.  Topheth  was 
a  place  in  the  Hinnom  Valley  {i.e.  Ge-henna  or  Ge-Hinnom)  where 
the  hateful  and  cruel  Moloch  abominations  had  been  perpetrated ;  see 
W.  R.  Smith,  Religion  of  the  Semites,  p.  357.  The  Tanna  de  be  Elijahu 
Rab.,  loc.  cit.,  says:  "Topheth  is  nought  else  but  Gehinnom."  See 
also  Schwally,  Z.A.T.W.,  1890,  pp.  212  ff. 

°  See  R.V.  in  loc.  Our  Midrashic  passage  occurs  as  follows  in  the 
Pal.  Targum  of  Gen.  ii.  8 :  "  And  a  garden  from  the  Eden  of  the  just 
was  planted  by  the  Word  of  the  Lord  God  before  the  creation  of 
the  world."  This  Haggadah  appears  also  in  Jerome ;  see  Diestel, 
Geschichte  des  A.T.  in  der  Christlichen  Kirche,  p.  102,  and  Rahmer, 
Die  Hebrdischen  Traditionen  in  den  Werken  des  Hieronymtts,  p.  17. 
See  also  4  Ezra  iii.  6,  which  states  :  "  And  thou  leddest  him  (Adam) 
into  Paradise,  which  thy  right  hand  did  plant  before  ever  the  earth 
came  forward."     On  Paradise  see  J.E.  ix.  pp.  516  f. 

'  The  Throne  of  Glory  as  premundane  occurs  in  Slavonic  Enoch 
XXV.  4,  where  God  says,  "  And  I  made  for  myself  a  throne  .  .  .  and  I 
said  to  the  light,"  etc.  ;   see  LXX  Prov.  viii.  27. 


12  RABBI  ELIEZER 

that  Repentance  (was  premundanc)  ?  Because  it  is  said, 
"  Before  the  mountains  were  brought  forth,  or  ever  thou 
hadst  formed  the  earth  and  the  world  "  {ibid.  xc.  2) ;  ^ 
and  then  in  close  proximity  (we  read),  "  Thou  turncst  man 
to  contrition  "  {ibid.  3).  "  Before,"  i.e.  before  ||  the  world 
was  created.  Whence  do  we  know  this  with  regard  to  the 
Temple  ?  Because  it  is  said,  "  A  glorious  throne,  set  on 
high  from  the  beginning,  is  the  place  of  our  sanctuary " 
(Jer,  xvii.  12).  "  From  the  beginning,"  whilst  as  yet  the 
world  had  not  been  created.-  Whence  we  do  know  that  the 
name  of  the  Messiah  (was  premundane)  ?  Because  it  is  said, 
"  His  name  shall  endure  for  ever  ;  before  the  sun  Yinnon 
was  his  name "  (Ps.  Ixxii.  17).^  "  Yinnon,"  before  the 
world  had  been  created.  Another  verse  says,  "  But  thou, 
Bethlehem  Ephrathah,^  which  art  to  be  least  among  the 
thousands  of  Judah,  from  thee  shall  he  come  forth  unto 
me  who  is  to  be  ruler  over  Israel  ;  whose  ancestry  belongs 
to  the  past,  even  to  the  days  of  old  '" "  (Mic.  v.  2).  "  The 
past,"  ^  whilst  as  yet  the  world  had  not  been  created. 

P^orthwith  "  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  took  counsel 
with  the  Torah  whose  name  is  Tushijah  (Stability  or 
Wisdom)  with  reference  to  the  creation  of  the  world.  (The 
Torah)  replied  and  said  to  Him :  Sovereign  of  the  worlds ! 

^  The  translation  in  the  Revised  Version  might  be  consulted,  in  order 
to  see  how  the  Midrashic  point  of  view,  based  on  a  literal  translation, 
agrees  with  or  differs  from  the  ordinary  interpretation.  In  the  ist  ed. 
this  section  follows  that  dealing  with  the  Temple. 

^  The  premundane  or  Heavenly  Temple  was  known  to  the  writer  of 
the  Epistle  to  the  Hebrews,  ix.  ii,  who  speaks  of  the  "  greater  and 
more  perfect  tabernacle,  not  made  with  hands,  that  is  to  say,  not  of 
this  creation."  See  Wisdom  ix.  S,  and  Odes  ol  Sol  n\\o:\  W.  3.  Mai- 
monides.  Guide  1.  ix.,  discusses  our  them'.'.  See  also  Menorath  Ha-Maor, 
Introduction  to  the  fourth  book,  where  we  are  cautioned  not  to  take 
the  words  in  this  passage  in  their  literal  meaning. 

^  The  R.V.  reads  :  "  His  name  shall  be  continued  as  long  as  (or, 
"  before  ")  the  sun."  For  Yinnon  as  a  Messianic  name  see  T.B. 
Synhedrin,  98b,  and  infra,  p.  233.  The  Midrashic  interpretation 
in  our  tc  xt  pccurs  already  in  LXX,  in  loc.  :  "  His  name  endures  before 
the  sun." 

■*  The  rest  of  the  quotation  is  missing  in  the  MS. 

*  This  quotation,  a  second  one  to  justify  the  idea  that  the  name  of 
the  Messiah  was  premundane,  is  omitted  by  the  Menorath  Ha-Maor, 
loc.  cit.  It  is  not  given  by  the  Talmud.  On  this  verse  in  Micah  see 
Hellenism  and  Christianity,  pii.  5!. 

*  "  The  past  "  is  the  same  word  which  was  rendered  "  of  old  " 
(Gen.  ii.  8)  quoted  above. 

'  In  the  MS.  the  fourth  paragraph  begins  here.  On  the  theme  see 
Wisdom  IX.  9  f . 


PREMUNDANE  CREATION  13 

if  there  be  no  host  for  the  king  ^  and  if  there  be  no  camp 
for  the  king,  over  Avhom  does  he  rule  ?  If  there  be  no 
people  to  praise  the  king,  where  is  the  honour  of  the  king  ? 
The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  heard  this  and  it  pleased 
Him.  The  Torah  spake :  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He, 
took  counsel  with  me  concerning  the  creation  of  the  world, 
as  it  is  said,  "  Counsel  is  mine,  and  sound  knowledge ;  ^ 
I  am  understanding ;  I  have  might "  (Prov.  viii.  14). 
Hence  they  ^ say.  Every  government  which  has  no  counsellors 
is  not  a  proper  government.^  Whence  do  Ave  know  this? 
From  the  government  of  the  House  of  David  which  employed 
counsellors,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Jonathan  David's  uncle  ^ 
was  a  counsellor,  a  man  of  understanding,  and  a  scribe  " 
(1  Chron.  xxvii.  32).  If  the  government  of  the  House  of 
David  had  counsellors,  how  much  more  so  should  other 
people  act  likewise.  This  is  of  benefit  to  them,  as  it  is 
said,  "  But  he  that  hearkeneth  unto  counsel  is  wise " 
(Prov.  xii.  15),  ||  and  (Scripture)  says,  "  But  in  the  multitude 
of  counsellors  there  is  safety  "  [ibid.  xi.  14). 

Eight  ^  things  were   created  on  the  first  day,  namely, 

1  This  is  quoted  in  Ginzberg's  Geonica,  ii.  p.  88. 

*  The  idea  of  Wisdom  or  the  Torah  being  with  God  prior  to  the 
Creation  is  generally  assumed  to  be  expressed  in  the  famous  passage 
verses  22-31  of  this  eighth  chapter  of  Proverbs.  This  is,  however,  a 
mistaken  view ;  see  Hellenism  and  Christianity,  pp.  65  £f.  The  source 
is  rather  to  be  found  in  the  LXX  Prov.  viii.  30.  Our  Midrashic 
passage  is  based  on  Gen.  Rab.  i.  i. ;  see  also  Jalkut  on  Prov.  viii.  14,  §  941, 
and  see  Bacher,  P.  i.  p.  107  (note),  who  refers  to  the  parallel  in  Philo. 

^  The  1st  ed.  reads :  "  The  wise  men." 

*  Might  one  infer  from  this  passage  that  the  writer  of  P.R.E.  was 
living  in  a  land  where  the  regime  was  not  conducted  in  accordance  with 
the  rule  laid  down  ?  Perhaps  the  reference  is  to  the  rule  of  the  Moham- 
medans in  Palestine,  Egypt,  or  Babylon. 

^  The  1st  and  2nd  eds.  have  the  reading  "  the  son  of  David."  This 
is  an  error. 

*  The  fifth  paragraph  in  the  MS.  begins  here.  These  eight  things 
are  almost  identical  with  the  seven  things  enumerated  in  Jubilees 
ii.  2,  if  "  the  abysses  "  of  the  latter  correspond  to  the  "  Chaos  and 
Void  "  of  our  text.  See  Jerahmeel  i.  3,  which  is  based  on  our  text. 
This  suggested  identification  seems  to  be  warranted  by  the  fact  that 
Philo  {loc.  cit.  7)  agrees  with  the  enumeration  in  our  text  and  Jubilees 
in  the  following  six  objects  of  creation  :  heaven,  earth,  darkness,  water, 
spirit,  and  light.  As  the  seventh  object  created  on  the  first  day  he 
gives  the  abyss.  This  is  also  the  reading  in  the  Midrash  Tadsheh  vi., 
where  Tehomoth=  abyss.  It  seems  that  Philo  knew  a  cosmology 
which  was  known  to  Jubilees,  to  Midrash  Tadsheh,  and  to  our  author; 
see  Charles,  Jubilees,  pp.  11  f.  T.B.  Chagigah,  12a,  which  gives  appropri- 
ate quotations  to  support  the  view  enunciated,  enumerates  ten  things 
as  being  created  on  the  first  day.     Neither  the  Talmud   nor  P.R.E, 


14  RABBI  ELIEZER 

Heaven,  Earth,  Light,  Darkness,  Tohii  (Chaos),  Bohu 
(Void),  Wind  (or  Spirit),  and  Water,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the 
wind  of  God  was  moving  upon  the  face  of  the  waters  " 
(Gen.  i.  2).i 

mention  Tehomoth,  which  is  the  equivalent  to  abyss,  but  they  both 
have  Tohu  and  Bohu. 

'  nn  can  mean  wind  or  spirit;  Gen.  i.  2  might  be  rendered,  "  And 
a  mighty  wind."  Is  there  any  anci.-nt  Rabbinic  authority  for  the 
translation  in  the  R.V.,  "  the  spirit  of  God  "  ?  See  Bacher,  'i".  i.  p. 
424.  and  cf.  Philo,  ed.  Cohn,  G.T.  i.  p.  36,  n.  3.  The  following  section 
first  appeared  in  the  2nd  ed.  (Venice,  1544)  of  P.R.E.  : 

"  Some  (wise  men)  say  that  day  and  night  also,i  as  it  is  said,  '  And 
there  was  evening  and  morning,  one  day'  (Gen.  i.  5). 

"  Eight  things  were  created  on  the  second  day,  namely,  the  Well,* 
the  Manna, ^  the  Rod,^  the  Rainbow,^  the  art  of  writing,  the  written 
characters,^  the  Garments,'  and  the  destroying  spirits. ^ 

"Ten  things  arose  in  the  thought  (of  the  Creator),*  namely, 
Jerusalem,^"  the  spirits  of  the  patriarchs,^!  the  paths  of  the  righteous,** 

1  This  is  based  on  T.B.  Chagigah,  loc.  cz/., which  refers  to  the  "  measure 
of  the  day  and  the  measure  of  the  night  "  ;  cf.  Jubilees  ii.  2. 

2  For  the  Well,  see  Num.  xxi.  16  ff.;  see  also  Pirke  Aboth  v.  9, 
with  Taylor's  note,  p.  84.  Cf.  Pal.  Targum,  Num.  xxii.  28.  There 
seems  to  be  considerable  confusion  here,  because,  according  to  Aboth 
(loc.  cit.),  all  the  things  enumerated  in  our  text  except  the  Garments 
were  created  at  twilight  just  before  the  first  Sabbath.  This  tradi- 
tion is  recorded  b}'  our  book,  in/ra,  pp.  124  f. ;  see  also  T.B. 
Pesachim,  loc.  cit. 

^  On  the  Manna,  see  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  pp.  185  ff. 

*  On  the  Rod,  see  Ex.  iv.  17,  and  cf.  Abrahams,  The  Rod  of  Moses,  the 
Book  of  Jashar,  Ixvii.,  and  infra,  p.  312. 

^  On  the  Rainbow,  see  Gen.  ix.  13. 

*  On  the  art  of  writing  and  the  characters  of  the  script,  see  Low, 
Graphische  Requisiten  und  Erzeugnisse  bei  den  Juden,  p.  3  and  note  9, 
where  we  learn  that  the  text  should  be  rendered,  "  the  writing  and  the 
instrument  employed  in  writing."  The  writing  on  the  tablets  is  men- 
tioned in  Ex.  xxxii.  16. 

'  The  Garments  were  those  worn  by  Adam  and  Eve ;  see  Gen.  iii.  21, 
and  the  Book  of  Jashar,  vii. ;  the  subject  will  arise  in  a  later  section  of 
our  book.  The  Church  also  has  its  legends  dealing  with  the  seamless 
tunic  of  its  Founder. 

*  On  the  Mazzikin  or  evil  spirits,  see  J.E.  iv.  514  ff.,  and  cf.  T.B. 
Pesachim,  loc.  cit.,  and  Siphre,  Deut.  §  355,  n.  10,  for  the  source  of  the 
entire  paragraph. 

*  Here  again  we  have  a  text  which  is  faulty,  inasmuch  as  Gehenna 
and  the  Temple  were  reckoned  among  the  premundane  creation.  The 
writer  has  confused  the  tradition  about  the  ten  things  created  on  the 
eve  of  the  first  Sabbath  at  twilight  with  the  premundane  creation. 
See  Pal.  Targ.  Gen.  ii.  2  and  Aboth  v.  9. 

*''  The  ideal  heavenly  Jerusalem  of  the  O.T.  (see  Isa.  xlix.  16)  is 
known  also  to  the  writers  of  the  New  Testament ;  see  Gal.  iv.  26  and 
Rev. iii.  12.  The  Jerahmeel  MS.  reads:  "the  place  of  the  Temple." 
See  also  Apoc.  Baruch  iv.  3,  and  Test.  XII  Pat.,  Dan  v.  12. 

11  See  Hos.  ix.  10,  where  the  emphasis  is  to  be  put  on  the  words 
"  first  season  "  according  to  Gen.  Rab.  1.4. 

**  For  the  expression  see  Prov.  iv.  18,  and  cf.  Gen.  Rab.  ii.  5. 


PREMUNDANE  CREATION  15 

Whence  were  the  heavens  created  ?  From  the  Hght 
of  the  garment  with  which  He  was  robed. ^  He  took  (of 
this  Hght)  and  stretched  it  Hke  a  garment  and  (the  heavens) 
began  to  extend  continually  until  He  caused  them  to  hear, 
"  It  is  sufficient."  '^  Therefore  is  He  called  God  Almighty 
{El  Shaddai),  who  said  to  the  world :  ^  "  //  is  sufficient" 
and  it  stood  (firm).  Whence  do  we  know  that  the  heavens 
were  created  from  the  light  of  His  garment  ?  Because  it 
is  said,  "  Who  coverest  thyself  with  light  as  with  a  garment ; 
who  stretchest  out  the  heavens  like  a  curtain  "  (Ps.  civ.  2). ' 

Whence  was  the  earth  created  ?     He  took  of  the  snow  ^ 

Gehinnom/  the  waters  of  the  Flood,^  the  second  tables  of  the  Law,^ 
the  Sabbath,*  the  Temple/  the  Ark,*  and  the  light  of  the  world  to 
come."  ' 

This  reading  occurs  in  Jerahmeel  i.  3,  4,  but  not  in  the  B.M.  MS.  ot 
P.R.E.  The  latter  continues  :"  Whence  was  the  water  created  ?  From 
the  light  of  the  garment  of  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He.  Light  signifies 
nought  else  but  water,  as  it  is  said,  '  He  spreadeth  abroad  the  cloud  of 
his  light'  "  (Job  xxxvii.  11). 

1  See  Ex.  Rab.  l.  i.  The  idea  of  this  Midrash  is  that  God  created 
the  heavens  without  any  help  from  any  intermediary.  God  alone  is  the 
Creator.  "  The  light  of  His  robe  "  means  His  will  or  favour.  The 
world  has  been  created  by  Divine  love  and  favour  for  the  benefit  of 
mankind,  the  children  of  the  Heavenly  Father. 

2  See  T.B.  Chagigah,  loc.  cit.,  "  This  is  what  Resh  Lakish  also  said  : 
What  is  the  meaning  of  the  words  '  I  am  God  Almighty '  (Shaddai)  ?  It 
means  I  am  He  who  (Sha)  said  to  the  world,  '  It  is  suificient '  [dai)." 

3  The  printed  editions  read  :  "  to  the  heavens." 

*  The  second  half  of  the  verse  is  omitted  in  the  MS.  The  fifth 
paragraph  ends  here.  Cf.  also  Ps.  cii.  25,  26.  The  Church  Fathers 
discussed  the  creation  narrative  in  much  the  same  way  as  our  author : 
thus  Athanasius  in  his  exposition  of  the  103  rd  Psalm  (corresponding 
to  the  Hebrew  104th  Psalm)  refers  to  the  formation  of  the  heavens  in 
the  terms  of  the  Old  Testament  writers ;  see  also  Basil,  Hexcsmeron,  iii. 

*  See  D.  H.  Joel,  op.  cit.  pp.  321  ft.,  where  a  full  discussion  of  this 
passage  is  given  and  the  views  of  Maimonides  and  the  theories  of  the 
Cabbalists  are  examined. 

^  On  the  fire  of  Gehenna  see  infra,  p.  20.  Luria  suggests  that  the 
text  should  be  emended  so  as  to  read,  "the  paths  of  the  wicked,"  to 
correspond  with  the  expression  "  paths  of  the  righteous." 

2  In  the  days  of  Noah ;  see  Gen.  Rab.  ii.  3. 

*  See  Ex.  xxxiv.  i  :  "  Hew  thee  two  tables  of  stone  like  unto  the 
first."  The  first  tables  were  of  heavenly  origin  (cf.  ibid,  xxxii.  16),  so 
also  the  second. 

*  Jubilees  ii.  30  offers  a  parallel  to  our  text,  "  We  kept  Sabbath 
in  the  heavens  before  it  was  made  known  to  any  flesh  to  keep  Sabbath 
thereon  on  the  earth." 

*  See  I  Kings  viii.  13,  and  cf.  supra,  p.  12,  note  2. 

*  Of  the  Sanctuary ;  see  Num.  Rab.  iv.  13.  According  to  the  Midrash, 
the  Ark  represents  the  Th.  one  of  Glory. 

'  See  T.B.  Chagigah,  loc.  'it.,  and  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  p.  8 
and  note  3. 


16  RABBI  ELIEZER 

(or  ice)  which  was  beneath  His  Throne  of  Glory  and  threw 
it  upon  the  waters,  and  the  waters  became  congealed  so 
that  the  dust  of  the  earth  was  formed,  as  it  is  said,  "  He 
saith  to  the  snow,  Be  thou  earth"  (Job  xxxvii.  6).^ 

The  hooks  -  of  the  heavens  are  fixed  in  the  waters  of 
the  ocean. ^  The  waters  of  the  ocean  are  situated  between 
the  ends  of  the  heavens  and  the  ends  of  the  earth.  The 
ends  of  the  heavens  are  spread  out  over  the  waters  of  the 
ocean,  as  it  is  said,  "  Who  laycth  the  beams  of  his  chambers  •* 
in  the  waters"  (Ps.  civ.  3).'' 

The  dome  (or  inside  shape)  of  the  heavens  ascends  upwards 
Hke  a  tub,*'  (that  is  to  say)  like  a  tent  (denda)  which  is  spread 
out '  with  its  extremities  (fixed)  ||  downwards  ^  and  its  dome 
stretching  upwards  so  that  people  can  sit  beneath  it  and 
their  feet  stand  on  the  earth,  whilst  all  of  them  are  inside 
the  tent ;  in  like  wise  are  the  heavens,  their  extremities 
are  (fixed)  downwards  and  their  dome  stretches  upwards 

*  See  Tanchuma  (Buber)  Mikcz,  i6.  Our  text  seems  to  be  based 
upon  T.J.  Chagigah,  ii.  i.  77a,  according  to  which  the  world  was  origin- 
ally "  Water  in  water."  Then  God  made  the  water  into  snow  (or  ice) ; 
see  Ps.  cxlvii.  16,  17.  This  p.salm  in  verse  15  speaks  of  God  send- 
ing out  "  his  commandment  upon  (the)  earth ;  his  word  runneth  very 
swiftly  " — pointing  to  the  word  of  creation.  See  Bacher,  P.  iii.  218. 
The  verse  quoted  from  Job  (xxxvii.  6)  is  rendered  by  the  R.V., 
"  He  saith  to  the  snow,  Fall  thou  on  the  earth."  See  also  Sepher 
Jezirah  i.  11  for  a  parallel.  See  Isa.  xl.  12  for  the  reference  to  the  "  dust 
of  the  earth,"  and  cf.  T.B.  Joma,  54b;  Maimonides,  Guide,  ii.,  xxvi., 
and  Midrash  Konen,  ed.  Jellinek,  B.H.M.  ii.  p.  24.  This  concludes  the 
seventh  paragraph.     The  sixth  paragraph  is  not  marked  in  the  MS. 

*  Kurkos  (KipKos),  ring  or  hook.  The  heavens  being  compared 
with  a  curtain  are  assumed  to  have  hooks  or  rings  wherewith  they 
may  be  fastened ;  see  Tosaphoth  Chagigah,  12a,  catchword  "  From  the 
end."     The'Arukh  (ed.  Kohut,  vii.  215b)  quotes  our  text. 

^  Okeanos  (ibKtavds).  The  Church  Fathers  dwell  on  the  relation 
between  the  Ocean  and  the  world ;  thus  Chrysostomus,  Homilies  on 
the  Epistle  to  the  Romans  (xxviii.),  quotes  Ps.  civ.  6  in  this  connection. 
Cf.  Augustine,  tie  Civitate  Dei,  xii.  12.  John  of  Damascus,  On  the 
Orthodox  laith,  ii.  9,  tells  us,  "  The  Ocean  flows  around  the  entire 
earth  like  a  river."  See  Test.  Levi  ii.  7,  "  And  1  entered  from  the  first 
heaven,  and  I  saw  there  a  great  sea  hanging."     Cf.  also  Jubilees  ii.  4. 

*  i.e.  the  heavens. 

*  The  eighth  paragraph  ends  here. 

"  Or,  basket.  The  MS.  uses  the  word  denda  (tent),  which  occurs 
again,  injra,  p.  323;  this  points  to  Spain  as  the  home  of  the  scribe 
who  wrote  our  MS.  On  the  "  tent  "  see  T.J.  Berakhoth,  2c,  d,  and 
Baraitha  d.  Shemucl,  i.  The  word  which  is  translated  by  "  tub  " 
occurs  only  in  our  MS. 

■>  The  MS.  adds  :   "  like  a  tent." 

*  The  ist  ed.  reads  "  upwards  "  ;  in  this  paragraph  there  are  several 
variants  in  the  MSS.  and  the  printed  text'-. 


PREMUNDANE  CREAtlON  17 

and  all  creatures  dwell  beneath  them  as  in  a  tent,  as  it  is 
said,  "  And  he  spreadeth  them  out  as  a  tent  to  dwell  in  " 
(Isa.  xl.  22).i 

Four  quarters  ^  have  been  created  in  the  world ;  the 
quarter  facing  the  east,  that  facing  the  south,  that  facing 
the  west  and  that  facing  the  north.  From  the  quarter 
facing  the  east  the  light  goeth  forth  to  the  world.^  From 
the  quarter  facing  south  the  dews  of  blessing  and  the  rains 
of  blessing  *  go  forth  to  the  world. ^  From  the  quarter 
facing  west^  where  are  the  treasuries'  of  snow  and  the 
treasuries  of  hail,  and  thence  come  forth  into  the  world 
cold  and  heat  and  rains.  From  the  quarter  facing  north 
darkness  goeth  forth  into  the  world.  The  quarter  facing 
north  He  created,  but  He  did  not  complete  it,  for  He  said, 
Anyone  who  says  :  I  am  a  God,  let  him  come  and  complete 
this  quarter  which  I  have  left  (incomplete)  and  all  will 
know  that  he  is  a  God.^ 

There  (in  the  north)  is  the  abode  of  the  destroying 
spirits,  earthquakes,  winds,  demons,  lightnings  and  thunders  ; 
thence  evil  issues  forth  into  the  world,  as  it  is  said,  "  Out  of 
the  north  evil  shall  break  forth  upon  all  the  inhabitants 
of  the  earth"  (Jer.  i.  14).^     Some  say  by  ten  Sayings  was 

^  This  verse  is  also  applied  by  Basil,  op.  cit.  i.  8,  in  his  account  of 
the  form  of  the  heavens. 

^  nn  (as  in  Ezek.  xlii.  16-20)  =  direction  or  quarter  of  the 
world  ;  wind  would  not  be  appropriate  here.  Gaster,  Jerahmeel  i.  7, 
renders  the  word  "  wind  "  and  also  "  corner."  On  the  four  quarters 
see  Ethiopic  Enoch  Ixxvii.  i,  Num.  Rab.  ii.  10,  and  Pesikta  Rabbathi, 
§  xlvi.  p.  iS8a. 

3  See  T.B.  Baba  Bathra,  25a,  b. 

*  See  Ezek.  xxxiv.  26. 

*  The  rains  which  are  not  a  blessing  come  from  the  north ;  see  infra, 
note  g. 

*  Eth.  Enoch  Ixxvii.  2 :  "  And  the  west  quarter  is  named  the 
diminished,  because  there  all  the  luminaries  of  the  heaven  wane  and  go 
down."  In  Num.  Rab.,  loc.  cit.,  the  reading  is  slightly  different:  "  In 
the  west  are  the  treasuries  of  snow,  and  the  treasuries  of  hail,  cold,  and 
heat  go  forth  to  the  world  .  .  .  from  the  north  cometh  forth  darkness 
to  the  world." 

'See  T.B.  Chagigah,  12b,  and  cf.  Eth.  Enoch  xh.  3  £f.  The  con- 
ception rests  on  Job  xxxviii.  22.  All  the  powers  of  nature  were  sup- 
posed to  dwell  in  their  respective  chambers  or  to  be  stored  up  in 
treasuries. 

*  This  seems  to  point  to  polemics.  Probably  the  Gnostic  doctrine  of 
the  Demiurge  is  attacked  here.  For  other  polemics  in  our  book,  see 
infra,  pp.  79,  851.,  and  252.     See  also  Ascension  of  Isaiah  iv.  6. 

*  In  the  MS.  the  tenth  paragraph  ends  here.  Cf.  Jubilees  ii.  2. 
Origen,  de  Principiis,  ii.  viii.  3,  quotes  Jer.  i.   14,  and  identifies  the 


18  RABBI  ELIEZER 

the  world  created  ^  ||  and  in  three  (Divine  attributes)  are 
these  (ten  Sayings)  comprised,-  as  it  is  said,  "  The  Lord 
by  wisdom  founded  the  earth ;  by  understanding  he 
established  the  heavens,  by  his  knowledge  the  depths  were 
broken  up  "  (Prov.  iii.  19,  20).  By  these  three  (attributes) 
was  the  Tabernacle  made,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  I  have  filled 
him  with  the  spirit  of  God,  with  wisdom,  with  understanding, 
and  with  knowledge  "  (Ex.  xxxi.  3).  Likewise  with  these 
three  (attributes)  was  the  Temple  made,  as  it  is  said,  "  He  3 
was  the  son  of  a  widow  woman  of  the  tribe  of  Naphtali, 
and  his  father  was  a  man  of  Tyre,  a  worker  in  brass  ;  and 
he  was  filled  with  wisdom  and  understanding  and  know- 
ledge "  (1  Kings  vii.  14).  By  these  three  attributes  it  Avill 
be  rebuilt  in  the  future,  as  it  is  said,  "  Through  wisdom 
is  an  house  *  builded ;  and  by  understanding  it  is  established  ; 
and  by  knowledge  arc  the  chambers  filled  "  (Prov.  xxiv.  3,  4). 
With  these  three  attributes  will  the  Holy  One,  blessed 
be  He,  give  three  good  gifts  to  Israel  in  the  future,  as  it  is 

"north"  with  "the  cold  north  wind,"  which  is  the  "Devil."  For 
Rabbinic  references  to  the  winds  see  T.B.  Baba  Bathra,  loc.  cit.  ;  and 
cf.  Num.  Rab.,  loc.  cit.,  as  a  parallel  to  our  text.  Jerahmeel  MS.  omits 
th':  rest  of  this  chapter. 

1  Our  text  reappears  in  the  Zohar,  Lev.  iia.  See  Pirke  Aboth  v. 
I ,  and  Taylor's  note,  p.  78  of  his  2nd  edition.  Cf .  T.B.  Rosh  Ha-Shanah, 
32a,  where  the  first  verse  of  Genesis  is  reckoned  as  one  of  the  ten  sayings 
owing  to  verse  6  ot  Ps.  xxxiii.  The  Venice  edition  adds  the  follow- 
ing, namely:  (i)  "  And  God  said,  Let  there  be  light  "  (Gen.  i.  3).  (2) 
"  .\nd  God  said,  Let  there  be  a  firmament  "  {ibid.  6).  (3)  "  And  God 
said,  Let  the  waters  be  gathered  together  "  {ibid.  9).  (4)  "  And  God 
said.  Let  the  earth  put  forth  grass  "  {ibid.  11).  (5)  "  And  God  said, 
Let  there  be  luminaries  "  {ibid.  14).  (6)  "  And  God  said,  Let  the 
waters  bring  forth  abundantly"  {ibid.  20).  (7)  "  And  God  said.  Let 
the  earth  bring  forth  "  {ibid.  24).  (8)  "  And  God  said,  Let  us  make 
man"  {ibid.  2b).  (9)  "And  God  said.  Behold.  I  have  given  you" 
{ibid.  29).  (10)  "  And  God  ^  said.  It  is  not  good  that  the  man  should 
be  alone  "  {ibid.  ii.  18). 

-  Perhaps  the  translation  should  be  :  By  three  (Divine  attributes) 
were  (the  works  of  creation)  completed.  The  Venice  edition  adds  : 
"  And  they  arc.  Wisdom,  Understanding,  and  Knowledge  "  On  these 
three  attributes  see  T.B.  Berakhoth.  55a,  and  Midrash  Shocher  Tob, 
Ps.  1.  I,  and  Buber's  note  (4),  where  the  sources  are  given.  This 
Midrash'  may  help  us  to  understand  our  te.xt :  "  With  three  names 
did  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  create  His  world,  corre- 
sponding to  the  three  good  attributes  through  which  the  world  was 
crceLtcd .' 

=*  Hiram,  the  builder  of  Solomon's  Temple. 

*  The  House  is  a  common  designation  of  the  Temple,  see  Jastrow, 
Targum  Dictionary,  p.  i6Sa. 

1  The  Hebrew  text  in  Genesis  reads.  "  Lord  God." 


PREMUNDANE  CREATION  19 

said,  "  For  the  Lord  will  give  ^  wisdom,  out  of  his  mouth 
Cometh  knowledge  and  understanding "  {ibid.  ii.  6).^  It 
is  not  said,  "  The  Lord  has  given  wisdom."  These  three 
attributes  will  be  given  ^  to  King  Messiah,  as  it  is  said, 
"  And  the  spirit  of  the  Lord  shall  rest  upon  him,  the  spirit 
of  wisdom  and  understanding,  the  spirit  of  counsel  and 
might,  the  spirit  of  knowledge  and  of  the  fear  of  the  Lord  " 
(Isa.  xi.  2).^ 

*  The  next  sentence  should  precede  the  rest  of  the  quotation  if  we 
follow  the  order  of  the  words  in  the  MS.  It  is  omitted  in  the  printed 
editions. 

-  See  Jalkut,  Prov.  §  935,  where  attention  is  drawn  to  the  verb 
"  will  give  "  in  the  imperfect  tense  indicating  the  future.  This  point 
is  lost  sight  of  in  the  R.V. ;  see  also  Ex.  Rab.  xli.  3,  and  cf.  T.B.  Bcrak- 
hoth,  5a. 

^  The  1st  ed.  adds  "in  double  measure";  this  has  been  adopted 
by  later  editions. 

*  This  famous  passage  from  Isaiah  is  quoted  by  Justin  Martyr  in  his 
Dialogue  with  Trypho,  Ixxxvii.,  as  referring  to  the  Messiah. 


CHAPTER  IV 

THE  CREATION  OX  THE  SECOND  DAY  [i.K.   i.] 

On  the  second  day  ^  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  created 
the  firmament,-  the  angels,''  fire  for  flesh  and  blood, ^  and  the 
fire  of  Gehinnom.'  Were  not  heaven  and  earth  created  on 
the  first  day,  as  it  is  said,  ''  In  the  beginning  God  created  ^ 
the  heaven  and  the  earth  "  (Gen.  i.  1)  ?     Which  firmament 

1  See  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  5,  and  Jalkut,  Ezek.  j  33S. 

-  According  to  Jubilees  ii.  4,  the  firmament  only  was  created  on 
the  second  day :  see  Slav.  Enoch  xx\-i.-xxvii. 

'  In  Gen.  Rab.  i.  3  and  iii.  o.  the  question  is  'iiscussed  as  to  which 
day  of  the  week  of  creation  were  the  angels  called  into  being.  Accord- 
ing to  R.  Jochanan  it  was  the  second  day,  as  in  our  text,  whereas 
according  to  R.  Chanina  it  was  the  fifth  day.  Theodor  (ik  Ice.)  gives 
the  various  parallel  sources  in  notes  7  and  8.  See  also  Pal.  Targum 
on  Gen.  i.  26,  where  the  creation  of  the  angels  is  also  assigned  to  the 
second  day,  as  in  Slavonic  Enoch  xxix.  i  fit.  In  Jubilees  ii.  2  thi^ 
event  is  said  to  have  been  on  the  first  day ;  see  Charles'  note  2  on 
pp.  12  f.  Chir  book  opposes  this  \-iew.  The  Church  Fathers  sometimes 
held  this  view ;  see  Epiphanins,  adv.  Hsr.  Lxv.  4.  The  Rabbis  were 
fully  aware  of  the  teaching  that  God  was  assisted  at  the  creation 
by  angels  or  the  Messiah,  and  in  order  to  oppose  such  doctrine  the 
creation  of  the  angels  was  fixed  on  the  second  or  fifth  day ;  cf.  Ex. 
Rab.  XV.  22. 

•  See  T.B.  Pesachim,  54a,  and  Gen.  Rab.  xi.  2  for  the  \-iew  that 
this  fire  wais  created  at  the  termination  of  the  first  Sabbath.  As 
the  angels  are  often  of  fire  (cf.  Rev.  xiv.  iS),  both  angels  and  fire 
are  held  by  our  author  to  have  been  created  on  the  second  dav. 
This  view  is  held  in  spite  of  the  statement  that  light  was  created  on 
the  first  day. 

•  The  fire  of  Gehenna  is  mentioned  in  the  New  Testament ;  see  Matt, 
v.  22,  and  c:.  Rev.  xx.  10.  See  also  Eth.  Enoch  xc.  24  and  26,  the  Apoca- 
Ixrpse  of  Baruch  lix.  10,  11,  and  the  ApocaI\'p>se  of  Peter  for  an  account 
of  Gehenna.  The  21st  book  of  Augustine's  de  Civitate  Dei  is  devoted 
to  this  theme.  The  Rabbis  came  to  the  conclusion  that  the  fire  of 
Gehenna  must  have  been  created  on  the  second  day,  because  the 
Scripture  does  not  say  with  reference  to  this  day  "  and  it  was  good," 
which,  however,  does  occur  in  the  story  of  the  other  five  days  of 
creation;  see  T.B.  Pesachim,  54a,  Ex.  Rab.  xv.  22,  and  Jalkut, 
Gen.  §  15. 

•  The  MS.  omits  the  rest  of  the  verse ;  it  is  given  in  the  ist  ed.  and 
subsequent  editions. 


CREATION  OX  THE  SECOND  DAY  21 

was  created  on  the  second  day  ?  Rabbi  Eliezer  said :  It 
was  the  firmament  which  is  above  the  heads  of  the  four 
Chajjoth  (li\-ing  creatures)/  (as  it  is  said-),  "And  over  the 
head  of  the  Chajjoth  there  was  the  likeness  of  a  firma- 
ment, like  the  colour  of  the  terrible  crystal "  ^  (Ezek.  i.  22). 
What  is  the  meaning  of  (the  expression),  "  like  the  colour 
of  the  terrible  crystal  "  ?  It  means  like  precious  stones  and 
pearls  ;  it  illuminates  all  the  heavens  like  a  lamp  which  is 
illuminating  -  the  whole  house  and  like  the  sun  which  is 
shining  ^\-ith  maximum  intensity  at  noonday,  as  it  is  said, 
"  The  light  dwelleth  with  him  ''  (Dan.  ii.  22) ;  ^  and  like  this 
in  the  future  wUl  the  righteous  shed  light. '^  as  it  is  said, 
"  And  they  that  be  -wise  shall  shine  as  the  brightness  of  the 
firmament  "'  {ibid.  xii.  3)."  Were  it  not  for  that  firmament 
the  world  would  be  engulfed  by  the  waters  above  it  and 
below  it;*  but  (the  firmament)  divides  the  waters  (above) 
from  the  waters  (below),  as  it  is  said,  "  And  God  said,  Let 
there  be  a  firmament  in  the  midst  of  the  waters,  (and  let 
it  divide  the  waters  from  the  waters)  "  ^  (Gen.  i.  6),  it 
illuminates  ^°  between  the  waters  above  and  the  waters 
below.^^ 

(As  for)  the  angels  created  on  the  second  ^-  day, 
when  they  are  sent  (as  messengers)  by  His  word  they 
are  changed  into  winds,  and  when  they  minister  before 
Him    they    are    changed    into    fire,    as    it    is    said.    ''  "\Mio 

1  On  the  Chajjoth.  see  T.B.  Chagigah,  13a,  and  Hastings'  Dictionary 
of  the  Bvle,  iii.  128  i.  The  Chajjoth  are  to  be  identified  vrith  the 
"  creature  "  of  Rev.  iv.  7.  Do  the^-  correspond  with  the  angels  of  the 
presence  of  Jubilees  ii.  2  ?  The  firmament  imphes  the  division  between 
the  upper  and  lower  waters;  see  ilidrash  Konen  (JelUnek,  B.H.M. 
ii-  p-  25). 

-  "  As  it  is  said  "  occurs  in  the  printed  texts. 

3  Or  "  ice." 

*  This  is  also  the  reading  in  B.M.  ]\IS.     See  also  Jalkut  to  Ezek. 
loc.  cit..  and  cf.  Erh.. Enoch  xiv.  9  fit. 

*  The  second  paragraph  in  MS.  begins  here. 

*  Cf.  Matt.  xiii.  43.  Eth.  Enoch  xxxix.  7  i.,  and  Ascension  of  Isaiah 
viii.  22. 

'  This  section  is  quoted  by  Tosaphoth,  T.B.  Baba  Bathra,  8b, 
catchword.  "  Umazdike." 

*  Perhaps  the  translation  should  be  :  "  bj'  the  waters,  for  above  it 
are  waters  and  beneath  it  axe  waters."  This  is  practically  the  text 
in  the  printed  editions.     See  Pal.  Targum.  G.n.  i.  6. 

*  This  part  of  the  verse  in  brackets  is  wanting  in  the  MS. 
1"  The  1st  ed.  reads:  "  it  divides." 

^^  The  second  paragraph  ends  here. 
»2  B.M.  MS.  reads:  "  first  day." 


22  RABBI  ELIEZER 

maketh   his   angels  winds ;    his    ministers   a   flaming   fire " 
(Ps.  civ.  4).i 

Four  "  classes  of  ministering  angels  minister  and  utter 
praise  ^  before  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He :  the  first  camp 
(led  by)  Michael  ^  on  His  right,  the  second  camp  (led  by) 
Gabriel  ^  on  His  left,  the  third  camp  ||  (led  by)  Uriel  ^  before 
Him,  and  the  fourth  camp  (led  by)  Raphael  ^  behind  Him ; 
and  the  Shekhinah  of  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  is  in  the 
centre.  He  ^  is  sitting  on  a  throne  high  and  exalted.^  His 
throne  is  high  and  suspended  above  in  the  air.  The  ap- 
pearance of  His  Glory  is  like  the  colour  of  amber.^*^  And 
the  adornment  of  a  crown  is  on  His  head,  and  the  Ineffable 
Name  ^^  is  upon  His  forehead.^-  One  half  (of  His  glory)  is  fire 
the  other  half  is  hail,^^^  at  His  right  hand  is  life  and  at  His 

'  This  verse  is  quoted  by  many  of  the  Church  Fathers  in  order 
to  describe  the  nature  of  the  angels  ;  see  John  of  Damascus,  op.  cit.  ii.  3. 
The  MS.  quotes  only  the  first  half  of  the  verse.  The  entire  verse  is 
given  by  the  first  editions.     The  third  paragraph  ends  here. 

*  The  New  Testament  refers  to  the  four  living  creatures  before 
God's  throne ;  see  Rev.  iv.  5.  The  whole  of  this  chapter  is  a  parallel 
to  our  text. 

^  The  prmled  texts  omit  "  minister  and." 

*  The  Midrash  here  has  given  rise  to  a  passage  in  the  Hebrew 
prayer-book;  see  Singer,  p.  297.  See  also  Num.  Rab.  ii.  10,  Midrash 
Konen,  p.  27.  and  Pesikta  Rabbathi,  §  xlvi.  p.  iS^;a.  On  Michael  see 
the  valuable  monograph  by  Leuken,  and  J.E.  viii.  535  ff.  As  parallels 
to  our  text  see  Targum  to  Job  xxv.  2,  and  Eth.  Enoch  xl.  9  and 
Ixxi.  8f. ,  which  mentions  the  four  archangels  in  the  following  order: 
Michael,  Raphael,  Gabriel,  and  Phanuel;  in  this  Book  of  Enoch  (ix.  i) 
the  angel  Uriel  appears  to  be  the  same  as  Phanuel.  In  the  NT.  we 
find  Michael  and  Gabriel  mentioned.  The  B.M.  MS.  reads  here  Gabriel 
in  place  of  Michael,  and  Michael  instead  of  Gabriel. 

*  See  J.E.  V.  540  f.  s  ggg  y  £  ^ii.  383. 
'  See/.E.  X.  3i7f.  »  i.e.  God. 

»  This  sentence  is  omitted  by  the  B.M.  MS.  The  words  are  found 
in  the  Sabbath  Morning  Liturgy,  Singer,  p.  126,  last  two  lines.  See 
Eth.  Enoch  xiv.  18. 

10  The  B.M.  MS.  adds :  "  One-half  thereof  is  fire  and  the  other  half  is 
hail."  In  our  MS.  the  fourth  paragraph  ends  here.  The  ist  ed., 
followed  by  subsequent  editions,  adds  :  "  As  it  is  said  :  '  And  I  saw 
as  the  colour  of  amber '  "    (Ezek.  i.  27). 

"  The  1st  ed.  reads  :  "  A  crown  is  set  on  His  head,  and  the  diadem 
of  the  Ineffable  Name  is  upon  His  forehead."  On  the  Shem  Hamme- 
phorash  or  "Ineffable  Name"  see  G.  Klein,  Der  cilteste  Christliche 
Kiitechismus,  pp.  44  ft.,  and  supra,  p.  10,  note  2. 

'*  This  passage  is  the  source  for  the  words:  "  Upon  His  forehead  is 
impressed  the  glory  of  His  holy  name  "  in  the  Hymn  of  Glory;  see 
Singer,  p.  79.  The  Venice  edition  adds  :  "  and  His  eyes  run  to  arid 
fro  throughout  the  whole  earth." 

'3  Fire  and  hail  represent  the  two  divine  attributes  of  justice  and 
love  ;  see  Zohar,  Gen.  i86a,  and  cf.  Eth.  Enoch  xiv.  20.  The  B.M.  MS. 
omits  these  words  in  this  context. 


CREATION  ON  THE  SECOND  DAY     23 

left  is  death.  He  has  a  sceptre  of  fire  in  His  hand  and  a 
vein  is  spread  before  Him,  and  His  eyes  run  to  and  fro 
throughout  the  whole  earth,  ^  and  the  seven  angels, ^  which 
were  created  first,*  minister  before  Him  within  the  veil, 
and  this  (veil)  is  called  Pargod.^  His  footstool  is  like  fire 
and  hail.*'  Fire  is  flashing  continually  around  His  throne,' 
righteousness  and  judgment  are  the  foundation  of  His 
throne.^  And  the  likeness  of  His  throne  is  like  a  sapphire 
throne  with  four  legs,^  and  the  four  holy  Chajjoth  are 
fixed  to  each  leg,  each  one  ^°  has  four  faces  and  each  one 

'  See  Coptic  Apocrypha,  p.  90,  and  Eth.  Enoch  xiv.  21. 
^  Cf.  2  Chron.  xvi.  g. 

*  The  seven  angels  or  archangels  are  referred  to  in  the  Book  of 
Enoch  (Eth.),  ch.  xx. ;  see  Charles'  notes,  in  loc,  for  further  references. 

*  The  printed  texts  read  :  "  Since  the  beginning."  Does  our  book 
here  agree  with  Jubilees  ii.  2  ? 

6  lu-is  (llapayavdos)  ;  see  T.B.  Berakhoth,  i8b,  and  T.B.  Chagigah, 
15a,  the  veil  which  separates  the  Shekhinah  from  the  angels  ;  see  Rashi 
on  T.B.  Jebamoth,  63b,  catchword,  '•^ii  (body).  The  B.M.  MS.  reads 
here  :  "  The  seven  angels  which  were  created  at  the  beginning,  minis- 
ter before  the  veil  which  is  spread  before  Him."  See  Coptic  Apoc, 
p.  254,  Eth.  Enoch  xc.  21  ;  Rev.  iv.  5  ;  and  T.B.  Baba  Mezia,  59a. 

*  The  Footstool  of  God  represents  Divine  Justice  and  Love,  which 
in  their  turn  are  symbolised  by  fire  and  hail;  cf.  Lam.  ii.  i,  "  He  did 
not  remember  his  footstool  in  the  day  of  his  anger."  The  ist  ed.  of 
our  text  reads:  "His  footstool  is  fire  and  hail  flashing  around  His 
throne."     See  Slav.  Enoch  xxxvii.  i. 

'  See  Ps.  xcvii.  3.  Origen,  contra  Celsum,  iv.  13,  discusses  the  fiery 
nature  of  God. 

«  The  Venice  and  Sabbioneta  editions  insert  the  following  :  "  and 
the  seven  clouds  of  glory  ^  surround  it.  And  the  whirling  Ophan  ^  and 
the  Cherub  and  the  Chajjah  (living  creature)  are  uttering  praise  before 
Him."» 

9  Cf.  T.B.  Chagigah,  13a. 

1"  See  Ezek.  x.  14.  On  the  Cherubim  see  Maimonides,  Guide,  iii.  i  flf. 
and  cf.  ibid.  ch.  xlv.,  and  Hastings'  Dictionary  of  the  Bible,  i.  377  ff., 
where  the  N.T.  and  Patristic  references  are  given.  Speaking  generally, 
the  Patristic  literature  has  much  more  to  say  concerning  angels,  good 
and  bad,  than  Rabbinic  literature.  This  can  be  easily  seen  by  compar- 
ing the  references  in  Eisenmenger's  Entdecktes  Judentum  or  in  Weber's 
Jiidische  Theologie  on  the  one  hand  and  the  index  to  Thalhofer's 
Bibliothek  der  Kirchenvdter,  i.  pp.  226-229,  on  the  other.     The  state- 


1  On  the  seven  clouds  of  glory,  see  Mekhilta,  24b,  based  on  Ps.  cv. 
39,  and  cf.  J.E.  iv.  123.  The  number  7  is  in  harmony  with  the  notion 
of  7  heavens,  7  rivers  around  the  Holy  Land,  the  7  planets  (T.B.  Baba 
Bathra,  74b),  7  portals  to  Gehenna,  the  7  archangels,  etc. ;  and  cf.  infra, 
p.  140.  Eth.  Enoch  Ixxvii.  4-8  .speaks  of  7  mountains,  7  rivers,  and 
7  islands.      See  also  Ps.  xcvii.  2. 

2  Ophan  (or  wheel)  occurs  in  Ezek.  x.  13;  this  is  identified  by 
P.R.E.  with  the  Galgal  ('?3'?J)  or  whirling  wheel. 

3  See  Ezek.  i.  24  and  iii.  12  f.  with  Targum,  The  B.M.  MS.  adds 
tiere:  "  They  are  the  Cherubim/' 


24 


RABBI  ELIEZER 


has  four  wings,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  every  one  had  four 
faces  and  four  wings"  (Ezck.  i.  6),  and  these  (Chajjoth)  are 
the  Cherubim. 

When  1  He  ||  speaks  towards  the  west  He  speaks  between 
the  two  Cherubim  with  the  face  of  the  ox,  when  He  speaks 
towards  the  north  He  speaks  between  the  two  Cherubim 
with  the  face  of  an  eagle. 

Over  against  them  -  are  the  Ophanim  (Wheels)  and  the 
Whirling  Wheels    of   the    Chariot,^  and   when    He   looketh 

ment  on  the  subject  in  Hastings'  Dictionary  of  Christ  and  the  Gospels, 
i.  57,  "  The  Jews  believed  all  that  the  N.T.  says  of  angels,  but 
they  also  believed  much  more,  "  needs  revision.  The  Church  is  more 
concerned  with  angels  in  its  liturgy  and  ritual  than  the  Synagogue. 

^  The  first  editions  add  the  following  :  "  when  He  speaks  towards 
the  east  He  speaks  between  the  two  Cherubim  with  the  face  of  a 
man,  and  when  He  speaks  towards  the  south  He  speaks  between 
the  two  Cherubim  with  the  face  of  a  lion.  "  See  Ezek.  i.  lo.  The 
scheme  indicated  seems  to  be  as  follows  : — 


NORTH. 


Man. 


Ox. 


Lion. 


Eagle.       I        £<ig' 


■le. 


Lion. 


WEST. 


Ox. 


Ox. 


Mati. 


Man. 


EAST. 


Eagle. 


Lion.         I  Lion. 


Eagle. 


Man. 


Ox 


SOUTH. 

*  The  Cherubim. 

^  The  Merkabah  (n3::io)  or  Chariot  is  described  in  Ezek.  i.  and  x. 
See  T.B.  Chagigah,  14b,  Maimonides,  Guide,  iii.  1-7,  and  cf.  Ecclus.  xlix. 
8,  and  ] .E.  viii.  498  If .  The  mystery  of  the  Chariot  is  also  referred  to 
by  Eth.  Enoch  xiv.  iS.  and  Origen,  contra  Celsum,  vi.  r8.  Sec  also 
Hastings'  Dictionary  of  the  Bible,  i.  377  f.  and  v.  644.  The  Venice 
edition  adds:  "When  He  sits  He  is  upon  the  throne  high  and 
exalted." 


CREATION  ON  THE  SECOND  DAY     25 

upon  the  earth  His  chariots  are  upon  the  Ophanim,  and 
owing  to  the  noise  caused  by  the  whirhng  wheels  of  the 
Chariot — hghtnings  and  thunder  go  forth  into  the  world.^ 
When  He  dwells  -  in  heaven  He  rideth  upon  a  swift  cloud. ^ 
When  He  hastens  He  flies  upon  the  wings  of  the  wind,  as 
it  is  said,  "  And  he  rode  upon  a  cherub,  and  did  fly  ;  yea, 
he  flew  swiftly  upon  the  wings  of  the  wind  "  (Ps.  xviii.  10). 
The  Chajjoth  stand  next  to  the  throne  of  His  glory  and 
they  do  not  know  the  place  of  His  glory.^     The  Chajjoth 
stand  in  awe  and  dread,^  in  fear  and  trembling,  and  from 
the  perspiration  of  their  faces  a  river  of  fire  arises  and  goes 
forth  '^  before  Him,  as  it  is  said,  "  A  fiery  stream  issued  and 
came   forth   from   before   him .   .  ."    (Dan.    vii.    10).     And 
the  wings  of  Gallizur  "^  the  angel,  who  stands  next  to  the 
Chajjoth,  (are  spread  forth)  so  that  the  fire  which  consumes 
the  fire  of  the  angels  should  not  burn  (them).     Two  Seraphim 
stand,  one  on  His  right  and  one  on  His  left,  each  one  has 
six  wings,  ^  with  twain  they  cover  their  face  ^  so  as  not  to 
behold   the   presence   of  the  Shekhinah,  with   twain   they 
cover  their  feet  so  that  they  should  not  be  seen  before  the 
presence  of  the  Shekhinah,  ||  so  that  the  standing  of  the  foot 
of  the  calf  ^^  might  be  forgotten.     With  twain  do  they  fly, 

1  See  Ps.  Ixxvii.  i8. 

2  This  is  omitted  in  the  Cambridge  Genizah  and  in  the  first  editions. 
^  The  Venice  edition  adds  :  "  as  it  is  said, '  And  he  rode  upon  a  cherub, 

and  did  fly  '  "  (Ps.  xviii.  lo).     A  more  appropriate  quotation  would  be : 
"  Behold,  the  Lord  rideth  upon  a  swift  cloud  "  (Isa.  xix.  i). 

*  This  is  wanting  inthe  Oxford  MS.  (d.  35). 

^  A  parallel  text  with  deviations  occurs  in  Singer,  pp.  38  and  130. 
See  also  Liturgy,  Second  Day  of  New  Year,  ed.  Heidenheim,  p.  36a. 

*  See  T.B.  Chagigah,  13b;  of.  Eth.  Enoch  Ixxi.  6  and  xiv.  18  f.: 
"  And  I  looked  and  saw  a  lofty  throne  ;  its  appearance  was  as  crystal, 
and  the  wheels  thereof  as  the  shining  sun,  and  there  was  the  vision  of 
cherubim.  And  from  underneath  the  throne  came  streams  of  flaming 
fire,  so  that  I  could  not  look  thereon."  The  N.T.  speaks  of  the 
heavenly  throne;  see  Rev.  i.  4,  iii.  21,  iv.  2  ;  cf.  Gen.  Rab.  Ixxviii.  i. 

^  The  whole  of  this  sentence  is  missing  in  the  printed  texts.  Gallizur, 
as  the  name  of  an  angel,  occurs  in  Pesikta  Rabbathi,  §  xx.  p.  97b ; 
Jerahmeel,  Iii.  8 ;  and  Liturgy,  Eighth  Day  of  Solemn  Assembly,  ed. 
Heid'  nhcim,  p.  20b. 

^  The  B.M.  MS.  adds  here :  "  as  it  is  said,  '  Above  him  stood  the 
Seraphim  ;   each  one  had  six  wings '  "  (Isa.  vi.  2). 

8  Our  text  agrees  with  the  B.M.  MS.,  and  this  reading  has  been 
preserved  in  Jalkut  on  Isaiah,  §  404 ;  see  also  Lev.  Rab.  xxvii.  3,  and 
Tanchuma,  Emor,  §  viii.  The  ist  and  2nd  eds.  read  :  "  With  twain  does 
each  one  cover  his  face." 

1"  The  foot  of  the  Cherub  was  like  that  of  the  calf  (see  Ezek.  i.  7)  ;  this 
might  recall  the  sin  of  the  Golden  Calf.     See  T.B.  Chagigah,  loc.  cif. 


26  RABBI  ELIEZER 

praising  and  reverencing,  and  they  sanctify.^  One  answers 
and  another  calls,'-  one  calls  and  another  answers,  and  they 
say,  "  Holy,  Holy,  Holy,  is  the  Lord  of  Hosts  ;  the  whole 
earth  is  full  of  his  glory  "  (Isa.  vi.  3).^ 

The  Chajjoth  stand  at  the  side  of  the  throne  of  His  glory 
and  they  do  not  know  the  place  of  His  glory ;  '  they  respond 
and  say  in  every  place  where  His  glory  ''  is,  "  Blessed  be 
the  glory  of  the  Lord  from  his  place  "  (Ezek.  iii.  12).  Israel,^ 
a  nation  unique  on  the  carth,^  declares  daily "  the  unity  of 
His  great  Name,  saying,  "  Hear,  O  Israel :  the  Lord  is  our 
God,  the  Lord  is  one  "  (Deut.  vi.  4).  He  answers  His  people 
Israel  and  says  to  them,  I  am  the  Lord  your  God  who  has 
delivered  ^  you  from  every  trouble.^" 

1  These  words  are  similar  to  the  first  words  of  the  Kedushah  (Sancti- 
fication) ;  see  Singer,  p.  i6o,  and  cf .  Ps.  Ixxxix.  7.  The  Sephardic  Liturgy 
is  somewhat  different,  its  phraseology  for  this  part  of  the  Prayer  Book 
being  probably  based  on  Isa.  xxix.  23.  For  the  Kedushah  see  Ezek. 
xxxvi.  23  ;  Isa.  vi.  3  ;  Ex.  Rab.  xv.  6  and  Lev.  Rab.  ii.  8.  The  Venice 
edition  adds:  "  His  Great  Name."  The  B.M.  MS.  reads  here:  "And 
they  stand  near  the  throne  of  His  glory  and  do  not  know  the  place  of 
His  glory,  as  it  is  said,  'Blessed  be  the  glory  of  the  Lord  from  his  place ' 
(Ezek.  iii.  12),  and  the  Chajjoth  stand  in  awe  and  dread,"  etc.,  as 
above. 

2  See  Jalkut  on  Isaiah,  loc.  cit.,  andT.B.  Chullin,  91b,  for  the  angelic 
sanctification.  '  The  Oxford  MS.  (d.  35)  reads  :  "  One  calls  and  they 
all  reply  and  say." 

3  This  is  the  end  of  the  7th  section  in  the  MS.  On  the  theme  see 
Slav.  Enoch  xxi.  i. 

*  The  reading  seems  to  be  corrupt,  and  should  run  :  "  The  Chajjoth 
respond  and  say,"  etc.  The  first  part  of  the  sentence  has  already 
been  given  at  the  beginning  of  the  preceding  paragraph. 

*  On  the"  Glory  "  see  Abelson,  The  Immanence  of  God  in  Rabbinic 
Literature,  p.  380  ff.  The  Place  of  God's  glory  is  identified  by  P.R.E. 
with  the  Shekhinah  ;  see  infra,  p.  225,  not^'  9,  and  ci.  Eth.  Enoch  xxxix. 
12-1^. 

«  The  9th  section  in  the  MS.  begins  here. 

'These  words  occur  in  the  'Amidah  for  Sabbath  afternoon;  see 
Singer,  p.  175. 

*  The  Oxford  MS.  (d.  35)  adds:  "  continually  every  day  twice." 
»  The  Oxford  MS.  (d.  35)  reads :  "  who  redeems." 

i»  The  many  parallels  in  our  text  lo  Eth.  Enoch  xiv.  Q-22,  and  Slav. 
Enoch  xxi.  i  and  xxii.  1-3  are  noteworthy,  and  point  to  the  influence 
which  the  prscudepigraphic  books  b.ave  had  upon  our  author.  The 
latter  part  of  this  chapter  is  of  importance  in  connection  with  the 
liturgy  of  the  Synagogue.  We  note  how  the  threefold  responses  of 
the  kedushali  are  set  forth  here  as  the  responses  of  (i)  the  angels, 
(2)  Israel,  and  (3)  God;  compare  Singer,  pp.  160  f.  The  writer  of  the 
MS.  did  not  end  the  chapter  here,  but  continued  with  the  next  chapter. 
A  later  scribe  has  added  in  the  margin,  "  Chapter  V.,"  thus  agreeing  with 
other  MSS.  and  the  printed  editions.  Our  cliapur  should  be  compared 
with  the  Mcrkabah  Midrashim  in  the  first  two  vohini;s  of  Wertheimer's 
BotU'  Midrashofh. 


CHAPTER    V 

THE    GATHERING    OF   THE    WATERS   [5a.  i.J 

On  the  third  day  ^  all  the  earth  was  flat  like  a  plain  and 
the  waters  covered  the  surface  of  all  the  earth.  When  the 
word  of  the  Almighty  2  was  uttered,  "  Let  the  waters  be 
gathered  together  "  (Gen.  i.  9),  the  mountains  and  hills  arose 
from  the  ends  of  the  earth  and  they  were  scattered  ^  over 
the  surface  of  all  the  earth,  and  valleys  were  formed  over  the 
inner  parts  of  the  earth ;  and  the  waters  were  rolled  together 
and  gathered  into  the  valleys,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the 
gathering  together  of  the  waters  he  called  seas  "  {ibid.  10).^ 
Forthwith  the  waters  became  proud  ^  and  they  arose  to 
cover  the  earth  as  at  first,  when  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be 
He,  rebuked  them  ||  and  subdued  them,«  and  placed  them 
beneath  the  soles  of  His  feet,^  and  measured  them  with 

1  Of  the  week  of  creation.  Our  Book  agrees  here  with  the  Book  of 
Jubilees,  which  states  :  "  And  on  the  third  dav  He  commanded  the 
waters  to  pass  from  off  the  face  of  the  whole  earth"  (ii.  5).  Cf. 
Ps.  civ.  6,  according  to  which  the  mountains  were  beneath  the  water, 
the  surface  of  which  was  like  a  plain. 

2  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  8,  reads :  "  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He." 

3  The  gathering  of  the  waters  revealed  the  hills  and  valleys  which 
had  hitherto  been  covered  by  the  water. 

*  In  the  MS.  the  tenth  paragraph  (of  the  fourth  chapter)  is  marked 
here.       For  a  parallel  text  see  Wertheimcr,  op.  cit.,  1.  p.  6. 

^  The  Oxford  MS.  (d.  35)  reads  :  "  The  waters  became  insolent  and 
attempted  to  ascend  to  Heaven  as  at  first  until  He  rebuked  and  sub- 
dued them  and  placed  them  beneath  the  soles  of  His  feet,  as  it  is  said  : 
'  Who  maketh  a  way  in  the  sea,  and  a  path  in  the  mighty  waters'  " 
(Isa.  xhii.  16).     The  first  editions  agree  with  our  MS. 

« See  Ps.  civ.  7,  Job  xxxviii.  8-10,  and  Prov.  viii.  29.  Eth. 
Enoch  offers  a  parallel:  "  the  sea  was  created,  and  as  its  founda- 
tion He  set  for  it  the  sand  against  the  time  of  anger,  and  it  dare 
not  pass  beyond  it  from  the  creation  of  the  world  unto  eternity  " 
(Ixix.  18). 

'  See  Job  ix.  8,  Ps.  Ixxvii.  19,  and  Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  xciii.  5,  where 
our  text  is  preserved ;  cf.  Midrash  Konen,  p.  25.'  The  ist  ed.  {P.R.E.) 
reads:  "and  He  subdued  them  beneath  the  ends  of  His  feet."     The 

n 


28  RABBI  ELIEZER 

the  hollow  of  His  hand  ^  that  they  should  neither  decrease 
nor  increase.  He  made  the  sand  as  the  boundary  of  the 
sea,  just  like  a  man  who  makes  a  fence  for  his  vineyard. 
When  they  rise  and  sec  the  sand  before  them  they  return 
to  their  former  place,-  as  it  is  said,  "  Fear  ye  not  me  ? 
saith  the  Lord  ^ :  will  ye  not  tremble  at  my  presence, 
which  have  placed  the  sand  for  the  bound  of  the  sea  ?  " 
(Jer.  V.  22). 

Before  the  waters  were  gathered  together  the  depths  ' 
were  created.  These  are  the  depths  wliich  arc  beneath 
the  earth  ;  for  the  earth  is  spread  '  upon  the  water  like  a 
ship  which  floats  in  the  midst  of  the  sea,  so  likcAvise  is  the 
earth  spread  out  over  the  water,  as  it  is  said,  "  To  him 
that  spread  forth  the  earth  above  the  waters  ..." 
(Ps.  cxxxvi.  6).  He  opened  an  entrance  to  the  Garden  of 
Eden  "^  because  thence  were  planted  upon  the  face  of  all 

Midrash  should  be  compared  with  Tanchuma.  Chukkath,  §  i,  and  see 
T.B.  BabaBathra,  74b.  The  subject  has  been  discussed  by  Jampel  in 
the  Mondsschrift,  1912,  p.  148. 

^  See  Isa.  xl.  12. 

2  See  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  p.  10. 

'  The  second  half  of  the  verse  is  not  given  in  the  MS.,  which  reads 
"  etc." 

*  The  Venice  edition  adds  the  words  "  the  luminaries  "  before  the 
words  "  the  depths."     This  is  clearly  a  mistake. 

*  Jalkut  Makhiri  to  Psalms  (Ps.  cxxxvi.  ri)  reads:  "the  earth 
floats  upon  the  depths."  The  text  of  this  section  in  the  Jalkut  is 
more  correct  than  tlie  printed  editions  of  P.R.E. 

*  This  agrees  with  the  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  (ed.  Malan)  i.  i. :  "  And 
to  the  north  of  the  garden  there  is  a  .sea  of  water."  See  Jalkut  Makhiri 
{loc.  cit.)  for  a  parallel  to  our  text.  The  Venice  edition  differs  slightly 
from  the  ist  ed.  and  reads:  "The  entrance  to  the  Garden  of  Eden 
opened  therein  and  He  brought  forth  thence  plants  upon  the  face  of  all 
the  earth."  This  5tli  chapter  is  devoted  to  the  account  of  the  creation 
on  the  third  day.  Thus  far  we  find  the  following  things  enumerated : 
(i)  the  gathering  of  the  waters,  (2)  the  appearance  of  the  mountains 
and  hills,  (3)  the  transference  of  the  plants  and  trees  from  the  Garden 
of  Eden,  and  we  shall  have  (4)  an  account  of  the  mists  and  clouds 
which  water  the  face  of  the  earth.  The  Book  of  Jubilees  seems  to 
offer  a  parallel :  (i)  "  And  the  dry  land  appeared,  and  on  that  day 
He  created  for  them  (2)  all  the  seas  according  to  their  separate  gathering- 
places,  and  all  the  rivers,  and  the  gathering  of  the  waters  in  the 
mountains  and  on  all  the  earth  and  all  the  lakes,  (3)  and  all  the  dew 
of  the  earth,  (4)  and  the  seed  which  is  sown,  and  all  sprouting  things, 
and  fruit-bearing  trees,  and  trees  of  the  wood,  and  the  Garden  of  Eden 
in  Eden,  and  all  (plants  after  their  kind).  These  four  great  works 
God  created  on  the  third  <lay  "  (ii.  6,  7).  It  seems  strange  that  both 
books  in  connection  with  the  third  day  refer  to  the  Garden  of  Eden, 
especially  as  our  book  has  already  dealt  with  this  as  one  of  the  pre- 
mundane  creations.  According  to  Gen.  Rab.  xv.  3  the  Garden  of  Eden 
was  created  before  the  creation  of  man,  who  was  created  on  the  sixth 


THE  GATHERING  OF  THE  WATERS  29 

the  earth  all  kinds  of  trees  yielding  fruit  according  to  their 
kind,  and  all  kinds  of  herbs  and  grass  ^  thereof,  and  in 
them  (was  seed),  as  it  is  said,  "  Wherein  is  the  seed  thereof, 
upon  the  earth  "  (Gen.  i.  11). 

He  prepared  a  table  for  the  creatures  whilst  as  yet  they 
were  not  created,^  as  it  is  said,  "  Thou  preparest  a 
table  before  me"  (Ps.  xxiii.  5).  All  the  fountains  arise 
from  the  depths  to  give  water  to  all  creatures.^  Rabbi 
Joshua  said  :  The  diameter  ^  of  the  earth  is  equal  to  a  journey 
of  sixty  years,^  and  one  of  the  depths  which  is  near  to 
Gehinnom  bubbles  with  water  and  produces  water  '^  for  the 
delight  of  the  sons  of  man. 

Rabbi  Jehudah  !|  said :  Once  every  month  ducts '  rise 
from  the  depths  to  irrigate  the  face  of  all  the  earth,  as  it 
is  said,  "  And  there  went  up  a  mist  from  the  earth  and 
watered  ^  the  whole  face  of  the  ground  "  (Gen.  ii.  6).'-^  The 
clouds  cause  the  seas  to  hear  the  sound  of  their  waterspouts,^" 
and  the  seas  cause  the  depths  to  hear  the  sound  of  their 
waterspouts,  and  the  deep  calls  to  the  deep  to  bring  up 
waters  to  give  them  to  the  clouds,  as  it  is  said,   "  Deep 

day,  whereas  Eden  was  created  on  the  third  day.  This  tradition 
is  preserved  in  Slavonic  Enoch  (A  and  B)  xxx.  i  and  in  the  Book  of 
Adam  and  Eve  (cd.  Malan),  loc.  cit. 

1  The  Venice  edition  adds:  "  He  planted  thereof,  and  in  them  was 
their  s^ed  upon  the  earth." 

-  The  reading  in  the  first  editions  is:  "  whilst  as  yet  the  world  was 
not  created."  This  "  table  "  is  not  one  of  the  premundane  creations; 
seeT.B.  Synhedrin,  38a,  based  on  Prov.  ix.  1-3,  and  cf.  Lev.  Rab.  xi.  i. 
Gregory,  Bishop  of  Nyssa  in  the  fourth  century  c.e.,  has  a  similar 
Midrash  in  his  work  de  Hominis  opificio,  2 ;  see  also  Slav.  Enoch  (B) 
xxx.  I. 

3  See  Ps.  civ.  10-13. 

*  On  this  theme  see  T.B.  Pesachim,  94a,  and  Gen.  Rab.  iv.  5,  and  see 
Theodor's  notes  on  p.  29  of  his  edition  for  further  parallels. 

*  Oxford  MS.  (2835,  c.  27)  reads  "five  hundred  years";  cf.  T.J. 
Beraklioth,  2C ;  T.B.  Chagigah,  12a,  and  Gen.  Rab.  vi.  6. 

*  The  ist  ed.  reads:  "and  produces  delight  for  the  sons  of  man." 
On  the  subject  referred  to  in  the  text  see  T.B.  Sabbath,  39a. 

'  Our  text  is  preserved  in  Jalkut  to  Psalms  (Ps.  xlii.  §  744).  On 
"Silonoth"  (ducts)  see  Jastrow,  T.D.  979b.  Gaster,  Jerahmeel  li.  5, 
renders  here  "  rivulets  ascend  from  the  depths,"  etc. 

*  The  rest  of  the  verse  is  not  given  by  the  MS.,  whicii  reads 
"etc." 

^  The  LXX  renders  this  verse :  "  But  a  fountain  ascended  out  of 
the  earth  "  ;  see  Hellenism  and  Chvistianity ,  p.  25  note, 

!•*  See  Jalkut  Makhiri,  Psalms  (Ps.  xlii.  16),  where  our  text  occurs 
with  variant  readings;  thus,  instead  of  "  Zinorothiham,"  which  means 
"  their  splashing,"  or  "  duct,"  or  "  spout,"  we  find  "  Kinorothiham  " 
("  their  harps  "). 


30  RABBI   ELIEZER 

callcth  unto  deep  at  the  sound  of  thy  waterspouts "  (Ps. 
xlii.  7).i 

The  clouds  draw  water  from  the  depths,  as  it  is  said, 
"  He  causeth  the  vapours  to  ascend  from  the  ends  -  of 
the  earth "  {ibid,  cxxxv.  7),  and  in  every  place  where  the 
King  commands  them,^  there  they  cause  rain  (to  fall), 
and  forthwith  the  earth  becomes  fruitful  and  yields  produce 
like  a  widow  who  becomes  pregnant  through  debauchery.'' 
But  when  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  desires  to  bless  the 
produce  of  the  earth,^  and  to  gi\'e  provision  to  the  creatures,^ 
He  opens  the  good  treasuries  in  heaven  and  sends  rain 
upon  the  earth,  namely,  the  fructifying  rain,^  and  forthwith 
the  earth  becomes  fruitful  like  a  bride  who  conceives  from 
her  first  husband  and  produces  offspring  of  blessing,  as  it  is 
said,  "  The  Lord  shall  open  unto  thee  his  good  treasury 
the  heaven  "  ^  (Deut.  xxvni.  12). 

'  See  T.B.  Taanith,  25b,  for  the  application  of  this  verse  in  con- 
nectio  n  with  the  water  ceremonies  on  the  Feast  of  Tabernacles. 

^  Where  originally  the  water  was. 

^  See  Job  xxxvii.  11-13.  The  rain  illustrates  the  working  of 
Divine  Providence ;  cf.  Jer.  xiv.  22. 

*  This  rain  would  not  be  the  rain  of  blessing,  cf.  T.B.  Taanith,  6b. 

*  See  Ps.  Ixv.  9,  10,  and  cf.  T.B.  Taanith,  8b. 

*  This  phrase  does  not  occur  in  the  ist  ed.     See  Ps.  cxxxii.  15. 
'The  rain  from  heaven  is  full  of  vitalizing  power;   see  infra,  pp. 

63  and  167.  The  actual  expression  in  our  context  is  "  the  masculine 
waters."  Eth.  Enoch  liv.  8  offers  a  parallel:  "And  all  the  waters 
shall  be  joined  with  the  waters,  that  which  is  above  the  heavens  is 
the  masculine,  and  the  water  which  is  beneath  the  earth  is  feminine." 
See  Charles'  interesting  note  (8)  on  p.  107  of  his  edition,  where  he 
quotes  T.J.  Berakhoth,  ix.  2,  "  the  upper  water  is  male  and 
the  lower  water  is  female." 

*  The  verse  continues:  "  To  give  the  rain  of  thy  land  in  its  season 
and  to  bless  all  the  work  of  thy  hand."  This  is  given  in  the  B.M.  MS. 
The  1st  ed.  and  later  editions  add  :  "  and  it  is  written,  '  ior  as  a  young 
man  marrieth  a  virgin,  so  shall  thy  sons  marry  thee ' '  (Isa.  Ixii.  3),  and 
it  is  written,  '  For  as  the  rain  cometh  down,  and  the  snow  from  heaven.^ 
.  .  .  and  watereth  the  earth,  and  maketh  it  bring  forth  and  bud,  and 
giveth  seed  to  the  sower  and  bread  to  the  eater  '  "  (ibid.  Iv.  10). 

'  See  T.B.  Moed  Katan,  2a,  where  this  verse  is  explained  as  in  our 
context.  On  "  rain  "  see  Hastings'  Dictionary  of  the  Bible,  iv.  195  f.,  and 
Krauss,  Talmudische  Archdologie,  ii.  149  f.  Interesting  references  to 
rain  occur  in  Eth.  Enoch  apart  from  the  quotation  given  in  note  above, 
namely,  Ix.  21  If.,  and  in  the  previous  verse  "  the  chambers  of  the 
rain  "  are  mentioned. 

^  The  latter  part  of  the  verse  is  not  given  by  the  printed  texts, 
which  merely  add  "etc." 


CHAPTER  VII 

THE  PLANETS  ;  THE  COURSE  OF  THE  SUN  [5b.  i.] 

On  the  fourth  day  He  connected  together  -  the  two  himin- 
aries,^  of  which  one  was  not  greater  (in  size)  than  the  other.* 
They  were  equal  ^  as  regards  their  height,*^  ||  qualities,'  and 
illuminating  powers,^  as  it  is  said,  "  And  God  made  the 
two  great  lights"  (Gen.  i.  16).  Rivalry  ensued  between 
them,  one  said  to  the  other,  I  am  bigger  than  thou  art. 
The  other  rejoined,  I  am  bigger  than  thou  art. 

What  did  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  do,^  so  that 
there  should  be  peace  between  them  ?  He  made  the  one 
larger  and  the  other  smaller,^"  as  it  is  said,  "  The  greater 
light  to  rule  the  day,^^  and  the  lesser  light  to  rule  the  night 
and  the  stars  he  also  made  "  (ibid.).^- 

1  In  our  MS.  the  fifth  chapter  begins  here. 

'  The  B.M.  MS.  reads  here  "  created."  The  word  in  the  printed 
texts  means  "  associated  "  or  "joined."  On  the  legend  see  Gen.  Rab. 
vi.  3  and  T.B.  ChuUin,  6ob,  which  is  translated  in  Rabbinic  Philosophy 
and  Ethics,  pp.  12  f.  ;   and  see  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  i.  16. 

^  The  first  editions  read  :  "  the  two  great  luminaries." 

*  This  legend  occurs  in  Eth.  Enoch  Ixxii.  37,  "  but  as  regards  size 
they  are  both  equal,"  and  cf.  Slavonic  Enoch  xvi.  7.  Our  text  reads 
(if  taken  quite  literally)  :  "  This  one  was  not  greater  than  that  one, 
and  that  one  was  not  greater  than  this  one." 

*  The  equality  was  implied  in  the  words  of  the  Scripture,  "  the 
two  great  lights."  The  Oxford  MS.  (d.  35)  reads :  "  but  the  two  of 
them  were  equal  as  though  they  were  one." 

*  Above  the  earth,  or  firmament.        '  e.g.  they  have  the  same  shape. 

*  The  Pal.  Targ.  Gen.  i.  16  offers  a  parallel  here. 

*  The  B.M.  MS.  adds  :  "  to  restore  peace  between  them.  He  made  the 
one  smaller  because  it  had  slandered  its  companion."  See  Gen.  Rab.  vi.  3. 

1°  See  T.B.  Chullin,  loc.  cif.,  and  cf.  3  Baruch  ix.  7.  The  Midrash 
is  also  preserved  in  the  Machzor  Vitry,  p.  154,  reading  of  the  Sabbath 
morning  liturgy.  Cf.  Singer,  p.  129.  See  also  B&er's 'Abodaih  Israel, 
p.  212,  note,  for  the  reading  in  the  Tur :  "and  He  diminished  (I'lipni) 
the  figure  of  the  moon." 

"  The  MS.  does  not  give  the  second  half  of  the  verse,  it  merely  reads 
"  etc." 

1-  See  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  pp.  12  f. 

31 


32 


RABBI  ELIEZER 


All  the  stars  minister^  to  the  seven  planets,- and  their 
names  are  :  Sun,  Venus,  Mercury,  the  Moon,  Saturn,  Jupiter, 
Mars.^  The  mnemonic  of  their  service  is  KZNSh  ChLM, 
by  night;  ChLM  KZNSh  by  day  and  KLSh  ZMChN 
for  the  hours  of  the  night ;  ChNKL  ShZM  for  the  hours 
of  the  day.^  On  the  first  day  Mercury  and  the  Sun, 
on  the  second  day  Jupiter  and  the  Moon,  on  the  third  day 
Venus  and  Mars,  on  the  fourth  day  Saturn  and  Mercury, 
on  the  fifth  day  the  Sun  and  Jupiter,  on  the  sixth  day  the 
Moon  and  Venus,  on  the  seventh  day  Mars   and   Saturn.^ 


^  The  word  in  the  text  may  mean  serve,  or  minister  to  the  needs 
of,  or  to  be  in  attendance  on  others,  or  to  be  placed  over,  hence  to 
influence,  or  rule. 

2  Lit.  "  Stars  of  the  hours."  The  ist  ed.  reads,  "  the  seven  stars 
and  all  the  hours,"  but  subsequent  editions  read,  "  the  seven  stars  of 
the  hours."  The  first  editions  give  the  names  in  the  following  order  : 
Mercury,  the  Moon,  Saturn,  Jupiter,  Mars,  Sun,  and  Venus.  These 
editions  continue  :  "  And  they  minister  to  the  seven  days  of  the 
week."  The  idea  implied  is  that  each  planet  influences  the  world  for 
one  hour  by  day  and  by  night.     Thus — 


At  6  o'clock,  Saturday  Night  (when  the  first  day  of  the 

week  begins),  Mercury  (K)  rules,  and  again  at  i  a.m.^ 
Satordav,  7  p.m.,  the  Moon  (L)  rules,  and  at      2    ,, 


8 

9 
10 
II 
12 


Saturn  (Sh) 
Jupiter  (Z) 
Mars(M) 
the  Sun  (Ch) 
Venus (N) 


Sunday  Morning — 
•     The  Sun  (Ch)  rules  at  6  a.m. 


•< 


v.n 


At  6  p.m.  Sunday,  Jupiter  (Z) 

,,        Monday,  Venus  (N)  ,, 

Tuesday,  vSaturn  (Sh)  ,, 
Wednesday,  the  Sun  (Ch) ,, 
Thursday,  the  Moon  (L)  ,, 
Friday,  Mars  (M)  ,, 


Venus  (N)  ,,      7    >. 

Mercury  (K)      ,,      8    ,, 

Moon  (L)  ,,      9     ,, 

Saturn  (Sh)        ,,     10    ,, 

Jupiter  (Z)  ,,     11     ,, 

Mars  (M)  „     12  noon. 

rules,  and  at  6  a.m.    Monday,  the  Moon  (L)      rules. 

,,  „  ,,        Tuesday,  Mars  (M) 

,,  ,,  ,,       Wednesday,  Mercury  (K) 

Thursday,  Jupiter  (Z) 

Friday,  Venus  (N) 

Saturday,  Saturn (Sh) 


The  Jewish  day  begins  at  6  p.m.  {i.e.  six  hours  earlier  than  the  usual 
time  in  vogue  in  this  country).  For  full  explanation  see  Rashi  on 
T.B.  Berakhoth,  59b,  and  on  T.B.  'Erubin,  56a.  The  seven  planets 
are  mentioned  in  the  Scpher  Jezirah  iv.  7  by  the  same  names  as  in 
our  text.     See  also  Baraitha  d.  Shcmucl,  ch.  iii. 

^  The  seven  planets  in  the  order  of  the  text  are  represented  by  the 
following  letters:  Ch  (Sun),  N  (Venus),  K  (Mercury),  L  (Moon),  Sh 
(Saturn),  Z  (Jupiter),  M  (Mars).  The  letters  represent  the  Hebrew 
names  of  the  planets. 

^  The  whole  of  this  sentence  is  missing  in  the  printed  editions. 

*  The  seven  planets  were  believed  to  move  in  seven  different  orbits  ; 
see  Philo,  op.  cit.  38,  i.  M.  27,  C.VV.  i.  112.  Origen,  contra  Celsum,  vi.  21, 
speaks  of  "  the  spheres  of  the  planets."  In  the  next  chapter  of  Origen 
we  hear  of  the  mysteries  of  Mithras,  and  in  connection  with  the  rites 
of  this  cult  the  seven  planets  are  mentioned.  The  order  is  as  follows: 
Saturn,  Venus,  Jupiter,  Mercury,  Mars,  the  Moon,  the  Sun.  This  is 
exactly  the  reverse  order  of  iho  mm  inoiiic  in  our  text  for  Uic  service 
of  the  planets  by  day.     In  chapter  xxxi.  Origen  deals  with  the  "  ruling 


PLANETS;   COURSE  OF  THE  SUN     33 

All  of  them  minister  to  the  twelve  constellations  ^  which 
correspond  to  the  twelve  months.  The  constellations  are : 
Aries,  Taurus,  Gemini,  Cancer,  Leo,  Virgo,  Libra,  Scorpio, 
Sagittarius,  Capricornus,  Aquarius,  and  Pisces.-  All  the 
constellations  minister  to  ^  the  days  of  the  sun.''  Now  the 
days  of  the  solar  month  are  30  days,  10  hours  and  a  half,^ 

spirits"  accepted  by  the  teaching  of  the  Gnostics;  these  "ruling 
spirits "  are  the  seven  planets.  The  system  has  fortunately  been 
preserved  in  the  Pisiis  Sophia  (ed.  Mead),  pp.  360  ff.  The  Church 
Father  John  of  Damascus,  in  his  Doctrine  of  Faith,  ii.  7,  also  men- 
tions the  seven  planets.  See  also  Hippolytus,  Philosophumena,  iv. 
6ff. 

1  i.e.  the  Zodiac.  On  this  subject  see  John  of  Damascus,  loc.  cit., 
and  cf.  J.E.  iv.  244  f.  Slavonic  Enoch  xxx.  reads :  "  The  sun  that 
he  should  go  according  to  each  sign  of  the  Zodiac  ;  and  the  course  of 
the  moon  through  the  twelve  signs  of  the  Zodiac,"  and  see  Eth.  Enoch 
Ixxiii.-lxxiv. 

2  The  first  editions  add  :  "  These  {i.e.  the  constellations)  were  created 
in  the  work  of  the  Creation  to  rule  the  world,  and  thus  are  their 
ordinances.  And  these  seven  servants  ^  were  created,  and  He  placed 
them  in  the  firmament  of  the  heavens."  -  Our  MS.  agrees  here  with  the 
Oxford  MS.  (d.  35). 

^  Perhaps  the  word  should  be  rendered  "serve"  ;  see  supra,  p.  32, 
note  I.  Caster's  Jerahmeel  iv.  2  has  "  rules  "  in  reference  to  the  sun, 
and  "  serves  "  in  connection  with  the  other  planets. 

*  Does  this  mean  that  the  constellations  influence  the  months,  there 
being  twelve  constellations  corresponding  to  the  twelve  months  ? 
Perhaps  the  reference  is  to  the  fact  that  the  sun  is  in  each  constella- 
tion for  30  days,  10  hours,  30  minutes  {i.e.  a  solar  month).  The  Oxford 
MS.  (d.  35)  reads,  "  the  days  of  the  solar  year."  The  Venice  edition 
reads :  "  the  days  of  the  solar  month."  According  to  John  of 
Damascus  {loc.  cit.)— 


The  sun 

enters  Aries             on  March  21st. 

9i 

Taurus           ,,   April  23  rd. 

J» 

Gemini           ,,   May  24th. 

l> 

Cancer           „    June  24th. 

91 

Leo                ,,   July  25th. 

Jt 

Virgo             ,,   August  25th. 

9> 

Libra              ,,   September  25th. 

it 

Scorpio          ,,  October  25th. 

tf 

Sagittarius   ,,   November  25th. 

n 

Capricornus , ,    December  25th. 

>9 

Aquarius       ,,    January  25th. 
Pisces             „   February  24th. 

The  ist  ed.  adds  "  Sun,  Moon,  Mars,  Mercury,  Venus,  Saturn.  Sun, 
Moon,  Saturn,  and  Mercury  minister  to  each  constellation  30  (days) 
4  hours  like  an  attendant,  and  just  as  the  Sun  and  Moon  and  Mercury 
enter  simultaneously."     The  text  is  evidently  corrupt. 

^  The  ist  ed.  adds  here  :  "  and  during  the  days  of  the  lunar  month 
two  constellations  serve  for  four  days  and  eight  hours."  The  meaning 
is  not  evident.     4  days,  8  hours  x  7=30  days,  8  hours. 

1  i.e.  the  plan:ts. 

2  Each  one  in  its  own  orbit. 


34  RABBI  ELIEZER 

and  each  constellation  ministers  to  the  ||  days  of  the  solar 
month  for  two  days  and  a  half,  so  that  two  constellations 
(minister  for)  five  days.^  The  chief  -  which  begins  at  the 
beginning  of  the  solar  month  is  the  same  chief  which  com- 
pletes ^  at  the  end  of  the  solar  month ;  the  one  which  opens 
is  the  one  which  closes.'' 

The  great  cycle  of  the  sun  is  28  years,^  and  therein  are 
seven  small  cycles  each  of  four  years. ^  The  number  of 
days  of  the  solar  year  '  is  365  and  a  quarter  of  a  day.  The 
seasons®  of  the  solar  year  are  four,  each  season  (consisting 
of)  91  days  7|  hours.  The  beginnings  of  the  cycles  of  the 
seasons  are  the  4th,  2nd,  7th,  5th,  3rd,  1st,  and  6th  (days).^ 
Between  each  cycle  there  are  5  days  and  6  (hours). ^° 

1  The  sense  to  be  conveyed  seems  to  be  that  in  a  solar  month  every 
2j  days  is  under  the  influence  of  a  constellation,  the  last  loi  hours 
being  reckoned  as  part  of  the  service  of  the  constellation  which  is  next 
in  order  to  that  constellation  which  was  placed  over  the  last  2.1  days 
of  the  month.  We  shall  see  that  each  constellation  is  served  by  the 
Moon  for  2.V  days,  or,  as  John  of  Damascus  says  [loc.  cit.),  "  The  Moon 
passes  through  the  twelve  constellations  in  each  month." 

*  i.e.  the  constellation. 

^  This  would  then  mean  that  the  next  constellation  begins  its  influ- 
ence at  the  beginning  of  the  next  solar  month. 

*  It  seems  that  the  last  loi  hours  of  the  solar  month  are  under  the  in- 
fluence of  the  constellation  which  ruled  at  the  beginning  of  that  month. 

»  See  T.B.  Berakhoth,  loc.  cit. ;  T.B.  Sabbath,  129b,  with  Rashi. 

'  The  order  of  the  planets  which  bepin  the  .seven  small  cycles 
respectively  is  Saturn,  Jupiter,  Mars,  the  Sun,  Venus,  Mercury,  and 
the  Moon,  a  cycle  of  four  years  being  supposed  to  elapse  between  the 
beginning  of  the  rule  of  each  of  these  plancls. 

'  1st  ed.  reads  "  solar  years,"  the  later  texts  read  "  the  sun." 

*  Tekuphah  ;  see  Jewish  Calendar,  1915-16,  edited  by  the  present 
writer,  pp.  31,  35,  etc.,  for  the  Tekuphah.  The  word  means  "  turn,"  or 
"  cycle  "  ;  cf.  Ex.  xxxiv.  22  and  Ps.  xix.  6.  It  means  in  our  book  season, 
or  (i)  vernal  equinox,  or  (2)  the  summer  solstice,  or  (3)  the  autumnal 
equinox,  or  (4)  the  winter  solstice.  See  Rashi  on  T.B.  Berakhoth,  loc. 
cit.  where  we  learn  that  the  first  Tekuphah  of  Nisan  at  the  Creation  was 
on  the  fourth  day  (Wednesday).  Can  Jubilees  i.  14  and  ii.  9  refer 
to  Tekuphah  ?  See  Pal.  Targ.  Gen.  i.  14,  which  reads  :  "  And  God 
said  :  Let  there  be  lights  in  the  expanse  of  the  heavens,  to  distinguish 
between  the  day  and  the  night ;  and  let  them  be  for  signs  and  seasons 
for  festivals  and  for  the  numbering  by  them  of  the  calculation  of  the  days 
and  for  the  sanctification  by  them  of  new  moons  and  new  years,  (for) 
intercalations  of  months  and  intercalations  of  years  and  Tekuphoth 
of  the  Sun  and  the  Molad  of  the  Moon  and  cycles."  Etheridge's  version 
{The  Targums,  i.  p.  159)  is  inaccurate. 

*  The  seven  days  respectively  of  the  seven  small  cycles.  The 
Oxford  MS.  (d.  35)  reads  :  "  The  Tekuphoth  are  at  the  beginning  of  the 
night  of  the  fourth  day,  the  beginning  of  the  night  of  the  second  day  " 
.  .  .  concluding  with  "  the  beginning  of  the  night  of  the  sixth  day." 

">  Is  the  text  faulty  here  ?  The  interval  of  five  days  is  apparent  from 
the  preceding  sentence  in  the  text. 


PLANETS;   COURSE  OF  THE  SUN     35 

The  Tekuphoth  {i.e.  seasons)  of  the  small  cycle  are  four 
in  each  year,  some  of  them  (last)  91  days  7^  hours  and  some 
last  92  days.^  The  first  year  of  the  cycle  (of  four  years) 
has  its  Tekuphah  in  Nisan  at  6  p.m.  ;  in  the  second  year 
at  12  p.m.  ;  in  the  third  year  at  6  a.m.  ;  in  the  fourth  year 
at  12  a.m. 2 

The  four  beginnings  of  the  Tekuphah  of  the  four  months 
of  Nisan  ^  commence  at  the  beginning  of  the  night/  at 
midnight,  at  the  beginning  of  the  day,^  and  at  noon  (re- 
spectively). The  rest  of  the  other  (days  of  the)  ||  Tekuphoth 
are  as  follows  :  ZCh  ;  GYCh  ;  VACh  ;  TDCh.« 

The  first  Tekuphah  of  Nisan  '  took  place  at  the  beginning 

'  This  means  that  the  year  equals  4  xgi  days,  7I  hours  =365^  days. 
The  Oxford  MS.  (d.  35)  reads  :  "  Some  of  them  (last)  91  days  and  some 
of  them  92  days."  This  reading  seems  preferable  to  our  text  and  seems 
to  point  to  366  days  in  the  year,  i.e.  two  seasons  of  91  days  each  and 
two  of  92  days  each.  Luria  rejects  the  reading,  "  Some  of  them  (last) 
92  days." 

2  Luria's  reading  in  the  latter  part  of  Note  22,  in  loc,  has  been 
adopted,  as  the  MS.  text  seems  to  be  unintelligible.  The  MS.  reads  :  The 
first  year  of  the  cycle  is  A-G  (ist  and  3rd  letters  of  the  Hebrew  alpha- 
bet) ;  the  second  year  is  B-B  (2nd  letter  of  Hebrew  alphabet)  ;  the 
third  year  is  GAD  (3rd,  ist,  and  4th  letters)  ;  the  fourth  year  is  DD. 
The  reading  adopted  for  the  translation  gives  the  following  abbrevia- 
tions :  A-A,  B-V,  G-A,  D-V,  where  the  first  letters  of  each  set 
refer  to  the  ist,  2nd,  3rd,  and  4th  years  (of  the  small  cycle)  re- 
spectively ;  the  2nd  letters  indicate  the  hours  when  the  Tekuphoth 
of  Nisan  in  the  four  years  begin,  namely  :  6  p.m.  (A),  12  p.m.  (V), 
6  a.m.  (A),  and  12  a.m.  (V). 

3  In  each  cycle  of  four  years. 

*  The  Jewish  day  consists  of  night,  lasting  12  hours,  which 
begins  at  6  p.m.,  and  day,  lasting  12  hours  and  commencing  at 
6  a.m. 

^  i.e.  6  a.m. 

•  ZCh  =  7th  and  8th  letters  of  Hebrew  alphabet. 
GYCh=3rd,  loth,  and  8th  letters  of  Hebrew  alphabet. 
VACh=6th,  ist,  and  8th  letters  of  Hebrew  alphabet. 
TDCh=9th,  4th,  and  8th  letters  of  Hebrew  alphabet. 

Ch  (8th  letter)  is  an  abbreviation  for  the  word  ('sn)  meaning  "  half." 
The  abbreviations  mean  : — 

When  the  Tekuphah  of  Nisan  is  the  ist  hour  (A)  of  the  night, 
i.e.  at  6  p.m.,  the  Tekuphah  of  Tammuz  is  7^  hours  (^Ch)  later,  i.e. 
1.30  a.m.  The  Tekuphah  of  Tishri  is  at  3  hours  of  the  day  (G),  i.e. 
g  a.m.,  and  the  Tekuphah  of  Tebeth  is  io|  hours  of  the  day  (YCh),  i.e. 
4.30  p.m.  Again,  when  the  Tekuphah  of  Nisan  is  the  6th  hour,  i.e.  mid- 
night (V),  the  Tekuphah  of  Tammuz  is  i^  hour  of  the  day  (ACh),  i.e.  7.30 
a.m.,  and  the  Tekuphah  of  Tishri  is  9  hours  of  the  day  (T),  i.e.  3  p.m., 
and  the  Tekuphah  of  Tebeth  is  4^  hours  of  the  following  night  (DCh), 
i.e.  at  10.30  p.m.i 

'  At  the  era  of  the  Creation. 

1  See  T.B.  'Erubin,  loc.  cit. 


36  RABBI  ELTEZER 

(of  the  hours)  of  Saturn.'  The  Tekuphah  of  Tammu?:  (took 
place)  at  the  middle  (of  the  hours)  of  Saturn.-  The  Tekuphah 
of  Tishri  (occurred)  at  the  beginning  of  the  hours  of  Jupiter.^ 
The  Tekuphah  of  Tebcth  (took  place)  at  the  middle  (of  the 
hours)  of  Jupiter. '  And  thus  with  all  the  other  Tekuphoth, 
which  occur  at  the  beginning  of  the  hours  or  at  the  middle 
of  the  hours.'' 

The  first  cycle  ^  took  place  at  the  beginning  of  the  hour 
of  Saturn,  (and  the  names  of  the  Planets  of  the  hours  are) 
Saturn,  Jupiter,  Mars,  the  Sun,  Venus,  Mercury,  and  the 
Moon.  The  second  cycle  occurred  in  the  hour  (of  the  Planet) 
which  is  in  front  of  it,'  (i.e.)  at  the  beginning  of  the  hour 
of  Jupiter.  The  third  cycle  occurred  at  the  beginning  of 
the  hour  of  Mars.  The  fourth  cycle  entered  at  the 
beginning  of  the  hour  of  the  Sun.  The  fifth  cycle  entered 
at  the  beginning  of  the  hour  of  Venus.  The  sixth  cycle 
entered  at  the  beginning  of  the  hour  of  Mercury.  The 
seventh  cycle  entered  at  the  beginning  (of  the  hour)  of  the 
Moon.    (At)  the  end  of  seven  hours,^  at  the  end  of  seven  cycles, 

*  Saturn  is  the  planet  for  the  eve  of  the  fourth  day  at  6  o'clock  p.m. 

on  Tuesday.     See  supra,  p-  3-,  note  2. 

*  yi  hours  later  is  still  the  hour  of  Saturn  ;  this  would  be  at  1.30  a.m. 
Wednesday. 

^  jh  hours  later  is  the  hour  of  Jupiter  at  9  a.m.  Wednesday. 

*  7I  hours  later  is  still  in  Jupiter  at  4.30  p.m.  Wednesday  afternoon. 
'  This  refers  to  the  service  of  the  planets  over  the  hours,  as  can 

be  seen  from  the  notes  above;  the  two  Tekuphoth  are  either  at  the 
beginning  or  at  the  middle  of  the  hours. 

*  Of  the  seven  Tekuphoth  cycles  referred  to  above,  the  first  begins 
on  the  fourth  day,  i.e.  Wednesday  (which  commences  on  Tuesday  at 
6  p.m.,  which  is  the  hour  of  Saturn). 

'  In  reference  to  the  position  of  its  orbit  around  the  earth  as  centre. 
In  this  connection  the  position  of  the  planets  is  as  follows  :  nearest 
to  the  earth  we  have  the  Moon,  Mercury,  Venus,  the  Sun,  Mars, 
Jupiter,  Saturn. 

*  It  has  been  suggested  by  R.  Elijah  of  Vilna  that  this  reference 
to  the  seven  hours  should  be  omitted.  Perhaps  the  readirr^  should 
be  "At  the  end  of  the  seven  planets  of  the  hours,"  i.e.  tlie  cvcle  re- 
commences with  Saturn.     The  Tekuphoth  of  Nisan  are  as  follows  : — 

1234  years. 

1.  Wednesday  6.0  p.m. 
Thursday  12.0  p.m. 

Friday  6.0  a.m. 

Saturday  12.0  a.m. 

5678  years. 

2.  Monday         6.0  p.m. 

Tuesday  12.0  p.m. 

Wednesday  6.0  a.m. 

Thursday  12.0  a.m. 


PLANETS ;   COURSE  OF  THE  SUN     37 

at  the  end  of  35  days  ^  of  the  great  cycle  of  28  years,  the 
Tekuphah  cycle  returns  (i.e.  begins  again)  at  the  beginning 
of  the  fourth  day  ^  in  the  hour  of  Saturn  in  the  hour  when 
it  was  created. 

In  366  (degrees)  ^  the  sun  rises  and  declines,  it  rises 
183  (degrees)  ||  in  the  east,  and  it  declines  183  (degrees)  in 
the  west  corresponding  to  the  365  ^  days  of  the  solar  year. 
(The  sun)  goes  forth  through  366  ^  apertures  and  enters  by 

The  third  cycle  falls  on  Saturday,  Sunday,  Monday,  and  Tuesday 
at  6  and  12  p.m.  and  6  and  12  a.m.  respectively  in  the  gth,  loth,  nth, 
and  r2th  years  respectively. 

The  fourth  cycle  falls  on  Thursday,  Friday,  Saturday,  and  Sunday 
at  6  and  12  p.m.  and  6  and  12  a.m.  respectively  in  the  13th,  14th, 
15th,  and  1 6th  years  respectively. 

The  fifth  cycle  falls  on  Tuesday,  Wednesday,  Thursday,  and  Friday 
at  6  and  12  p.m.  and  6  and  12  a.m.  respectively  in  the  17th,  i8th,  19th, 
and  20th  years  respectively. 

The  sixth  cycle  falls  on  Sunday,  Monday,  Tuesday,  and  Wednesday 
at  6  and  12  p.m.  and  6  and  12  a.m.  respectively  in  the  21st,  22nd, 
23rd,  and  24th  years  respectively. 

The  seventh  cycle  falls  on  Friday,  Saturday,  Sunday,  and  Monday 
at  6  and  12  p.m.  and  6  and  12  a.m.  respectively  in  the  25th,  26th,  27th, 
and  28th  years  respectively. 

It  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  first  two  Tekuphoth  of  every 
cycle  are  p.m.,  and  therefore  the  actual  English  day  in  these  cases  is 
nominally  one  daj'  earlier  than  the  Je\vish  day. 

1  This  is  also  the  reading  of  the  ist  ed.  Later  editions  are  faulty,  and 
read  "  65  daj-s."  The  number  35  is  due  to  7  X5  days,  the  latter  being 
the  interval  between  each  small  cycle  of  four  years,  during  which 
there  are  16  Tekuphoth,  and  each  Tekuphah  is  7^  hours'  interval  later 
than  its  predecessor.     7=the  number  of  cycles. 

^  Tuesday  evening  at  six  o'clock,  when  the  fourth  day  (Wednesday) 
of  the  Hebrew  week  begins. 

*  "  Degrees  "  according  to  the  reading  in  the  first  two  editions.  The 
1st  ed.  reads  "  365  degrees." 

*  In  the  MS.  a  later  writer  has  written  "  6  "  above  the  "  5."  The 
first  editions  read,  "  according  to  the  days  of  the  solar  year." 

®  The  printed  texts  read  366  apertures.      According  to  T.J.   Rosh 
Ha-Shanah  ii.  5,  58a,  1.  41  ff.,  "  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  created  355 
windows  for  the  service  of  the  world  :  182  in  the  east  and  182  in  the  west 
and  one  in  the  centre  of  the  firmament,  whence  it  came  forth  at  the 
beginning  at  the  Creation."     See  also  Ex.  Rab.  xv.  22:    "The  Holy 
One,  blessed  be  He,  created  365  windows  in  the  firmament,   183  an 
the  east  and  182  on  the  west."     "The  Jalkut  on  i  Kings,  §185,  compares 
the  knops  mentioned  in  i   Kings  vii.  24  to  "  the  365  windows  which 
are  in  the  east  and  in  the  west,  for  the  sun  rises  in  one  in  the  east  and 
sets  in  one  in  the  west."     This  section  of  the  Jalkut  is  taken  from  the 
Midrash  Tadsheh    (cf.   Epstein,  Midrash  ladsaeh,   p.   xvi).     Further 
parallels  are  to  be  found  in  Buber's  Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  xix.  11,  and  Jalkut 
on  Psalms  (xix.),  §  673,  and  on  Eccles.  §  967.     The  astronomical  theories 
of  our  book  are  not  in  agreement  with  the  Rabbinical  system  set  forth 
in  the  Talmud  and  Midrashim.     It  seems  that  our  author  held  the  view 
that  the  solar  year  had  366  days.     Each   half-year  the   sun  passes 
through  91,  plus  91,  plus   i  apertures,   or  in   one  year  through  366 


38  RABBI  ELIEZER 

the  east ;  90  days  ^  it  is  in  the  south  (east)  quarter,  91  days 
in  the  north  (east)  quarter  and  one  aperture  is  in  the  middle  - 
and  its  name  is  Nogah.^ 

(At)  the  Tekuphah  of  Tishri  '  (the  sun)  begins  from  the 
aperture  of  Nogah  and  goes  through  its  revolutions  towards 
the  south  quarter,  through  one  aperture  after  another  until 
it  reaches  the  aperture  of  Bilgah.^  (At)  the  Tekuphah  of 
Tebeth  (the  sun)  begins  from  the  aperture  of  Bilgah  ^  and 
continues  its  course,  returning  backward  through  one 
aperture  after  another  until  it  reaches  the  aperture  of 
Ta'alumah,*'  through  which  the  light  goes  forth,'  as  it  is 
said,  "  And  the  thing  that  is  hid  bringeth  he  forth  to  light  " 
(Job  xxviii.  11).  (At)  the  Tekuphah  of  Nisan  (the  sun) 
begins  from  the  aperture  of  Ta  alumah,^  and  it  ^  goes  to  the 
north  quarter  through  one  aperture  after  another  until  it 
reaches  the  aperture  No'aman.^"  (At)  the  Tekuphah  of 
Tammu?  (the  sun)  begins  from  the  aperture  No'aman  and 
goes  on  its  course,  returning  backwards  through  aperture 
after  aperture  until  it  reaches  the  aperture  Cheder  ^^  whence 
the  whirlwind  goes  forth,  as  it  is  said,  "  Out  of  the  chamber 

apertures.  Now  we  find  a  parallel  teaching  in  the  Slavonic  Enoch 
xiii.  2;  "  And  I  saw  the  six  great  gates  open,  each  gate  having  sixty- 
one  stadia."  Thus  far  Text  B. ;  see  Charles'  ed..  p.  15,  and  cf.  Eth. 
Enoch  Ixxii.  2  ff.  on  the  course  of  the  sun.  Here  also  "  windows  "  are 
mentioned.  The  whole  of  this  chapter  should  be  read  in  comparison 
with  our  text.  Eth.  Enoch  adopts  the  strange  calculation  that  the 
solar  year  has  364  days,  though  he  was  acquainted  with  the  year  of  365  J 
days.  Does  our  book  attempt  a  new  solution  ?  or,  as  I  venture  to 
suggest,  did  our  author  borrow  from  Slavonic  Enoch  ?  This  seems  the 
most  probable  view. 

•  The  first  editions  read  91  days.  This  agrees  with  the  Oxford 
MSS.  (d.  35)  and  (O.  167)  and  also  Caster's  MS. 

*  This  aperture  separates  the  91  N.E.  windows  from  the  91  S.E. 
windows,  and  the  sum  total  equals  183,  which  agrees  with  our  text : 
"  it  rises  183  (degrees)  in  the  east." 

^  n:iu,  or  "  Venus."  The  word  means  light.  The  Venice" edition 
reads  "  the  aperture  Nogah." 

*  About  the  time  of  the  autumnal  equinox  ;  see  J .E.  xii.  76  f.  The 
Tekuphah  Tishri  falls  now  on  October  7th,  about  14  daj's  after  the 
equinox. 

'  The  first  editions  read  ('ht\2V)  "  Saturn." 

•  Or  "  darkness."     See  Targum  on  Job  xxviii.  11. 

'  The  quotation  is  not  given  by  the  Oxford  MS.  (d.  35). 

•  The  first  editions  add  :  "  through  which  the  light  goeth  forth." 

*  The  sun. 

*"  Or  "  pleasantness."  Nature  is  at  her  best  at  this  period  of  the 
year.  The  MS.  reads  "Noaman,"  the  first  two  editions  read 
"Naamon." 

^*  Or  "  secret  chamber." 


PLANETS;   COURSE  OF  THE  SUN     39 

Cometh  the  storm  ^  and  cold  out  of  the  scattering  winds  " 
{ibid,  xxxvii.  9). 

Through  these  apertures  which  are  in  the  east  (the  sun)  || 
goes  forth  and  opposite  to  them^  in  the  west  (the  sun) 
sets.  The  Shekhinah  is  always  in  the  west.^  (The  sun) 
sets  and  worships  ^  before  the  King  of  Kings,  the  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  saying :  Lord  of  all  worlds  !  I  have  done 
according  to  all  that  Thou  hast  commanded  me.^ 

The  aperture  which  is  in  the  midst  of  the  firmament  is 
named  M'^arim"  and  (the  sun)  does  not  go  forth  or  set' 
therein  except  once  in  its  great  cycle  ;  ^  (thereon)  it  goes 
through  it  as  on  the  day  when  it  was  created.^  At  night 
the  sun  is  in  the  west.^"  At  the  Tekuphah  of  Tishri  and  at 
the  Tekuphah  of  Tebeth  the  sun  goes  on  its  course  in  the 
south  quarter  and  in  the  waters  of  the  Ocean  ^^  (which  are) 
between  the  ends  of  the  heavens  and  the  ends  of  the  earth 
where  it  is  submerged,  i-  For  the  night  is  long  and  the  way 
is  long  1^  until  (the  sun)  reaches  the  aperture  which  is  in  the 
east,  (even)  the  aperture  through  which  it  desires  to  go 
forth,!*  as  it  is  said,  "  It  goeth  toward  the  south,  and  turneth 

^  The  MS.  omits  the  second  half  of  the  verse,  substituting 
"  etc." 

^  The  apertures  on  the  east. 

^  See  T.B.  Baba  Bathra,  25a,  and  T.B.  Synhedrin,  91b. 

*  Lit.  "  bows  down." 

^  See  Deut.  xxvi.  14  for  phraseology. 

*  Or  "  scattering  winds."     See  Job  xxxvii.  9  and  Targum,  in  loc. 
'  Lit.  "  does  not  go  in  or  go  out." 

*  i.e.  once  in  twenty-eight  years. 

*  The  1st  ed.  reads :  "  on  the  day  when  the  world  was  created,  on 
the  day  when  it  was  created." 

1°  i.e.  when  it  sets.  The  Prague  edition  reads  here :  "  on  the  day  it 
was  created  at  night  and  in  the  west." 

^1  See  John  of  Damascus,  op.  cit.  ii.  9,  \vith  reference  to  the  ocean 
which  surrounds  the  earth. 

"  Or  "  where  it  sets." 

"  To  traverse  half  of  the  west,  the  north,  and  half  of  the  east.  The 
apparent  risings  of  the  sun  are  all  in  the  east  from  the  point  of  view 
of  the  spectator  on  the  earth  ;  half  the  year  the  rising  is  south  of  the 
earth's  equator,  the  other  half  of  the  year  this  is  north  of  the  equator  ; 
thus  the  setting  in  the  west  corresponds  to  the  rising,  and  accounts 
for  the  "long  way  "  after  setting  in  the  winter. 

"  At  its  next  rising.  The  following  reading  is  given  by  the  first  two 
editions  :  "  At  the  Tekuphoth  of  Nisan  and  Tammuz  the  sun  goes  forth 
on  its  course  to  the  north  quarter  to  the  waters  of  the  Ocean  which  are 
between  the  ends  of  the  heavens  and  the  ends  of  the  earth  ;  for  the 
night  is  short  and  the  way  is  short  (after  sunset)  until  it  reaches 
the  apertures  which  are  in  the  east  through  which  it  desires  to  go 
forth." 


40  RABBI  ELIEZER 

about  unto  the  north  "  (Eccks,  i.  6).^  It  goes  to  the  south 
at  the  Tckuphah  of  Tishri  and  at  the  Tckuphah  of  Tebeth, 
and  turns  to  the  north  at  the  Tckuphah  of  Nisan  and  at  the 
Tekuphah  of  Tammu?.  It  goes  on  its  course  for  six  months 
in  the  south  quarter,  and  for  six  months  in  the  north  quarter, 
and  owing  to  its  circuits  the  sun  "^  returns  to  the  aperture 
which  is  in  the  east.  The  sun  has  three  letters  of  (God's) 
Name  written  upon  his  heart,^  and  the  angels  lead  him;^ 
such  II  as  lead  him  by  day  do  not  lead  him  by  night,  and  such 
as  lead  him  by  night  do  not  lead  him  by  day.  The  sun 
rides  in  a  chariot  and  rises,  crowned  as  a  bridegroom,^  as 
it  is  said,  "  AVhich  is  as  a  bridegroom  coming  out  of  his 
chamber,  and  rejoiceth  as  a  strong  man  to  run  his  course  " 
(Ps.  xix,  5).  The  sun's  rays  and  face,  which  are  turned 
downwards  (to  the  earth),  are  of  hail ;  *>  and  were  it  not  for 
the  hail  which  quenches  the  flames  of  fire  -■  the  world  would 
be  consumed  by  fire,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  there  is  nothing 
hid  from  the  heat  thereof"  {ibid.  6).  In  winter  (the  sun) 
turns  the  upper  (half  of)  his  face  downwards,^  and  were  it 
not  for  the  fire  which  warms  the  face  of  hail  the  world  could 
not  endure  because  of  the  ice  (cold),  as  it  is  said,  "  Who 
can  stand  before  his  cold  ?  "  {ibid,  cxlvii.  17).  These  are 
the  ends  of  the  ways  of  the  sun.** 

^  Ecclesiastes  refers  to  the  wind  here,  but  our  text  applies  this  to 
the  sun.     See  the  Targum  to  this  verse  of  Ecclesiastes. 

2  Lit.  wind  or  quarter.     See  previous  note. 

'See  Jerahmeel  iii.  4:  "Three  letters  of  the  Ineffable  Name  of 
God  are  written  upon  the  heart  of  the  sun."  The  sun  has  three 
different  terms  in  Hebrew. 

*  Slav.  Enoch  xiv.  2-4  says:  "When  he  (the  sun)  goes  out  by  the 
Western  gate  four  hundred  angels  take  his  crown  and  bring  it  to  the 
Lord.  And  the  sun  revolves  in  his  chariot  .  .  .  and  when  he  comes 
near  the  east  .  .  .  the  four  hundred  angels  bring  his  crown  and  crown 
him."  There  is  probably  some  connection  between  this  passage  and 
P.R.E.  Eth.  Enoch  refers  to  the  sun's  chariot  {Ixxii.  5).  See  also 
3  Baruch,  ch.  vi.  i  f.  cd.  Charles,  Apocrypha  and  Pseiidepigrapha,  ii. 
p.  536.  This  Apocalypse  of  Baruch  offers  also  other  parallels  to  our 
Midrash,  see  Introduction,  and  cf.  J .E.  ii.  550. 

*  The  first  editions  add  :  "  and  he  gocth  forth  and  rejoiceth  like  a 
strong  man." 

•  The  1st  ed.  reads  :  "  The  sun's  rays  and  face  which  look  downwards 
are  of  fire  and  his  rays  and  face  which  look  upwards  are  of  hail."  The 
Venice  edition  adds  "to  the  earth"  after  "downwards.'  See  Eth. 
Enoch  iv. 

^  The  first  editions  read :  "  liis  face  of  fire." 

"  The  first  editions  read :  "  the  lower  (half  of)  his  face  upwards, 
and  were  it  not  for  the  fire  which  warms  the  hail." 

•  Compare  with  our  text  Eth.  Enoch  Ixxxii.  15-20. 


CHAPTER   VIII 

THE    COURSE   OF   THE    MOON    [7a.  i.] 

Rabban  Jochanan  ben  Zakkai,  Rabban  Gamaliel,  R. 
Ishmael,  R.  Ela?ar  ben  'Arakh,  R.  Eliezer  ben  Hyrkanos, 
and  R.  'Akiba  -  were  expounding  ^  (the  laws  of)  the  Molad  ^ 
of  the  moon.  They  said :  ^  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He, 
spake  one  word  and  the  heavens  were  created  ^  as  the 
residence  of  the  Throne  of  His  Glory,'  as  it  is  said,  "  By  the 
word  of  the  Lord  were  the  heavens  made  "  (Ps.  xxxiii.  6). 
But  in  connection  with  the  (creation  of  the)  host  of  heaven 
He  laboured  with  great  labour.^  ||  What  did  the  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  do  ?  He  blew  with  His  mouth  the  wind  of 
the  breath  ^  of  life  ^°  and  all  the  host  of  heaven  were 
created,^^  as  it  is  said,  "And  all  the  host  of  them  by  the 
breath  of  his  mouth  "  (ibid.). 

All  the  stars  and   constellations  ^-  were   created  at  the 


1  In  MS.  this  is  ch.  vi. 

2  On  Rabban  Gamaliel  ii.  see  J.E.  v.  560  ff.  ;  on  R.  Ishmael  see 
Bacher,  T.  i.  232  ff.,  and  J.E.  vi.  648  it.  ;  on  R.  Elazar  b.  'Arakh  see 
J.E.  V.  96  f. ;  for  life  of  R.'Akiba  see  Bacher,  T.  i.  263  ff.  It  is  difficult 
to  understand  how  R. '  Akiba  or  R.  Ishmael  could  have  discussed  Torah 
with  Rabban  Jochanan  b.  Zakkai. 

^  The  first  editions  read  :   "  were  sitting  and  expounding." 

*  Molad  is  the  conjunction  of  Moon  and  Sun;  see  Schwarz,  Der 
judische  Kalender,  pp.  58  f. 

^  The  margin  of  the  MS.  has,  "  and  all  of  them  "  (said). 

*  Cf .  Isa.  xlv.  12.  See  Othijoth  d.  R.'Akiba,  third  paragraph  of 
letter  Resh,  ed.  Jellinek,  B.H.M.  iii.  p.  46,  and  compare  John  i.  3,  where 
the  Logos  or  Word  is  the  Creator. 

'  The  first  editions  read  :  "  His  Kingdom." 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  great  labour  is  mentioned,  as  it  is  said, 
'  And  all  the  host  of  them  by  the  breath  of  his  mouth  '  [ibid.)." 

*  Breath  implies  more  than  a  mere  word. 

1°  The  first  editions  read  ;  "  He  blew  with  the  wind  of  the  breath 
of  His  mouth." 

11  "  Simultaneously  "  is  added  by  the  first  editions. 

12  "  And  the  two  luminaries  "  is  added  by  the  first  editions. 

41 


42  RABBI  ELIEZER 

beginning  of  '  the  night  of  the  fourth  -  day,  one  (kiminary) 
did  not  precede  the  other  except  by  the  period  of  two-thirds 
of  an  hour.  Therefore  every  motion  ^  of  the  sun  (is  done) 
with  dchbcration,  and  every  motion  of  the  moon  is  (done) 
quickly.'  The  distance  covered  by  the  sun  in  thirteen 
days  and  a  fifth  ^  is  covered  by  the  moon  in  one  day,^ 
and  (the  distance)  covered  by  the  sun  all  the  days  of  the 
year,  the  moon  traverses  (the  same  distance)  in  forty-one 
days.'  All  the  days  serve  for  the  beginning  of  the  Molad 
of  the  (new)  moon;  (for  the  folloAving  series  ^)  the  days  are 
reckoned  backward  ;  at  the  beginning  of  the  night  of  the 
fourth  day  ^  the  beginning  of  the  Molad  (new  moon)  was 

^  6  p.m. 

"^  Tuesday  evening  at  6  p.m.,  when  the  fourth  day  began. 

'  Lit.  "  action." 

*  Since  the  sun  was  created  just  before  the  moon  the  latter  hastens 
to  overtake  the  former. 

^  Oxford  MS.  (d.  35)  reads  :   "  12  days." 

'  The  text  of  the  printed  editions  is  hopelessly  corrupt.  They 
state  :  "  The  distance  covered  by  the  sun  all  the  days  of  the  year  is 
traversed  by  the  moon  in  one  day." 

'  The  ist  ed.  reads  :  "  28  days."  The  Venice  text  reads  :  "  30 
days,"  which  seems  to  be  more  correct  than  "41  days  "  of  our  MS. 
Our  author  seems  to  treat  numbers  without  an}-  regard  to  the  exact 
amount.  By  treating  fractions  as  though  they  were  whole  numbers, 
we  may  find  an  explanation  of  the  difficulty  which  has  already  occurred 
in  the  previous  chapter ;  perhaps  the  3'65|-  days  of  the  year  were 
described  as  366  so  as  to  avoid  the  fraction.  The  text  should  probably 
read  thus  :  "  The  distance  covered  by  the  sun  in  12  days  is  covered  by 
the  moon  in  i  day,  and  (the  distance)  covered  by  the  sun  all  the  days 
of  the  year,  the  inoon  traverses  in  30  days."  See,  however,  T.J.  Rosh 
Ha-Shanah  ii.  5.  p.  58a,  which  is  possibly  the  source  of  our  text:  here. 
The  lunar  month  according  to  the  Hebrew  astronomers  was  said  to  be 
29  days,  12  hours,  and  fVg'ri  parts  of  an  hour  (i  minute  =  i8  parts). 
Our  book  sometimes  treats  this  as  a  whole  number  by  sajnng,  "  the 
month  has  30  days,"  or  we  find  the  more  exact  reference  to  29  days,  12 
hours,  and  40  minutes,  neglecting  the  4  minutes,  3^  seconds,  which  really 
belong  to  the  sum  total.  On  the  entire  subject  of  the  Calendar  see 
the  valuable  article  by  S.  Poznaiiski  in  Hastings'  Encydopcsdia  of 
Religion  and  Ethics,  iii.  17  if. 

*  The  series  of  the  small  cycles  of  three  years  in  which  the 
Molad  of  the  next  cycle  falls  on  the  day  which  was  anterior  to  that  on 
which  the  previous  Molad  fell.  The  calculation  is  based  on  the  length 
of  the  lunar  month  being  reckoned  as  measuring  29  days,  12  hours,  40 
minutes,  so  that  in  one  year  the  surplus  over  the  complete  week  equals 
4  days,  8  hours  (since  each  lunar  month  has  4  complete  weeks  and  i  day, 
12  hours  and  40  minutes;  and  this  surplus  multiplied  by  12  equals  18 
days,  8  hours,  i.e.  4  days,  8  hours  beyond  the  two  weeks),  and  in  three 
years  we  have  a  surplus  of  13  days  (two  weeks  less  one  day)  ;  therefore 
the  day  of  the  next  series  to  the  one  in  question  will  be  one  day  earlier 
than  the  preceding  series ;  see  Schwarz,  op.  cit.  p.  23,  and  Lewisohn, 
Geschichte  und  System  des  jiidischen  Kahnderwesens,  p.  25,  note  84. 

*  Tuesday,  at  6  p.m. 


THE  COURSE  OF  THE  MOON        43 

in   the    hour  of   Saturn ;  ^    and   the    mnemonic   is   ShNZ 

KMLChSh.     After  three  years  of  the  small  cycle  the  day  ^ 

of  the  next  cycle  (reverts  to)  the  beginning  of  the  night  of  the 

third  day,  and  the  beginning  of  the  Molad  (new  moon)  is 

in  the  hour  of  Venus.     After  three  years  of  the  small  cycle 

the  day  ^  of  the  next  cycle  (reverts  to)  the  beginning  of  the 

night  of  the  second  day,  the  beginning  of  the  Molad  is  in 

the  hour  of  Jupiter.     After  three  years  of  the  small  cycle  the 

day  -  of  the  next  cycle  (reverts  to)  the  beginning   of  the 

night  of  the  first  day,  the  beginning  of  the  Molad  ||  is  in 

the  hour  of  Mercury.^     After  three  years  of  the  small  cycle 

the  day  ^  of  the  next  cycle  (reverts  to)  the  beginning  of  the 

night  of  the   Sabbath,  the    beginning  of  the  Molad   is  in 

the  hour  of  Mars.     After  three  years  of  the  small  cycle  the 

day  -   of  the   next  cycle  (reverts  to)  the  beginning  of  the 

night  of  the  sixth  day,  the    beginning  of  the  Molad  is  in 

the  hour  of  the  Moon.     After  three  years  of  the  small  cycle 

the  day  ^  of  the  next  cycle  (reverts  to)  the  beginning  of  the 

night  of  the  fifth  day,  the  beginning  of  the  Molad  is  in  the  hour 

of  the  Sun.     After  three  years  of  the  small  cycle  the  day  ^ 

of  the  next  cycle  (reverts  to)  the  beginning  of  the  night  of 

the  fourth  day,  the  beginning  of  the  Molad  reverts  to  the 

hour  of  Saturn  as  in  the  hour  when  it  was  created. 

The  great  cycle  of  the  moon  is  21  years ;  it  has  7  small 

cycles  each  containing  3  years.'*     The  total  of  the  days  of 

the  lunar  month  is  29|  days,  40  minutes,  and  73  parts.^ 

Each  constellation  serves  the  days  of  the  lunar  month  for 

2    days    and    8    hours ;     three    constellations    serve    for 

7  days.     The  chief  ^    which  begins  on  the  new  moon  (of 

the  lunar  month)  is  the  same  which  concludes  at  the  end 

of  the  lunar  month.'     The  moon  becomes   new  at  every 

1  See  supra,  p.  32,  note  i.     Saturn  is  represented  by  Sh. 
^  Of  the  Molad  at  the  beginning  of  the  new  cycle. 
^  The  MS.   reads  :    "  Kokhab  Chamah,"    which  is   not   the   usual 
appellation  for  Mercury ;  see  Zunz,  Gesammelte  Schriften,  iii.  p.  243. 

*  The  first  editions  add  :  "  Each  constellation  ministers  to  the 
days  of  the  lunar  month." 

*  As  we  have  seen,  i  hour  =1080  parts,  therefore  73  parts  =  4^ 
minutes.  Luria  holds  that  the  expression  "  73  parts  "  is  an  interpolation. 
See  T.B.  Rosh  HaShanah,  25a,  on  the  question  of  the  duration  of  a 
lunar  month,  which  agrees  with  our  text. 

'  The  constellation. 

'  The  tvvelve  constellations  serve  or  influence  28  days  of  the  lunar 
month;  the  remaining  i^  days,  etc.,  are  under  the  influence  of  the  con- 
stellation which  presided  at  the  beginning  of  the  month. 


44  RABBI  ELIEZER 

Molad,  once  at  night  and  the  next  time  ^  by  day,  ||  and 
this  is  their  sign :  "  And  it  was  evening  and  it  was 
morning  "  (Gen.  i.  5).  Between  one  Molad  and  (the  corre- 
sponding) Molad  in  the  ensuing  year  (there  elapse)  4  days, 
8  hours,  and  876  parts.- 

From  one  small  cycle  to  the  next  cycle  (elapse)  13  days, 
2619  parts.^  When  *  the  sun  goes  in  the  south  quarter, 
the  moon  goes  in  the  north  quarter,  and  when  the  sun  goes 
in  the  north  quarter  '^  the  moon  goes  in  the  south  quarter. 
All  the  hours  serve  for  the  beginning  of  the  Molad  of 
the  moon  in  a  retrospective  order,  according  to  the  order 
"  ShLKNChM  and  Z."  «  In  the  first  year  at  the  be- 
ginning of  the  night  of  the  fourth  day  the  beginning  of  the 
Molad  (conjunction  of  the  moon)  is  in  the  hour  of  Saturn  (Sh). 
In  the  second  year'  the  beginning  of  the  conjunction  of  the 

1  Lit.  "  once." 

-  The  last  editions  read  :  "  4  days.  8  hours,  and  873  parts."  This  is 
incorrect.  Luria  reads :  "  4  days  and  8  hours."  The  basis  of  his  assump- 
tion, which  is  unwarranted,  is  the  theory  that  the  lunar  month  =4  weeks 
and  /  day,  12  hours,  and  40  minutes,  and  this  surplus  multiplied  by  12 
=  18  days,  8  hours,  i.e.  2  weeks  and  4  days,  8  hours.  Again  this  surplus 
multiplied  by  3  (the  small  cycle)  =13  days  exactly.  Our  MS.  is  quite 
correct;  see  Hastings'  Encyclopcedia  of  Religion  and  Ethics,  iv.  p.  120. 
The  1st  and  2nd  eds.  add  :  "  the  difference  between  a  great  cycle  axid  a 
small  cycle  is  only  13  daj's."  ^ 

^  This  means  13  days,  2  hours,  25^  minutes. 

*  The  text  in  the  printed  edition  reads  :  "  In  the  west  at  the  time." 
The  reference  is  probably  to  the  relation  between  the  position  of  the 
sun  and  moon  (i)  in  the  winter  and  (2)  at  the  beginning  of  the  con- 
junction of  the  moon  and  >un.  See  T.B.  Rosh  Ha-Shanah,  24a,  with 
Rashi's  commentary  at  top  of  page. 

^  In  the  summer  the  sun  is  more  in  the  north  than  in  the  winter, 
and  the  moon  is  in  conjunction  in  the  south-west,  and  in  the  summer 
its  position  is  south  of  the  sun  at  its  conjunction. 

*  The  1st  ed.  omits  this  mnemonic. 

'  "  In  the  hour  following  "  is  found  in  some  of  the  late  editions. 
The  difference  between  one  year  and  the  next  in  this  connection  is 
taken  to  be  4  days,  8  hours ;  if  the  first  Molad  were  at  6  p.m.  Tuesday, 
in  the  next  year  it  will  be  4  days,  8  hours  later,  i.e.  Sunday  2  a.m., 
which  is  the  hour  of  the  moon.  The  following  table  will  summarize 
the  text  : — 
The  beginning  of  the  Molad  at  6  p.m.  Tuesday  in  the  hour  of  Saturn. 


2  a.m. 

Sunday              ,, 

the  Moon 

10  a  m. 

Thursday 

Mercury-. 

6  p.m. 

Monday 

Venus. 

2  a.m. 

Saturday 

the  S  in. 

10  a.m. 

Wednesday        „ 

Mais. 

6  p.m. 

Sunday 

J  upiter. 

^  This  is  the  interval  between    each  small  cycle,   neglecting  the 
fractions. 


THE  COURSE  OF  THE  MOON        45 

moon  is  in  the  hour  of  the  Moon  (L).  In  the  third  year,  in  the 
following  hour,  the  beginning  of  the  conjunction  of  the  moon 
is  in  the  hour  of  Mercury  (K).^  In  the  fourth  year  the  be- 
ginning of  the  conjunction  of  the  moon  is  in  the  hour  of 
Venus  (N).  In  the  fifth  year,  in  the  hour  following,  the  be- 
ginning of  the  conjunction  of  the  moon  is  in  the  hour  of  the 
Sun  (Ch).  In  the  sixth  year  the  beginning  of  the  conjunc- 
tion of  the  moon  is  in  the  hour  of  Mars  (M).  In  the  seventh 
year,  in  the  hour  following,  the  beginning  of  the  conjunction 
of  the  moon  is  ||  in  the  hour  of  Jupiter  (Z)  in  the  hour  follow- 
ing.- The  third  and  fifth  years  are  like  the  seventh.  In  like 
manner  for  three  times  these  hours  serve  at  the  conjunction 
of  the  moon  retrospectively  until  the  (expiration  of)  the  21 
years  of  the  cycle. 

All  the  constellations  serve  the  moon  by  night  from 
the  four  corners  of  the  world  :  ^  3  in  the  north,  3  in  the 
south,  3  in  the  east,  and  3  in  the  west.  All  the  hours  ^ 
serve  the  moon  by  night  from  the  four  corners  of  the 
world  :  2  in  the  south,  2  in  the  north,  2  in  the  east,  and  2 
in  the  west.     In  the  hour  in  which  it  began  to  serve  in  the 

Speaking  of  the  sun  and  moon,  Eth.  Enoch  says  (Ixxviii.  5)  :  "  And 
they  set  and  enter  the  portals  of  the  west,  and  make  their  revolutions 
to  the  north  and  come  forth  through  the  eastern  portals  on  the  face 
of  the  heaven."  The  old  Jewish  belief  as  to  the  relation  between  the 
motion  of  the  sun  and  moon  was  as  follows  :  According  to  Rashi 
(T.B.  Rosh  Ha-Shanah,  loc.  cit.)  the  conjunction  of  every  Molad  (new 
moon)  takes  place  when  the  moon  is  in  the  south-west  comer  of  its 
orbit. 

In  winter  since  the  sun  does  not  traverse  the  west  in  the  daytime 
save  when  it  sets,  therefore  the  moon  is  in  the  west  before  the  sun  gets 
there,  because  the  moon  during  the  first  half  of  the  lunar  month  goes 
to  the  north,  whilst  the  sun  revolves  in  the  south. 

In  summer  the  sun  goes  over  the  greater  part  of  the  west  in  the 
daj'time  ;  and  as  it  is  then  revolving  in  the  north  it  is  there  before  the 
moon,  for  then  the  moon  is  chiefly  in  the  south.  Where  the  sun  sets 
there  the  moon  rises. 

1  See  supra,  p.  ^3,  note  3. 

2  "  In  the  hour  following  "  and  the  next  sentence  do  not  occur 
in  the  printed  texts. 

^  See  Jalkut,  Ex.  §  41 8,  and  Jalkut,  i  Kings,  §  185,  according  to  the 
latter  passage,  "  The  twelve  constellations  (i.e.  the  Zodiac)  through 
which  the  world  is  ruled,  three  turn  to  the  north  .  .  .  Aries,  Leo,  and 
Sagittarius  ;  Taurus,  Virgo,  and  Capricornus  are  turned  to  the  west  ; 
Gemini,  Libra,  and  Aquarius  are  turned  to  the  south  ;  Cancer,  Scorpio, 
and  Pisces  are  turned  to  the  east."  An  entirely  different  order  is 
given  in  the  Jalkut  on  Exodus,  loc.  cit.  Cf.  T.B.  Pesachim,  94a,  and 
see  Eth.  Enoch  Ixxii.  2  ff. 

*  i.e.  the  stars  of  the  hours  or  the  seven  planets.  This  sentence  is 
wanting  in  the  ist  ed. 


46  RABBI  ELTEZER 

south,  (therein)  it  finishes  in  the  west ;  '  and  so  ^vith  all  its 
circuits. 

All  the  great  ^  luminaries  of  the  stars  ^  are  situated  in 
the  south  except  Ursa  Major,'  which  is  placed  in  the  north. 
All  the  Ma??ikin  •'  which  move  in  the  firmament  and  the 
angels^  who  felP  from  their  holy  place  (even)  from  heaven.^ 
(when)  they  ascend  to  hear  the  (Divine)  Word  behind  the 
veil  ^  they  are  pursued  ^^  with  a  rod  of  fire,  and  they  return  ^^ 
to  their  place. ^- 

10  days,  21  hours,  and  204  parts  are  the  excess  of  the 
days  of  the  solar  year  over  the  days  of  the  lunar  year ;  ^^  and 

1  The  eight  hours  refer  to  the  length  of  the  shortest  night  accord- 
ing to  our  book;  see  infra,  p.  322.  The  seven  planets  are  placed 
thus  :  two  in  the  south,  two  in  the  north,  two  in  the  east,  and 
the  seventh  planet  in  the  west ;  in  addition,  the  first  planet  which 
served  in  the  south  serves  at  the  end  of  the  night  (8th  hour)  in  the 
west. 

-The  ist  ed.  reads  "  small." 

'  The  expression  is  borrowed  from  Ezek.  xxxii.  8.  The  seven 
planets  are  not  referred  to  in  this  connection.  The  Pal.  Targum, 
Ex.  xl.  4,  "  And  thou  shalt  bring  in  the  lamp-stand  on  the  south  side, 
because  thence  are  the  paths  of  the  sun  and  moon,  and  the  pathways 
of  the  luminaries." 

*  nbiii,  "  waggon."  The  constellation  Taurus  of  the  Zodiac  or  Ursa 
Major  as  a  star  is  probably  implied ;  see  Rashi  on  T.B.  Berakhoth,  58b. 

^  See  supra,  p.  14,  note  8. 

*  The  fall  of  the  angels  recalls  Judc  6  ;  Jubilees  v.  6,  7  ;  Slav.  Enoch 
xviii. ;  Eth.  Enoch  vi.-xvi.,  xix.,  and  Ixxxvi. ;  Test.  XII  Pat.  (Reuben, 
V.  6,  7),  and  Fragments  of  a  Zadokite  Work  (ed.  Schechter,  iii.  18).  See 
infra,  pp.  99  and  160.  The  fall  of  the  angels  is  a  favourite  subject 
with  the  Church  Fathers,  e.g.  Athenagoras,  Embassy,  xxiv.  ;  Justin 
Martyr,  Second  Apology,  v.  ;  and  Dialogue  with  Trypho,  Ixxix. 

'  The  first  editions  add  :  "  from  their  greatness." 

*  The  first  editions  add  :  "  in  the  days  of  the  generation  of  Enosh." 
This  view  opposes  the  doctrine  of  the  Book  of  Jubilees  v.  6-9,  which 
holds  that  the  fall  of  the  angels  took  place  in  the  days  of  Noah.  Cf . 
Eth.  Enoch  vi.  4-6.  On  the  "generation  of  Enosh"  see  Rabbinic 
Philosophy  and  Ethics,  pp.  37,  193,  and  248 ;  Jerahmeel  xxiv.  9,  xxvi. 
20  ;  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  iv.  26.  On  the  "fall  of  the  angels"  see  Gen. 
Rab.  xxvi.  7  ;  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  vi.  4  ;  Jerahmeel  xxv.,  and  Gaster's 
Introduction,  p.  Ixxiii,  for  further  parallels.  In  Christian  literature 
this  legend  also  occurs;  see  The  Clementine  Homilies,  xiii. 

^  See  supra,  p.  23,  note  5. 

'^  1st  ed.  reads :  "  they  are  separated." 

^^  The  first  editions  add  :    "  backwards." 

^^  This  is  missing  in  the  ist  ed. 

^^  The  204  parts  =11 J  minutes;  Luria  holds  that  this  is  a  later 
addition  to  our  text.  On  the  astronomical  question  see  Gen.  Rab. 
xxxiii.  7.  Our  reading  has  been  used  by  the  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  i.  16 
(see  Ginsburger,  Pseudo- Jonathan,  p.  2,  note  8).  The  Slavonic  Enoch 
says,  "  And  there  remain  11  days  over,  which  belong  to  the  solar  circle 
of  the  whole  year  "  (xvi.  5).  According  to  Eth.  Enoch  Ixxviii.  15,  16, 
the  lunar  year  has  354  days  and  the  solar  year  has  364  days,  thus 


THE  COURSE  OF  THE  MOON        47 

the  intercalation  is  introduced  to  equalize  the  days  of  the 
solar  |]  year  with  the  days  of  the  lunar  year.^  The  sun  and 
the  moon  begin  (their  courses)  at  the  new  moon  of  Nisan, 
the  Sim  goes  before  the  moon  at  its  Tekuphah ;  -  and  Aries 
begins  to  serve  before  it  by  day,  and  all  the  constellations 
serve  thereafter  ^  according  to  their  order.  The  moon 
goes  in  the  opposite  direction  '*  and  Aries  begins  to  serve 
before  it  ^  by  night,  and  all  the  constellations  serve  thereafter 
according  to  their  order,  until  the  year  of  the  small  cycle, 
vmtil  the  year  of  intercalation  (comes  round).  (When)  the 
intercalated  month  comes  round  it  supersedes  (or  thrusts 
aside)  the  new  moon  (of  Nisan)  and  remains  at  the  new  moon 
of  Shebat,^  and  so  on  until  the  twelve  ^  intercalated  months 

the  difference  between  them  amounts  to  lo  days.  Jubilees  vi.  32-36 
holds  that  the  moon  "  comes  in  from  year  to  year  10  days  too  soon." 

1  On  the  intercalation  see  infra,  Chapter  VIII.  p.  57. 

2  According  to  Gikatilla's  Ginnath  Egoz  (ed.  Hanau),  p.  50b,  the 
text  should  read :  "  The  sun  goes  before  the  moon  according  to  her 
ordinance." 

'  Lit.  "  after  it,"  i.e.  after  Aries. 

*  Lit.  "  backwards." 

^  The  MS.  reads  "  before  him,"  i.e.  the  sun.  The  first  printed 
editions  read  :    "  before  her,"  i.e.  the  moon. 

*  The  intercalated  month  is  always  interposed  between  Adar  and 
Nisan,  so  as  to  ensure  the  fall  of  the  Passover  in  the  early  spring.  The 
first  printed  editions  read  here,  "Adar,"  which  appears  to  be  the  correct 
reading.  The  Venice  edition  adds  :  "  and  thus  is  it  until  the  year  of 
the  small  cycle  ^  comes  round  ;  (when)  the  intercalated  month  comes  it 
displaces  the  new  moon  and  remains  at  the  new  moon  of  Tebeth."  ^ 

'  The  text  is  questioned  by  Luria  and  others.  If  instead  of  "  12" 
we  read  "  7  "  then  we  have  the  cycle  of  19  years  with  7  intercalated 
months,  which  will  be  presently  considered.  Luria  thinks  that  "  the 
sun  and  moon  are  equal  at  the  commencement  of  the  eve  of  the  fourth 
day  in  the  hour  of  Saturn,"  as  "  when  they  were  created  "  only  applies 
at  the  end  of  the  cycle  of  84  years.  This  number  is  obtained  by  multiply- 
ing 12  (the  number  of  the  constellations)  by  7  (the  number  of  the 
planets)  ;  or  by  multiplying  the  solar  cycle  of  28  years  by  3  ;  or  by 
multiplying  the  lunar  cycle  of  21  years  by  4;  possibly  this  84- year 
cycle  was  intended  to  be  used  for  astrological  purposes. 

^  This  small  cycle  is  not  the  same  as  we  have  already  discussed, 
namely,  the  3 -years  cycle  ;  it  is  the  small  cycle  of  intercalation  which 
will  be  explained  in  Chapter  VIII. 

2  The  1st  ed.  reads  "  Shebat."  At  the  second  intercalation  when 
the  month  is  interposed  before  Nisan  the  intercalated  month  will  be 
at  the  new  moon  of  the  month  before  Adar  {i.e.  Shebat)  if  considered 
in  relation  to  the  first  year  of  the  intercalation ;  and  in  the  next  year 
when  the  intercalation  takes  place  the  intercalated  month  before 
Nisan  will  really  begin  at  the  new  moon  of  the  month  before  Shebat  {i.e. 
Tebeth)  if  considered  in  relation  to  the  first  year  of  the  series.  Thus 
after  12  years  the  intercalated  month  would  again  begin  at  the  new 
moon  of  Adar.  This  is  probably  the  meaning  of  the  text  which  speaks 
of  "  12  intercalated  months." 


48  RABBI  ELIEZER 

(come  round)  when  the  sun  and  the  moon  are  equal  (again) 
at  the  commencement  of  the  eve  of  the  fourth  day  in  the 
hour  of  Saturn  in  the  hour  when  they  were  created.  Between 
each  Molad  (conjunction  of  tlic  moon  and  sun)  there  are  only 
36  hours,  40  minutes,  and  73  ^  minims  (parts). 

The  moon  does  not  disappear  from  the  firmament  save 
for  the  twinkhng  of  an  eye  ;  even  though  there  were  a  full 
thread  (of  light)  surrounding  it  in  the  east  and  in  the  west,- 
the  eye  has  not  the  power  to  see  the  moon  until  eight  large  ^ 
hours  (have  elapsed).  (The  large  hours)  arc  two  hours  for 
each  (large)  hour,  either  at  the  beginning  of  the  Molad 
(conjunction)  of  the  moon  or  at  the  end  of  the  Molad  of  the 

moon. 

The  number  of  the  days  of  the  lunar  year  is  354  days,  a 
third  of  a  day,  and  876  minims. '  |1  All  the  hours  of  a  lunar 
month  are  708  hours  and  40  minutes  ;  all  the  hours  of  a 
lunar  year  are  8504  hours.'^ 

All  the  constellations  serve  the  Molad  of  the  moon  and 
also  the  generations  ^  of  the  children  of  men  ; '  upon  them 

»  The  "  73  minims"  must  be  considered  as  an  interpolation;  see 
supVi' ,  p.  43,  note  5. 

2  That  is,  at  the  beginning  and  end  of  the  Molad ;  see  T.B.  Rosh 
Ha-Shanah,  20b,  Rashi,  in  loc.  •         •      v 

^  The  large  hour  equals  two  ordinary  hours,  as  is  explained  in  the 
next  line  of  the  text.  This  passage  explaining  the  large  hour  is  not  in 
the  printed  editions.  According  to  T.B.  Rosh  Ha  Shanah,  loc.  cit.,  tlie 
Palestinian  Jews  were  unable  to  discern  the  moon  at  the  Molad,  for 
6  hours  after  and  18  hours  before  the  Molad  ;  in  Babylon  the  reverse 
rule  obtained.  The  reading  "6  hours"  in  this  Talmudic  passage 
seems  to  Luria  to  be  the  appropriate  reading  in  our  text.  Assuming, 
however,  that  our  text  is  correct,  we  might  argue  that  Palestine  could 
not  be  the  place  where  our  book  arose. 

*  876  minims  equal  48§  minutes.  There  is  evidently  something 
amiss  here,  because  the  next  sentence  tells  us  that  the  lunar  month 
has  708  hours  and  -o  minutes,  which  means  that  the  lunar  month 
equals  29  days,  12  hours,  and  40  minutes.  On  this  basis  the  lunar 
year  has  354"  days,  8  hours.  Must  we  assume  that  the  "  876  minims  " 
are  an  interpolation  ?  This  figure  equals  48I  minutes,  which  in  one 
lunar  month  equal  4i'i5  minutes  or  73  minims. 

°  8504  hours  =12  times  29  days,  12  hours,  and  40  minutes. 

«  Or,  "  historv." 

'  The  knowledge  of  the  influence  of  the  stars  and  planets  on  terres- 
trial affairs  or,  in  other  words,  astrology  was  believed  to  enable  men  to 
know  the  future.  Our  book  bases  this  on  the  text,  which  is  quoted 
in  this  paragraph  ;  also  Gen.  v.  i,  which  was  read  as  follows  :  "This 
is  the  calculation  of  the  generations  of  man."  See  also  Job  xxxviii.  19, 
"  Where  is  the  way  to  the  dwelling  of  light.  .  .  .  And  that  thou 
shouldst  discern  the  paths  to  the  house  thereof  ?  Thou  knowest  for 
thou  wast  then  born."  The  sun,  moon,  and  the  planets  are  referred  to 
in  this  chapter,  showing  that  they  have  some  connection  with  the  time 


THE  COURSE  OF  THE  MOON        49 

the  world  stands,  and  everyone  who  is  wise  and  understands, 
he  understands  the  Molad  of  the  moon  and  the  generations 
of  the  children  of  men,  and  concerning  them  the  text  says, 
"And  let  them  be  for  signs,^  and  for  seasons"  {ibid.  14). 
The  signs  of  the  hours  shall  not  depart  from  serving  the  sun 
by  day  and  the  moon  by  night. 

In  three  cycles  of  the  sun  or  in  four  cycles  of  the  moon  ^ 
there  are  84  years,  which  are  one  hour^  of  the  day  of  the 
Holy  One,  blessed  be  He.  When  the  sun  and  moon  become 
equal  ^  at  the  beginning  of  the  eve  of  the  fourth  day  and  at 
the  hour  of  Saturn  in  the  hour  when  they  were  created,  and 
in  the  hour  when  the  flames  of  the  moon  reach  the  sun  by 
day  at  the  degree  (or  ascent)  of  60  (degrees),  it  passes  therein 
and  extinguishes  its  light ;  and  in  the  hour  when  the  flames 
of  the  sun  reach  the  moon  at  night  in  the  degree  (or  ascent) 
of  40  (degrees),  it  passes  through  it  and  extinguishes  its 
light.f^ 

Rabbi  Nehorai  said :  It  is  the  decree  of  the  King  ^  that 
when  Israel  sins  ||  and  fails  to  intercalate  the  year  as  is  be- 
coming, the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  acts  in  His  mercy  at 
the  time  when  the  flame  of  the  sun  reaches  the  moon  by 
night  at  40  degrees  (or  ascents),  then  the  Holy  One^  blessed 

and  duration  of  life.  Slav.  Enoch  xix.  2  says,  "  And  these  orders 
arrange  and  study  the  revolutions  of  the  stars,  and  the  changes  of  the 
moon,  and  revolutions  of  the  sun,  and  superintend  the  good  and  evil 
condition  of  the  world."  The  N.T.  also  implies  a  belief  in  the 
doctrines  of  astrology,  e.g.  Matt.  ii.  9 ;  see  Jeremias,  Bahylonisches 
im  N.T.,  p.  52.  This  book  of  Jeremias  is  the  best  book  on  N.T. 
astrology ;  for  astrology  among  the  Jews  see  Low,  Gesammelte  Schriften, 
ii.  11.5  ff. 

1  The  first  editions  add  the  next  word  in  the  verse,  "  and  for 
seasons  "  ;  lliis  is  wanting  in  our  MS. 

^  The  lunar  cycle  referred  to  here  consists  of  21  years,  as  stated 
supra,  p.  43.     The  solar  cycle  consists  of  2S  years,  see  supra,  p.  34. 

^  God's  day  equals  1000  years,  therefore  i  hour  (reckoning  12  hours 
to  the  day)  equals  83^  years.  The  third  part  of  the  year  is  reckoned 
as  a  whole  year.  This  is  another  instance  of  the  use  of  fractions  as 
whole  numbers,  which  seems  to  be  a  characteristic  of  our  author.  The 
Church  Fathers  use  this  idea  of  God's  day  lasting  1000  years ;  see 
Justin  Martyr,  Dialogue  with  Trypho,  Ixxxi.,  and  Irenaeus,  adv.  Hcsr. 
v.  28.  3  ;  and  cf.  Slavonic  Enoch  xxxiii.  i  f. 

*  That  is,  they  begin  their  courses  as  at  the  Creation. 

^  This  refers  to  the  echpses.  It  is  not  clear  what  the  60  or  40  degrees 
or  ascents  mean  here. 

®  The  first  editions  read:  "The  decree  of  the  King  is  made  public 
by  a  word."  See  Jalkut,  Jer.  §  285.  Instead  of  the  reading  "  by  a 
word  "  Luria  suggests  the  reading  "  in  the  world,"  referring  to  the 
eclipses  which  are  visible  over  a  large  portion  of  the  world. 


50  RABBI  ELIEZER 

be  He,  makes  the  moon  dim  and  hides  one  of  the  Synhedrion.^ 
When  Israel  does  the  will  of  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  in 
His  great  mercy  He  makes  the  sun  dim  and  He  sends  forth 
His  anger  upon  the  nations  of  the  world,-  as  it  is  said, 
"  Thus  saith  the  Lord,  Learn  not  the  way  of  the  nations, 
and  be  not  dismayed  at  the  signs  of  heaven,^  for  the  nations 
are  dismayed  at  them  "  (Jer.  x.  2).-*  Just  as  the  moon's 
light  does  not  rule  over  the  sun's  light  ^  by  day,  nor  does 
the  sun's  light  rule  over  the  moon's  light  ^  by  night,  likewise 
the  calculation  of  the  moon  does  not  rule  by  day  nor  does 
the  calculation  of  the  sun  (obtain)  by  night,'  and  the  one 
does  not  trespass  on  the  boundary  of  the  other. ^ 

The  dwelling  of  the  moon  is  between  cloud  and  thick 
darkness  ^  made  like  two  dishes  turned  one  over  the  other, i" 
and  when  it  is  the  conjunction  of  the  moon  these  two  clouds 
turn  in  the  east  quarter  ^^  and  (the  moon)  goes  forth  from 
between  them  ^-  like  a  ram's  horn.^^  On  the  first  nicfht 
(is  revealed)  one  measure  (of  light),  on  the  second  night 

1  Cf.  T.B.  Synhedrin,  37a,  and  Cant.  Rab.  on  Cant.  vii.  3.  Here  "  to 
hide  "  means  to  conceal  in  the  future  Ufe  ;  this,  in  other  words,  is  a 
warning  not  to  neglect  the  intercalation.  According  to  the  Jesod  'Olam 
iii.  17  the  moon  is  the  "chief"  of  the  Synhedrion,  which  dies  at  the 
eclipse  by  being  hidden.     For  eclipse  in  N.T.  see  Luke  xxiii.  44,  45. 

-  The  first  editions  read  here  also  "  the  nations  of  the  world." 
Later  editions  read  :  "  worshippers  of  idols." 

^  The  first  editions  continue  the  verse. 

■•  Some  of  the  old  editions  read  here :  "  the  nations  (or  according 
to  the  Prague  edition  '  the  worshippers  of  idols  ')  are  dismayed,  but 
not  Israel."  See  Pseudo-Seder  Elijahu  Zutta  (ed.  Friedmann,  p.  10 
and  note  40)  on  the  eclipses,  where  the  Talmudic  and  Midrashic 
sources  are  fully  given.  The  astronomical  question  is  treated  at 
length  in  Israeh's  Jesod  "Olam,  loc.  cit. ;  see  also  ]Maimonides,  Hilkhoth 
Kiddnsh  Ha-Chodesh. 

*  According  to  Slavonic  Enoch  xvi.  7  the  moon  shines  with  her 
own  light. 

•"'  See  T.B.  ChuUin,  Gob.    When  the  sun  is  invisible  the  moon  shines. 
^  The  first  editions  read  :  "  We  do  not  count  the  calculation  of  the 
sun  at  night,  nor  the  calculation  of  the  moon  by  day." 

*  Sec,  however.  Gen.  Rab.  vi.  3  for  the  opposite  opinion.  Accord- 
ing to  Lev.  Rab.  xxvi.  4  the  sun  and  moon  borrow  light  from  one 
another. 

'  This  is  based  on  Job  xxxviii.  9.  On  the  text  see  Buber's  intro- 
duction to  Sepher  Ha-Orah,  p.  119. 

1"  The  first  printed  editions  insert  here  :  "  and  (the  moon)  goes  forth 
from  between  them." 

"  The  first  printed  editions  read  :  "  turn  their  faces  to  the  west 
quarter." 

»*  See  Singer,  p.  128:  "  bringing  forth  the  sun  from  his  place,  and 
the  moon  fiom  her  dwelling." 

**  At  rising. 


THE  COURSE  OF  THE  MOON        51 

the  second  measure,  and  so  on  until  the  half  of  the  month 
when  the  moon  is  fully  revealed,  and  from  the  middle  of  the 
month  these  two  clouds  turn  their  faces  in  the  west  quarter.^ 
The  corner  {i.e.  crescent)  of  the  moon  with  which  it  comes 
forth  first,-^  (the  same)  begins  to  enter  and  is  covered  therein 
by  the  two  (clouds)  on  the  first  night  ^  (by)  one  measure,  on 
the  second  night  (by)  a  second  measure,  and  so  on  to  the  end 
of  the  month  until  ||  it  is  entirely  covered.  And  whence  do 
we  know  that  it  is  placed  between  two  clouds  ?  Because 
it  is  said,  "  When  I  made  the  cloud  the  garment  thereof, 
and  thick  darkness  ^  a  swaddlingband  for  it "  (Job  xxxviii. 
9).  And  whence  do  we  know  that  it  becomes  entirely 
covered  ?  Because  it  is  said,  "  Blow  ye  the  trumpet  in 
the  new  moon,  at  the  covering,^  on  our  solemn  feast  day  " 
(Ps.  Ixxxi.  3).  "  At  the  covering,"  on  the  day  when  it  is 
entirely  covered,  blow  ye  the  trumpet  in  the  new  moon.^ 

^  This  is  also  the  reading  of  the  ist  ed.  The  Venice  edition  reads : 
"  in  the  quarter  of  the  east." 

2  See  Jalkut  Makhiri,  Ps.  Ixxxi.  14.  pp.  25a,  b,  and  Jalkut,  Job 
xxxviii.  9,  S  923. 

*  After  full  moon. 

*  The  first  editions  give  the  next  word  of  the  text,  whereas  our 
MS.  has  "  etc." 

^  "  Covering  ";  see  'Arukh  (ed.  Kohut),  iv.  p.  266a,  which  has  a 
different  text  of  our  passage.  For  further  reference  to  the  sun  and 
moon  see  T.J.  Berakhoth  i.  i. ;  T.J.  Rosh  Ha-Shanah  11.  5.  58a  ;  Shocher 
Tob  (Ps.  xix.),  pp.  168  f . ;  Pesikta  de  R.  Kahana,  P.  Ha-Chodesh,  41b  f . ; 
and  Ex.  Rab.  xv.  22. 

*  This  verse  of  Ps.  Ixxxi.  3  is  applied  by  the  Liturgy  (see  Singer, 
p.  115)  and  by  the  Midrashim  {e.g.  Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  Ixxxi.  §  5)  to  the 
New  Year.  The  fact  that  the  Shophar  (ram's  horn)  was  mentioned  a 
few  lines  previously  seems  to  point  to  this  section  as  forming  part  of 
a  Midrash  for  the  New  Year. 


CHAPTER    Villi 

THE    PRINCIPLE    OF   INTERCALATION    [9 A.  i.] 

On  the  28th  of  EHul  the  sun  and  the  moon  were  created.^ 
The  number  of  years,  months,  days,  nights,^  terms,  seasons, 
cycles,  and  intercalation  were  before  the  Holy  One,  blessed 
be  He,^  and  He  intercalated  the  years  and  afterwards  He 
delivered  the  (calculations)  to  the  first  man  in  the  garden 
of  Eden,^  as  it  is  said,  "  This  is  the  calculation  "  for  the 
generations  of  Adam  "  (Gen.  v.  1),  the  calculation  of  the 
world  is  therein  for  the  generations  of  the  children  of 
Adam. 

Adam  handed  on  the  tradition  to  Enoch, ^  who  was 
initiated  in  the  principle  of  intercalation,  and  he  intercalated 
the  year,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Enoch  walked  with  God  " 
{ibid.  22).  Enoch  walked  in  the  ways  of  the  calculation 
concerning  the  world  which  God  had  delivered  to  Adam. 

1  This  is  ch.  vii.  in  the  MS.  The  printed  editions  present  a  good 
deal  of  the  material  in  this  chapter  in  a  different  order  to  that  of  our 
MS. 

-  See  T.B.  Rosh  Ha-Shanah,  iia  and  27a,  for  the  view  of  R.  EUezer 
that  the  world  was  created  in  Tishri.  The  heavenly  bodies  were 
created  on  Ellul  the  28th.  The  work  of  creation  began  on  the  25th 
of  Ellul,  see  also  Lev.  Rab.  xxix.  i.  In  the  preceding  chapters  the 
assumption  was  that  the  Creation  took  place  in  Nisan,  cl.  siipy.i,  pp. 
351.,  47.  This  opinion  has  also  the  support  of  the  Talmud  B.  Rosh 
Ha-Shanah,  12a.  Part  of  this  chapter  is  quoted  in  the  "  Mcgillah  of 
Abiathar,"  edited  by  Schechter  in  J.Q.R.  xiv.  pp.  463  ff. 

3  The  first  editions  add:   "  hours."     Cf.  Wisdom  vii.  i8f. 

*  See  Gen.  Rab.  iii.  7  as  to  the  calculations  prior  to  the  Creation. 

*  In  a  holy  place ;  for,  according  to  our  book,  the  Garden  of  Eden 
was  near  Mount  Moriah  in  Palestine.     See  infra,  p.  143. 

^  See  supra,  p.  4S,  note  7,  and  cf.  T.J.  Rosh  Ha-Shanah  i.  3.  57b 
and  Pesikta  de  R.  Kahana  P.  Ha-Chodcsh,  p.  43b. 

'  The  mention  of  Enoch  in  connection  with  the  Calendar  is  signi- 
ficant, suggesting  an  acquaintance  with  the  Calendar  systems  associated 
with  Enoch  in  the  pseudepigraphic  literature.  The  fact  that  accord- 
ing to  the  O.T.  Enoch  lived  365  years  is  also  noteworthy  in  this 
connection. 

52 


PRINCIPLE  OF  INTERCALATION     53 

And  Enoch  delivered  the  principle  of  intercalation  to  Noah,^ 
and  he  was  initiated  in  the  principle  of  intercalation,  and 
he  intercalated  the  year,  as  it  is  said,^  "  While  the  earth 
remaineth,^  seed-time  and  harvest,  and  cold  and  heat, 
and  summer  and  Avinter"  {ibid.  viii.  22).  "Seed-time" 
refers  to  the  Tekuphah  of  Tishri,*  "harvest"  refers  to 
the  Tekuphah  of  Nisan,  "  cold  "  refers  to  the  Tekuphah 
of  Tebeth,  and  "  heat "  refers  to  the  Tekuphah  of 
Tammuz ;  "  summer  "  is  in  its  season  and  "  winter  "  is 
in  its  season.'' 

The  counting  of  the  sun  is  by  day  ||  and  the  counting  of 
the  moon  is  by  night,  "  they  shall  not  cease."  ^ 

Noah  handed  on  the  tradition  to  Shem,  and  he  was 
initiated  in  the  principle  of  intercalation  ;  he  intercalated 
the  years  and  he  was  called  a  priest,  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
Melchizedek  '  king  of  Salem  .  .  .  was  a  priest  of  God  Most 
High  "  {ibid.  xiv.  18).  Was  Shem  the  son  of  Noah  a  priest  ? 
But  because  he  was  the  first-born,  and  because  he  ministered 
to  his  God  by  day  and  by  night,  therefore  was  he  called  a 
priest.^  Shem  delivered  the  tradition  to  Abraham  ;  he  was 
initiated  in  the  principle  of  intercalation  and  he  intercalated 
the  year,  and  he  (also)  was  called  priest,  as  it  is  said,  "  The 

1  This  should  probably  read  "  Methuselah,"  and  the  text  should 
continue,  "  who  handed  it  on  to  Noah." 

2  Luria's  text  here  needs  correction. 

^  The  rest  of  the  verse  is  given  by  the  first  editions. 

*  Pal.  Targum  of  this  verse  reads  :  "  During  all  the  days  of  the  earth, 
(there  shall  be)  sowing  at  the  Tekuphah  of  Tishri,  and  harvest  at  the 
Tekuphah  of  Nisan,  cold  at  the  Tekuphah  of  Tebeth  and  warmth  at  the 
Tekuphah  of  Tammuz,  and  summer  and  winter,  and  days  and  night 
shall  not  fail."  Tekuphah  means  not  only  season,  but  also  the  time  of 
solstice  and  equinox  according  to  the  season. 

*  The  "  Megillah  of  Abiathar,"  p.  463,  adds  :  "  summer  in  its  season 
and  winter  in  its  season." 

®  This  section  is  based  on  the  text  "  day  and  night  shall  not  cease  " 
(Gen.  viii.  22). 

'  Melchizedek  is  identified  by  our  book  with  Shem.  According 
to  T.B.  Nedarim,  32b,  the  priestly  office  held  by  Melchizedek's  successors 
passed  to  those  of  Abraham ;  see  Beer,  Btich  der  Jubilden,  p.  74.  The 
question  of  the  identification  of  Shem  with  Melchizedek  occurs  in  the 
Talmud  [loc.  cit.  in  this  note),  and  see  Buber's  note  18  on  p.  30  of  the 
Midrash  Agadah,  cf.  also  Pal.  Targum  and  Jer.  Targum  on  Gen.  xiv.  18, 
and  Gen.  Rab.  xliii.  6  and  Ivi.  9.  See  also  the  note  of  Charles  in  his 
ed.  of  Jubilees,  p.  loi.  A  considerable  part  of  this  section  of  our  text 
occurs  in  Jalkut  Makhiri,  Ps.  ex.  16,  but  the  quotation  from  Gen.  xiv.  18 
is  omitted.     There  are  other  variations  in  the  text. 

*  The  verse  from  Gen.  xiv.  18  occurs  here  in  the  printed  editions, 
and  not  above  as  in  our  MS. 


54  RABBI  EI.IEZER 

Lord  hath  sworn,  and  will  not  repent,^  Thou  art  a  priest  for 
ever  after  the  order  2  of  Melchizedek"  (Ps.  ex.  4).  Whence 
do  we  know  that  Shem  delivered  the  tradition  to  Abraham  ? 
Because  it  is  said,  "  After  the  order  of  Melchizedek  " 
(ibid.).  Abraham  delivered  the  tradition  to  Isaac,  and  he 
was  initiated  in  the  principle  of  intercalation,  and  he  inter- 
calated the  year  after  the  death  of  our  father  Abraham,  as 
it  is  said,  "  And  it  came  to  pass  after  the  death  of  Abraham, 
that  God  blessed  Isaac  his  son  "  (Gen.  xxv.  11),  because 
he  had  been  initiated  in  the  principle  of  intercalation  and 
had  intercalated  the  year  (therefore)  He  blessed  him  \\ith 
the  blessing  of  eternity.^  Isaac  gave  to  Jacob  '^  all  the 
blessings  and  delivered  to  him  the  principle  of  intercalation. 
When  Jacob  went  out  of  the  (Holy)  Land,  he  attempted  to 
intercalate  the  year  outside  the  (Holy)  Land.  The  Holy 
One,  blessed  be  He,  said  to  him :  Jacob !  Thou  hast  no 
authority  to  intercalate  the  year  outside  the  land  (of  Israel) ; 
behold,  Isaac  thy  father  is  in  the  (Holy)  Land,''  he  will  inter- 
calate the  year,  as  it  is  said,  "And  God  appeared  unto 
Jacob  again,  ||  when  he  came  from  Paddan-Aram,  and  blessed 
him  "  {ibid.  xxxv.  9).  Why  "  again  "  ?  Because  the 
first  time  He  was  revealed  to  him.  He  prevented  him 
from  intercalating  the  year  outside  the  (Holy)  Land  ;  but 
when  he  came  to  the  (Holy)  Land  the  Holy  One,  blessed 

1  The  rest  of  the  verse  is  not  given  by  the  MS.,  which  merelvadds 
"  etc." 

-  Cf .  Heb.  V.  6  ff . ,  on  this  theme.  The  Hebrew  'man  might  suggest  the 
meaning  of  "ruling"  ;  the  Oxford  Gesenius,  p.  184,  renders  the  word  : 
"  after  the  order,"  or  "  manner  of."  Is  it  merely  a  coincidence  that 
the  Test.  XII  Pat.,  Benj.  x.  6,  mentions  the  same  names  as  in  our  text 
and  in  the  same  order  ? — "  Then  shall  ye  see  Enoch,  Noah,  and  Shem, 
and  Abraham,  and  Isaac,  and  Jacob." 

»  Or  "  of  the  world." 

*  See  Jalkut  Makhiri,  Pss.  loc.  cit.,  which  reads  :  "  And  Isaac  handed 
on  to  Jacob  all  the  blessings,  and  handed  to  him  the  principle  of  inter- 
calation," confirming  the  accuracy  of  the  text  o^  our  MS.  The  printed 
editions  read  :  "  Isaac  delivered  the  tradition  to  Jacob,  and  he  was  initi- 
ated in  the  principle  of  intercalation,  and  he  intercalated  the  year." 

^  Although  Isaac  was  blind,  nevertheless  the  duty  of  intercalating 
the  year  devolved  upon  him  and  not  upon  Jacob  when  absent  from  the 
Holy  Land.  The  Church  offers  a  parallel  to  the  subject-matter  of 
our  text  in  the  famous  controversy  as  to  the  right  calculation  for 
Easter ;  see  the  epistle  sent  to  Pope  Hilarus  by  Victorius  in  the  fifth 
century.  In  this  letter  we  have  several  references  to  the  lunar  cycle 
of  84  years  which  also  occurs  in  our  book.  (For  text  see  Thalhofer's 
Bibliothek  der  Kirchenvdter,  Die  Briefe  der  Piipstc,  vi.  pp.  16-30;  cf. 
also  Ideler,  Handbuch  der  Chronologic,  11,  p.  276,  and  see  also  "The 
Paschal  Canon  of  Anatolius  of  Alexandria,"  in  A  .X.C.L.  xiv.  pp.  411  &.) 


PRINCIPLE  OF  INTERCALATION     55 

be  He,  said  to  him :  Jacob !  Arise,  intercalate  the  year,  as 
it  is  said,  "  And  God  appeared  unto  Jacob  again,  .  .  .  and 
blessed  him  "  (ibid.),  because  he  was  initiated  in  the  principle 
of  the  intercalation,  and  He  blessed  him  (with)  the  blessing 
of  the  world.^ 

Jacob  delivered  to  Joseph  and  his  brethren  the  principle 
of  intercalation,  and  they  intercalated  the  year  in  the  land 
of  Egypt.  (When)  Joseph  and  his  brethren  died,  the  inter- 
calations ceased  from  Israel  in  Egypt,  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
Joseph  died,  and  all  his  brethren,  and  all  that  generation  " 
(Ex.  i.  6).  Just  as  the  intercalations  were  diminished  from 
the  Israelites  in  the  land^  of  Egypt,  likewise  in  the  future 
will  the  intercalations  be  diminished  at  the  end  of  the 
fourth  kingdom^  until  Elijah,  be  he  remembered  for  good, 
shall  come.*  Just  as  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  was  re- 
vealed to  Moses  and  Aaron  in  Egypt,  likewise  in  the  future  will 
He  be  revealed  to  them  ^  at  the  end  of  the  fourth  kingdom,^ 
as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  Lord  spake  unto  Moses  and  Aaron 
in  the  land  of  Egypt  saying,'^  This  month  shall  be  unto  you 
the  beginning  of  months  "  (ibid.  xii.  1,  2).  What  is  the  signi- 
ficance of  the  word  "  saying  "  ?  Say  to  them,^  Till  now  ^  the 
principle  of  intercalation  was  with  Me,  henceforth  it  is  your 
right  to  intercalate   thereby  the    year.^"      Thus  were   the 

'  i.e.  the  revelation  of  the  Divine  Name  El  Shaddai.  "  When  I 
suspend  judgment  concerning  man's  sins,  I  am  called  El  Shaddai," 
says  the  Midrash  Tanchuma,  Shemoth,  §  xx.,  and  cf.  infra,  pp.  264  ff. 
In  the  first  editions  here  follows  the  section  beginning  with  the  words : 
"  Hence  the  (Sages)  have  said." 

2  The  first  editions  read  :  "  the  Egyptian  bondage." 

^  The  first  editions  read  here  :  "  bondage  of  the  fourth  kingdom." 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  until  King  Messiah  shall  come."  This 
sign,  due  to  the  ignorance  which  will  obtain  in  the  period  just  before  the 
advent  of  the  Messiah,  is  to  be  compared  with  the  "  woes  of  the  Messianic 
age"  in  Jubilees  xxiii.  19:  "  For  they  have  forgotten  commandment, 
and  covenant,  and  feasts,  and  months,  and  Sabbaths,  and  jubilees." 

*  The  Venice  ed.  reads :  "  to  us." 

*  Some  editions  read  "  exile,"  or  "  bondage." 

'  The  MS.  does  not  continue  the  verse ;  the  first  editions  add  :  "  This 
month  shall  be  unto  you." 

^  The  first  editions  add  :  "  to  Israel." 

*  From  the  death  of  Joseph  during  the  period  of  bondage. 

^^  See  Pesikta  de  R.  Kahana,  loc.  cit.,  which  reads:  "it  (the 
principle  of  intercalation)  is  delivered  unto  you."  See  also  T.J. 
Rosh  Ha-Shanah  i.  13.  57d  and  Ex.  Rab.  xv.  2.  The  order  of  the 
narrative  here  in  the  MS.  differs  from  that  of  the  printed  texts.  On 
the  astronomical  knowledge  of  Moses,  see  Clement  of  Alexandria, 
Strom.  I.  xxiii.,  and  cf.  Acts  vii.  22. 


56  RABBI  ELIEZER 

Israelites  wont  to  intercalate  the  year  in  the  (Holy)  Land. 
When  they  were  exiled  to  Babylon  ||  they  intercalated  the 
year  through  those  who  were  left  in  the  (Holy)  Land.  When 
they  were  all  exiled  and  there  were  not  any  (Jews)  left  in 
the  (Holy)  Land/  they  intercalated  the  year  in  Babylon. 
(When)  Ezra  and  all  the  community  with  him  ^  went  (to 
Palestine),  Ezekiel  ^  wished  to  intercalate  the  year  in  Babylon; 
(then)  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  said  to  him  :  Ezekiel  ! 
Thou  hast  no  authority  to  intercalate  the  year  outside  the 
Land  ;  behold,  Israel  thy  brethren,^  they  will  intercalate 
the  year,^  as  it  is  said,  "  Son  of  man,  when  the  house  of 
Israel  dwell  in  their  own  land  "  (Ezek.  xxxvi.  17).  Hence 
(the  Sages)  have  said.  Even  when  the  righteous  and  the 
wise  are  outside  the  Land,  and  the  keeper  of  sheep  and  herds 
are  in  the  Land,  they  do  not  intercalate  the  year  ^  except 
through  the  keeper  of  sheep  and  herds  in  the  Land.  Even 
when  prophets  arc  outside  the  Land  and  the  ignorant '^ 
are  in  the  Land  they  do  not  intercalate  the  year  except 
through  the  ignorant  who  are  in  the  land  (of  Israel),^  as  it 
is  said,  "  Son  of  man,  when  the  house  of  Israel  dwell  in  their 
ozvn  land  "{ibid.)  it  is  their  duty  to  intercalate  the  year. 

On  account  of  three  things  -'  is  the  year  intercalated, 
on  account  of  trees,  grass,  and  the  seasons  (Tekuphoth). 
If  two   of  these  (signs)   be  available   and   not   the   third, 

^  After  the  murder  of  Gedaliah ;  see  T.B.  Sabbath,  145b,  and  Seder 
'Olam  Kab.  xxvii.  p.  62a.     Tho  Land  =  Pal 'Stine. 

-  This  is  based  on  Ezra  ii.  i  ;   cf.  T.B.  'Arakhin,  13a  and  32a. 

^  On  the  question  whether  Ezekiel  could  have  been  a  contemporary 
of  Ezra,  see  Rashi  on  Ezek.  xxix.  (end),  and  cf.  infra,  p.  249.  The 
spt  csal  privileges  attached  to  the  Holy  Land  are  noteworthy  in  con- 
sidering th  '  provenance  of  our  book. 

*  i.e.  your  brethren  in  the  land  of  Israel,  see  2  Kings  xxv.  22  and 
Jer.  xliii.  5. 

*  The  order  of  narrative  in  our  MS. differs  from  that  of  the  printed  texts. 

*  This  passage  if  rendered  literally  reads:  "  Even  the  righteous  and 
the  wise  outside  the  Land  and  the  keeper  of  sheep  and  herds  in  the 
Land,  then  the  year  is  intercalated  only  by  the  keeper  of  sheep  and 
herds."  See  T.B.  Synhedrin,  i8b  and  26a,  for  instances  of  intercala- 
tion by  shepherds.  Cf.  the  narrative  of  the  Magi  and  the  Star  in 
Matt.  ii.  I  ff. 

'Or  "commoners"  (t3vin  =  t5iurr7?5),  see  T.B.  Nedarim,  78a.  For 
an  instance  of  intercalation  outside  Palestine  see  T.B.  Berakhoth, 
63a,  and  cf.  Tosaphoth  on  Jebamoth,  115a. 

"  The  printed  editions  differ  from  our  MS.  here  with  reference  to 
the  arrangement  of  the  material. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  signs."  This  is  also  the  reading  in  the 
Oxford  MS.  (d.  35).     See  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  p.  221,  note  3. 


PRINCIPLE  OF  INTERCALATION     57 

they  do  not  intercalate  the  year,  (that  is  to  say)  neither 
because  of  the  trees  nor  because  of  the  grass.  If  one  (sign)  ^ 
be  available  and  the  other  two  be  absent,  they  do  not  inter- 
calate the  year  on  account  of  the  Tekuphoth.^  If  the 
Tekuphah  of  Tebeth  had  occurred  on  the  20th  ^  day  of  !|  the 
month  or  later,  they  intercalate  the  year ;  but  till  the  20th 
day  of  the  month  Tebeth  or  earlier  they  do  not  intercalate 
the  year. 

The  cycle  of  intercalation  is  19  years,  and  there  are 
7  small  cycles  ^  therein  ;  some  of  these  are  (separated  by) 
3  years,  some  (by)  2  years,  others  (are  separated  by)  3  or 
2  years,  or  (by)  3,  3,  and  3  years  (the  order  of  the  cycles 
being)  :  3rd,  6th,  8th,  11th,  14th,  17th,  and  19th  years. 
There  are  two  (sets)  of  three  years'  cycles.^ 

^  i.e.  the  Tekuphah.  Luria  thinks  that  the  reading  should  be  as 
follows  :  "If  two  signs  be  available  and  not  the  third  we  intercalate 
on  account  of  the  presence  of  the  trees  and  the  grass  ;  if  one  sign  be 
available  and  the  other  two  be  absent  we  do  not  intercalate  on  account 
of  the  Tekuphah"  (see  T.B.  Synhedrin,  12a,  b,  and  cf.  T.B.  Rosh 
Ha-Shanah,  21a). 

2  "  This  is  an  error,  "  says  Luria ;  "  it  should  be  the  i6th  "  ;  see  T.B. 
Rosh  Ha-Shanah,  loc.  cit.,  and  T.B.  Synhedrin,  13a  :  for  if  the  Tekuphah 
of  Tebeth  fell  on  the  2  ist  of  Tebeth,  then  the  Tekuphah  of  Nisan  would  be 
on  the  24th  of  Nisan  (91  days'  interval),  which  is  the  day  after  Passover, 
accordingly  Passover  would  not  be  in  Abib  (the  Tekuphah  in  Nisan), 
and  therefore  Adar  Sheni  should  be  intercalated.  The  reading  in  our  text 
(the  20th)  is  approved  by  Schwarz  {Der  jiidische  Kalender,  p.  36,  note  3). 
The  "  Megillah  of  Abiathar  "  {op.  cit.  p.  471)  reads:  "  If  the  Tekuphah 
of  Tebeth  had  occurred  from  half  (of  the  month)  and  later  they  inter- 
calate the  year,  but  till  half  (of  the  month)  and  earlier  they  do  not 
intercalate  the  year."  The  printed  editions  read  :  "  If  the  Tekuphah 
had  occurred  by  the  20th  day  of  the  month  or  earlier  they  intercalate 
the  year  ;  but  from  the  20th  day  of  the  month  or  later  they  do  not 
intercalate  the  year."  This  is  clearly  wrong.  The  correct  reading  is 
preserved  by  our  MS.,  which  is  confirmed  by  the  Oxford  MS.  (d.  35). 
On  this  subject  see  Maimonides,  Kiddush  Ha-Chodesh  iv.  2,  Schiirer, 
i.  (3rd  ed.),  pp.  752  ff.  ;  F.  K.  Ginzel,  Handbuch  der  Matheniatischen 
und  Technischen  Chronologie,  ii.  p.  67  ;  and  'L.V^ves.chner, Samaritanische 
Traditionen,  p.  10.  In  the  past  year  (5675)  the  Tekuphah  of  Tebeth 
fell  on  Wednesday,  January  6,  1915,  at  10.30  p.m.,  i.e.  the  fifth  day 
of  the  Hebrew  week,  the  21st  of  Tebeth,  and  the  Tekuphah  of  Nisan  fell 
on  Thursday,  April  8,  1915,  at  6  a.m.,  i.e.  the  24th  of  Nisan,  after  the 
termination  of  the  Passover  festival.  The  rule  in  our  text  does  not 
apply  now  in  actual  practice.     See  Jozeroth,  ed.  Arnheim,  p.  73. 

'  The  first  editions  read :  "  they  intercalate  the  year  on  account  of 
the  Tekuphoth."  This  reading  agrees  with  "  Megillah  of  Abiathar," 
p.  469. 

*  Of  intercalated  years. 

'  Our  text  has  the  following  order  of  years,  3rd,  6th  (the  3rd  after 
the  preceding  year  of  intercalation),  the  8th  {i.e.  two  years  after  the 
preceding  year),  nth  (again  three  years'  interval),  14th  (again  three 
years'  interval),  17th  (three  years'  interval),  and  the  19th  year  (two 


58  RABBI  ELIEZER 

The  intercalation  takes  place  in  the  presence  of 
three ;  ^  Rabbi  Eliczer  says  that  ten  (men  are  re- 
quired), as  it  is  said,  "  God  standeth  in  the  congregation  - 
of  God  "3  (Ps.  Ixxxii.  1),  and  if  they  become  less  '  than 
ten,  since  they  are  diminished  they  place  a  scroll  of  the 
Torah  before  them,^  and  they  are  seated  in  a  circle  in  the 
court-room,<5  and  the  greatest  (among  them)  sits  first,'  and 
the  least  sits  last ;  and  they  direct  their  gaze  downwards  ^ 
to  the  earth  and  (then)  they  stand  and  spread  out  their 
hands  •*  before  their  Father  who  is  in  heaven,  and  the  chief 
of  the  assembly  i°  proclaims  ^^  the  name  (of  God),  and  they 

years'  interval).  On  this  question  see  Ginzel,  op.  cit.  pn.  75f.  ;  and  cf. 
Jesod  'Olam  iv.  ii.  p.  63b,  and  the  works  on  the  Calendar  by  Lewisohn, 
p.  40,  and  Schwarz,  p.  78.  According  to  the  Oxford  MS.  (d.  35)  the 
text  should  read  thus:  the  3rd,  5th,  8th,  nth,  14th,  i6th,  and  19th, 
agreeing  with  the  cycle  of  Meton  the  Greek  astronomer,  with  the 
exception  that  the  latter  has  the  13th  year  instead  of  the  14th 
year. 

^  Men  who  know  the  principle  of  intercalation. 

-  The  "  congregation  "  consists  of  ten,  the  Minyan  ;  this  is  derived 
from  the  use  of  the  word  "  congregation  "  in  connection  with  the  ten 
spies  who  brought  a  false  report  to  Moses  in  the  wilderness  (Num. 
xiv.  27).  The  Oxford  MS.  (d.  35)  reads  here  :  "  '  In  the  congregation 
of  God.'  'Congregation'  means  only  ten  (men),  as  it  is  said:  'How 
long  shall  I  bear  with  this  evil  congregation,'"  etc.  (Num.  xiv.  27). 
See  "  Mcgillah  of  Abiathar,"  pp.  469  f. 

^  Or  "  in  the  congregation  of  the  mighty."  For  the  occasions  when 
a  Minyan  is  necessary,  see  Mishnah  Megillah  iv.  3,  tractate  Sopherim 
X.  S,  and  infra,  pp.  127  f.  The  Talmud  B.  Synhedrin,  70b,  also  re- 
quires ten  men  at  the  intercalation,  and  cf .  Ex.  Rab.  xv.  20. 

''  e.g.  if  one  or  more  of  the  ten  men  go  away,  see  T.B.  Berakhoth, 
47b.  Luria  thinks  that  the  text  is  corrupt,  reading  "  when  they  had 
deUberated  "  instead  of  "  if  they  become  less."  The  MSS.  do  not 
support  this  suggested  emendation. 

•'  To  read  therein  the  section  deahng  with  the  Calendar  (Ex.  xii.  i  f.). 

*  Such  as  was  used  by  the  Synhedrion  at  Jerusalem;  see  T.B.  Syn- 
hedrin, 35b,  36b,  and  So'pherim  xix.  9. 

'  See  T.B.  Baba  Bathra,  120b,  for  order  of  procedure  ;  for  a  Biblical 
parallel  see  Gen.  xhii.  33.  The  text  means  literally:  "And  they  sit, 
the  greatest  according  to  his  greatness,  and  the  least  according  to  his 
littleness." 

^  See  Lev.  ix.  24  for  "  falling  on  the  face,"  and  see  Ezek.  li.  28. 

*  See  Lam.  iii.  41  ;  Targ.  Onkelos  on  Gen.  xiv.  22,  and  cf.  T.B. 
Jebamoth,  105b. 

i»  The  "  Rosh  Yeshibah  "  points  to  Palestine  or  to  the  schools  of 
the  Geonim  in  Babylon,  or  to  the  Academies  in  Egypt;  see  J.Q.R. 
xiv.  p.  450,  note  i. 

^1  i.e.  the  benediction  on  reading  the  Torah;  see  Singer,  p.  68.  It 
probably  means  that  the  Ineffable  Name  was  pronounced.  The 
"Megillah  of  Abiathar,"  p.  469.  recounts  how  the  Inthablc  Name 
was  mentioned  with  "  sanctification,  greater  than  that  of  the 
Day  of  Atonement  when  the  High  Priest  pronounced  it  seven 
times." 


PRINCIPLE  OF  INTERCALATION     59 

hear  a  Bath  Kol  ^  (saying)  the  following  words,^  "  And  the 
Lord  spake  unto  Moses  and  Aaron  .  .  .  saying,^  This  month 
shall  be  unto  you  "  (Ex.  xii.  1,  2). 

If,  owing  to  the  iniquity  of  the  generation,  they  do  not 
hear  anything  at  all ;  '*  then,  if  one  may  say  so,^  He  is  unable 
to  let  His  glory  abide  among  them.  Happy  were  they  who 
stood  in  that  place  ^  in  that  hour,'  as  it  is  said, "  Happy  is 
the  people  who  know  the  joyful  sound :  ®  they  walk,  O  Lord, 
in  the  light  of  thy  countenance  "  (Ps.  Ixxxix.  15) ;  in  the 
light  of  the  countenance  of  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He, 
they  walk.^ 

On  the  New  Moon  of  Nisan  |1  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be 
He,  was  revealed  to  Moses  and  Aaron  in  the  land  of  Egypt, 
and  it  was  the  15th  ^°  year  of  the  great  cycle  of  the  moon, 
the  16th  year  of  the  cycle  of  intercalation,^^  (and  He  said) : 
"  henceforward  the  counting  devolves  on  you."  ^^ 

^  The  Heavenly  Voice;  see  Mark  i.  ii,  and  cf.  Rabbinic  Philosophy 
and  Ethics,  p.  195,  note  4. 

^  Lit.  "  according  to  this  expression."  The  Oxford  MS.  (d.  35) 
adds :  "as  it  is  said." 

^  The  MS.  does  not  continue  the  quotation. 

*  R.  Eliezer  was  permitted  to  hear  the  Bath  Kol.  See  T.B.  Baba 
Mezi'a,  59b,  and  T.B.  Sotah,  4^b.  In  later  times  this  privilege  was 
withdrawn  because  of  the  sins  of  the  people. 

^  On  this  term  see  Bacher,  Terminologie,  i.  pp.  72  f . 

*  i.e.  the  court  room  of  the  Synhedrion.  The  reference  is  to  the 
good  days  of  old,  long  before  our  book  was  written. 

'  When  the  intercalation  took  place  ;  this  was  at  night.  Accord- 
ing to  the  "  Megillah  of  Abiathar,"  p.  471,  the  intercalation  took  place 
by  day;  see  T.B.  Synhedrin,  iib. 

®  i.e.  the  Teru'ah  or  trumpet  blast.  The  various  features  of  this 
ceremony  have  a  parallel  in  the  ceremonies  of  the  Ban  mentioned 
infra,  p.  301.     Are  we  dealing  with  a  Geonic  institution  ? 

^  Luria  infers  from  our  narrative  that  the  Shophar  was  sounded  at 
the  intercalation  ceremony;  see  T.B.  Synhedrin,  loc.  cii.,  and  Tosephta 
Synhedrin  ii.  7  ff.,  p.  417,  on  this  ceremony. 

"  Luria  corrects  this  and  reads  "  the  12th."  On  the  date  of  the 
Exodus  see  Seder 'Olam  Rab.  v.  pp.  iibf. 

"  Of  19  years. 

12  Sec  the  "  Megillah  of  Abiathar,"  p.  464.  On  the  important 
question  as  to  the  probable  origin  of  P.R.E.  in  connection  with  the 
intercalation,  see  J.Q.R.  (New  Series)  i.  pp.  64  f. 


CHAPTER    IXi 

THE    CREATION    AND   WONDERS    OF   THE   FIFTH    DAY    [IOa.    ii.] 

On  the  fifth  day  -  He  caused  the  waters  to  bring  forth 
abundantly  all  kinds  of  winged  fowls,  male  and  female, 
unelean  and  clean.  By  two  signs  ^  arc  thej^  declared  to  be 
clean,  by  the  crop,  and  by  the  craw  peeling  off.  Rabbi 
Eliezer  said :  (Another  sign  was)  also  by  the  projecting 
toe  of  the  claw.  Two  kinds  of  birds  have  been  chosen 
for  the  offering  of  a  burnt  sacrifice,^  namely,  the  turtle-dove 
and  the  young  pigeon. 

He  ^  caused  the  waters  to  bring  forth  abundantly 
all  kinds  of  fish,  male  and  female,  unclean  and  clean. 
By  two  signs  arc  they  declared  to  be  clean,  by  the  fins  and 
by  their  scales ; «  and  if  they  do  not  have  them  {i.e.  both 
signs)  they  are  unclean. 

On  the  fifth  day  He  caused  the  waters  to  bring  forth 
abundantly  all  kinds  of  locusts,'  male  and  female,  clean  and 
unclean.  By  two  signs  arc  they  declared  to  be  clean  :  by 
their  long  legs  with  which  they  jump,^  and  by  the  wings 
which  cover  the  entire  body,  such  are  clean.  Such  (living 
things)  as  were  brought  forth  from  the  water,  namely,  fish 

'  In  our  MS.  this  is  ch.  viii. 

*  For  the  creation  on  the  fifth  day  see  Gen.  i.  20-23  ;  4  Ezra  vi. 
47  ff.  ;  Jubilees  ii.  11,  12  ;  Slav.  Enoch  xxx.  7.  Our"  book  reckons 
three  kinds  of  living  things  created  on  the  fifth  day:  birds,  fish,  and 
locusts  ;  in  Jubilees,  loc.  cit.,  three  kinds:  great  sea  monsters,  fish,  and 
birds  are  also  enumerated. 

3  On  the  signs  see  T.B.  Chullin,  59a,  6ia  and  62a;  Tosephta 
Chullin  iii.  22,  p.  505,  and  Pal.  Targum  on  Lev.  xi.  13. 

*  This  agrees  with  Luria's  reading;  the  printed  texts  read:  "an 
offering  and  a  burnt-offering." 

*  The  Venice  edition  adds  :  "  On  the  fifth  day."  The  ist  ed  omits 
this  and  the  following  words  up  to  "  male." 

"  On  fish  .see  L'  v.  xi.  9,  10,  12,  and  T.B.  Chullin,  66b. 
'  See  T.B.  Chullin,  59a  and  65  a,  b. 

*  The  first  editions  add  :   "  upon  the  earth."     Sec  Lev.  xi.  20-23. 

60 


WONDERS  OF  THE  FIFTH  DAY     61 

and  locusts,^  are  (eaten)  without  (being  subject  to  the  laws 
of)  Shechitah  ^  (with  the  ritual  slaughtering),  but  the  bird 
cannot  be  eaten  unless  (it  be  killed)  by  (the  method  of) 
Shechitah.  Such  creatures  which  have  been  created  from 
the  earth  ^  ||  have  their  blood  covered  with  earth,  and  such 
as  have  been  created  from  the  water  must  have  their  blood 
poured  out  like  water.* 

^  Dr.  Charles  is  mistaken  in  stating  that  in  the  "  Pirke  R.  Eliezer 
ix.  it  is  said  that  locusts  are  not  created  from  water  "  {Fragments  of  a 
Zadokite  Work,  p.  31).  Just  the  opposite  theory  is  advocated  by  our  work. 
The  Zadokite  Fragment  taught  that  the  elements  of  fire  and  water 
were  to  be  found  in  the  composition  of  the  locusts,  hence  they  are  to 
be  killed  by  fire  or  by  water;  see  Schechter,  op.  cit.,  p.  51,  note  24.  who 
points  out  that  according  to  Rabbinic  law,  the  locust  requires  no  killing 
at  all ;  see  Maimonides,  Mishneh  Torah,  Hilkhoth  Shechitah,  ch.  i.  i, 
and  Tur  Joreh  Di'ah,  13.  The  importance  of  this  Halakhah  will  be 
appreciated  if  we  are  able  to  fix  the  date  and  home  of  our  book.  The 
question  has  been  critically  discussed  by  Dr.  Biichler  in  the  J.Q.R. 
(New  Series)  iii.  (1913)  pp.  442  f. ;  see  J.Q.R.  (New  Series)  iv.  pp. 
460  ff.,  where  Jubilees  v.  30  is  cited  as  bearing  on  the  question.  Ci. 
also  Wreschner,  op.  cit.  p.  52. 

^  The  first  editions  read :  "  are  eaten,  for  they  are  not  (killed)  by 
Shechitah."  For  the  ritual  slaughter  of  animals  by  the  knife  see  T.B. 
Chullin,  27a.  This  method  probably  obtained  among  the  early 
Christians,  see  Acts  xv.  20  and  29,  xxi.  25  ;  for  further  references  see 
Preuschen,  N.T.  Diet.  s.v.  ttvlktos,  c.  933. 

*  The  MS.  actually  reads  "  water,"  but  the  text  was  here  originally 
"  earth."  The  Oxford  MS.  (d.  35)  reads:  "  Such  as  were  created  from 
the  earth  have  their  blood  poured  out  like  water,  and  such  as  swarmed 
from  the  water  have  their  blood  covered  by  the  dust."  As  the  parch- 
ment of  our  MS.  has  been  damaged  by  the  erasure,  an  attempt  has  also 
been  made  to  change  the  word  "  water  "  (in  the  next  line)  into  "  earth." 

'  Luria  reads:  "  Such  as  have  been  created  from  the  water  may 
have  their  blood  consumed  like  water,  and  such  as  have  been  created 
from  the  earth,  their  blood  is  prohibited  to  be  consumed  :  the  exception 
is  the  fowl ;  for  although  it  has  been  created  from  the  water  its  blood  is 
prohibited  to  be  consumed,  and,  moreover,  it  requires  that  the  blood 
which  falls  upon  the  earth  when  it  is  killed  must  be  covered  by  dust." 
The  traditional  text  found  in  our  MS.  as  well  as  in  the  first  editions 
is  probably  correct  in  view  of  the  unusual  Halakhah  (or  Law)  preserved 
in  the  Fragments  of  a  Zadokite  Work  (ed.  Charles),  xiv.  13:  "  Nor  shall 
fish  be  eaten  unless  they  are  split  alive  and  their  blood  was  shed." 
Dr  Schechter  thinks  that  this  rule  was  "  directed  against  the  Rabbinic 
opinion  permitting  the  eating  of  the  blood  of  the  fish.  See  Sifra,  39a, 
and  Kerithoth,  20b."  See,  further,  T.B.  Chullin,  27b,  "  where,"  says  Dr. 
Schechter,  "  we  have  a  homily  to  the  effect  that  cattle  have  to  be 
killed  in  a  certain  way  because  they  were  created  out  of  the  dry  land 
(earth)  ;  fish,  again,  require  no  killing,  being  created  out  of  the  water  ; 
whilst  birds,  which  were  created  out  of  alluvial  mud  (a  combination  of 
water  and  earth),  occupy  also,  with  regard  to  their  ritual  killing,  a 
middle  place  between  cattle  and  fish.  The  notion  was  that  the  mode 
of  killing  is  in  some  way  connected  with  the  element  out  of  which  the 
animal  in  question  was  created."  See  Wreschner,  op.  cit.  p.  54.  The 
1st  ed.  reads :  "  its  blood  is  poured  out  on  the  earth."  The  Venice 
edition  agrees  with  our  MS. 


62  RABBI  ELIEZER 

Rabbi  Eliezer  said  :  Not  only  concerning  the  water  does 
the  Scripture  say  that  "  the  waters  should  bring  forth  abund- 
antly "  (Gen.  i,  20),  but  also  concerning  the  birds  ^  which 
are  compared  with  water,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  uproar  of 
many  peoples,  which  roar  like  the  roaring  of  the  seas  "  (Isa. 
xvii.  12),  and  just  as  the  waters  brought  forth  abundantly 
on  the  fifth  day,  likewise  in  the  future  will  the  nations  of 
the  world  swarm  in  the  fifth  world,-  and  they  will  fight  one 
another  to  destroy  ^  (one  another),  as  it  is  said,  "  And  they 
were  broken  in  pieces,  nation  against  nation,  and  city 
against  city  ;  ^  for  God  did  vex  them  with  all  adversity  " 
(2  Chron.  xv.  6).  What  is  ^vritten  (immediately)  after- 
wards ?  The  Salvation  of  Israel  (is  mentioned),  as  it  is 
said,^  "  But  be  ye  strong  ;  and  your  hands  shall  not  be 
slack  "  {ibid.  7). 

All  rivers  flowing  on  the  earth,^  as  soon  as  they  flow  on 
the  earth,  they  are  blessed  and  good  and  sweet.  There  is  some 
benefit  to  the  world  through  them  ; '  (when)  they  flow  into 
the  sea  they  are  bad,^  cursed,  and  bitter,  and  they  are  of 
no  benefit  to  the  world.  Why  are  they  similar  to  Israel  ? 
For  when  the  Israelites  rely  upon  the  protection  of  their 
Creator  and  do  His  will,  they  are  blessed  and  good  and 
sweet,  and  there  is  some  benefit  to  the  world  through  them, 

'  The  Oxford  MS.  (cl.  ^5)  and  the  first  editions  read :  "  nations  of 
the  world." 

*  Is  the  fifth  world  the  fifth  kingdom,  i.e.  the  kingdom  of  the  Messiah? 
Or,  is  the  "  fifth  world  "  another  way  of  sa3'ing  the  "  fifth  era  "  or  "  day  " 
of  the  world  ?  This  would  be  the  period  5000  a.m.  to  6000  c.e.  {i.e. 
1240-2240  C.E.).  Our  reading  is  also  preserved  in  the  ist  ed.  In 
the  Venice  edition  the  word  "  fifth  "  is  omitted. 

*  See  T.B.  'Abodah  Zarah,  4a,  T.B.  Synhcdrin,  97b,  and  Zohar, 
Gen.  46b  and  119a,  for  tfie  wars  of  the  Messianic  Age,  which  were  sup- 
posed to  begin  about  the  end  of  the  fiftieth  century  a.m.  ;  cf.  t7ifra,  pp. 
198-203  ;  and  s<-e  R-v.  xvi.  14  lor  the  internecine  strife  of  the  nations. 

'  The  first  two  editions  have  erred  here  in  a  strange  manner :  they  both 
quote  as  a  Scripture  text  the  words:  "And  I  will  set  nation  against 
nation,  kingdom  against  kingdom,  for  God  did  vex  them  with  all  ad- 
vrsit}-."  The  last  clause  is  part  of  the  quotation  from  2  Chron.  xv.  6, 
the  first  part  of  this  verse  being  accurately  given  by  our  MS.  Where 
do  we  find  the  words :  "  And  1  will  set  nation  against  nation,  king- 
dom against  kingdom  "  ?  Might  one  suggest  Matt.  xxiv.  7,  based  on 
Isa.  xix.  2  and  2  Cliron.  xv.  6.  as  a  parallel  ?     See  also  4  Ezra  xiii.  31. 

*  See  Isa.  Ixii.  11  and  Ps.  xiv.  7. 

^  The  Venice  edition  omits  "  flowing  on  the  earth  "  ;  the  ist  ed. 
agrees  with  our  text. 

^  Cf.  Recognitions  of  Clement  viii.  24  and  Jolm  of  Damascus,  op. 
cit.  ii.  g. 

*  Luria  suggests  the  reading  :  "  they  are  cursed,  evil." 


WONDERS  OF  THE  FIFTH  DAY     63 

and  for  their  sake  ^  the  world  stands.  (When)  the  men  of  Israel 
depart  from  their  Creator  and  trust  in  the  statutes  of  the 
nations,-  they  are  bad,  accursed,  and  bitter,  |1  and  there  is  no 
benefit  in  them  for  the  world.  Just  as  the  waters  of  the 
rivers  (are)  the  food  of  the  waters  of  the  sea,^  so  are  (the 
sinners  destined  to  be)  fuel  for  Gehinnom.  All  the  rains  that 
descend  into  the  sea  are  (as)  seed  for  (all  creatures)  in  them,^ 
and  thereby  the  fish  are  fed.^ 

On  the  fifth  day  the  waters  in  Egypt  ^  were  changed  into 
blood.  On  the  fifth  day  our  forefathers  went  forth  from 
Egypt.'  On  the  same  {i.e.  fifth)  day  the  waters  of  the  Jordan 
stood  still  before  the  ark  of  the  Covenant  of  God.^  On  the 
same  (i.e.  fifth)  day  Hezekiah  stopped  the  fountains  which 
were  in  Jerusalem,  as  it  is  said,  "  This  same  ^  Hezekiah 
also  stopped  the  upper  spring  of  the  waters  of  Gihon  " 
{ibid,  xxxii.  30).i° 

On  the  fifth  day  He  brought  forth  from  the  water  the 
Leviathan,^^  the  flying  serpent,  and  its  dwelling  is  in  the 

1  See  Jar.  x.  2,  3,  and  Assumption  of  Moses  i.  12.  A  parallel  to  our 
text  is  given  bv  4  Ezra  iv.  55,  59,  vii.  11. 

2Cf.  Matt.  V.  13,  14. 

3  The  river  water  is  absorbed  by  the  salt  water  and  thereby  the 
composition  of  the  sea  water  is  modified  ;  see  Gen.  Rab.  v.  3  on  this 
problem. 

*  i.e.  the  sea.  Cf.  supra,  p.  30,  the  rain  is  the  male  element  in 
water  ;  see  Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  cxlvi.  §  3,  p.  268a. 

^  The  first  editions  read  :   "  become  fruitful." 

^  See  Seder  'Olam  Rab.  iii.,  and  cf.  Mishnah  'Edujoth  ii.  10  for  the 
duration  of  the  Plagues.  Our  book  {infra,  p.  330)  states  that  the  day  of 
departure  was  on  the  third  day  ;  on  this  point  see  T.B.  Sabbath,  87b. 
Luria  thinks  that  the  text  should  be  emended  thus:  "  On  the  fifth  day 
the  sea  was  divided  when  our  fathers  went  forth  from  Egypt." 

'  The  reading  of  our  text  is  preserved  in  Jalkut,  Jonah,  §  550,  as 
follows :  "  It  was  taught  in  a  Baraitha  that  R.  Eliezer  said,  On  the  fifth 
day  the  waters  of  Egypt  were  turned  into  blood,  on  that  day  our  fathers 
went  forth  from  Egypt  ;  on  that  day  the  waters  of  the  Jordan  stood 
still  before  the  ark  of  the  Lord,  on  that  day  Hezekiah  stopped  all  the 
fountains  ;  on  the  fifth  day  Jonah  fled  before  God."  See  first  sentence 
in  next  chapter  of  our  book. 

*  See  Josh.  iii.  15,  16;  Tosaphoth  in  Menachoth,  30a,  catchword: 
"  From  here  onwards,"  refers  to  the  day  when  Jericho  fell ;  cf.  Seder 
'Olam  Rab.  xi. ;  see  Ratner's  ed.  p.  24a,  note  24,  for  the  parallels,  and 
see  in  our  book,  infra,  pp.  423  f . 

*  The  printed  editions  are  incorrect  here. 

1"  On  Hezekiah  see  Aboth  de  R.  Nathan  [a]  ii.  pp.  6a,  b  ;  and  cf.  T.B. 
Berakhoth,  5b,  T.B.  Pesachim,  56a,  and  in  our  book,  infra,  pp.  424  ff. 

11  The  Leviathan  is  the  "  flying  serpent."  See  Isa.  xxvii.  i,  and 
Gen.  Rab.  vii.  4  with  Theodor's  note,  in  loc. ;  4  Ezra  vi.  49  ff.  (ed. 
Box,  p.  92)  ;  Eth.  Enoch  Ixix.  7  f .  ;  and  cf.  Monatsschrift,  Ixiii.  p.  20. 
Our  book  holds  the  view  that  the  Leviathan  was  created  on  the  fifth 


64  RABBI  ELIEZER 

lowest  waters ;  and  between  its  fins  ^  rests  the  middle 
bar  of  the  earth.'-  All  the  great  sea  monsters  in  the  sea 
are  the  food  for  the  Leviathan.  Every  day  ^  it  opens  its 
mouth,  and  the  great  sea  monster  destined  to  be  eaten  that 
day  (tries)  to  escape  and  flee,  but  it  enters  the  mouth  of  the 
Leviathan,:  and  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  plays  with  it, 
as  it  is  saic),  "  This  is  the  Leviathan,  whom  thou  hast  created 
to  play  with  him  "  ^  (Ps.  civ.  26). 

Rabbi  Mana ''  said :  Such  creatures  which  have  been 
created  from  the  earth  increase  and  multiply  on  the  earth,  and 
such  which  have  been  brought  forth  from  the  water  increase 
and  miiltiply  in  the  water,  except  all  kinds  of  winged  birds, 
for  thair  creation  was  ||  from  the  water,  yet  they  increase  and 
multi|:)ly  on  the  earth,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  let  the  fowl  multiply 
in  the  earth  "  {Gen.  i.  22).  Such  as  were  brought  forth  from 
the  water  increase  and  multiply  by  the  egg  ;  *•  and  such  as 
were  created  from  the  earth  increase  and  multiply  by  foetus 
(i.e.  living  offspring).^ 

day,  and  Behemoth  on  the  sixth  day ;  see  infra,  p.  75  ;  and  see 
also  T.B.  Baba  Bathra,  74b,  75a;  Pal.  Targum  on  Gen.  i.  21.  On 
Behemoth  see  Pesikta  de  R.  Kahana  vi.  p.  sSa;  Lev.  Rab.  xxii.  10; 
Num.  Rab.  xxi.  18,  and  Tanchuma,  Nizabim,  §  iv. 

1  The  first  editions  read  :   "  its  two  fins." 

-  See  infra,  p.  71. 

'  The  first  editions  read  here  :  "  And  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He, 
plays  with  it  every  day."  This  part  of  the  sentence  is  out  of  place, 
as  it  occurs  again  a  few  lines  farther  on  in  these  editions.  Our  MS.  is 
quite  correct  here. 

*  The  R.V.  renders :  "  whom  thou  hast  formed  to  take  his  pastime 
therein."     See  Job  xli.  5,  and  cf.  Jalkut  on  Job,  §  927. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  Meir." 

"^  The  ist  ed.  reads  here  :  "  in  the  water"  instead  of  "  by  the  egg." 
^  See  Basil,  op.  cit.  vii.  2  ;  and  John  of  Damascus,  op.  cit.  ii.  9,  for 
the  creation  of  and  from  the  water ;  cf .  T.B.  ChuUin,  27b,  Bechoroth, 
8a,  Pal.  Targum  on  Gen.  i.  20,  and  Midrash  AgaJah,  p.  3.  Luria 
(note  43)  suggests  an  emendation  of  the  text  as  follows:  "  Such  as  were 
created  from  the  water  increase  and  multiply  by  living  offspring  "  [e.g. 
whales)  ;  whereas  such  as  were  brought  forth  from  the  water  are  hatched 
from  the  egg"  {e.g.  the  duck).  The  ist  ed.  reads:  "multiply  on  the 
earth."     Does  the  ist  ed.  here  prescr\-e  the  true  reading  ? 


CHAPTER    XI 

THE    HISTORY    OF   JONAH    [11a.  i.] 

On  the  fifth  day  Jonah  -  fled  before  his  God.  Why  did  he 
flee  ?  Because  on  the  first  occasion  when  (God)  sent  him 
to  restore  the  border  of  Israel,  his  words  were  fulfilled,  as 
it  is  said,  "  And  he  restored  the  border  of  Israel  ^  from  the 
entering  in  of  Hamath  "  (2  Kings  xiv.  25).^  On  the  second 
occasion  (God)  sent  him  to  Jerusalem  to  (prophesy  that  He 
would)  destroy  it.  But^  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  did 
according  to  the  abundance  of  His  tender  mercy  and  re- 
pented of  the  evil  (decree),  and  He  did  not  destroy  it ;  ^ 
thereupon  ^  they  called  him  a  lying  prophet.^  On  the  third 
occasion  ^  (God)  sent  him  against  Nineveh  ^^  to  destroy  it. 
Jonah  argued  with  himself,  saying,  I  know  that  the  nations 

^  In  our  MS.  this  is  marked  as  ch.  ix.  Jalkut  Makhiri,  Jonah,  ed. 
Greenup,  pp.  6il. ,  contains  selections  from  P.R.E.  here. 

^  The  story  of  Jonah  belongs  to  the  series  of  events  which  happened 
on  a  Thursday  ;  moreover,  the  Leviathan  mentioned  m  connection  with 
the  story  was  created  on  the  fifth  day.  See  Jalkut,  Jonah,  §  550,  and 
supra,  pp.  03  f. 

^  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here.  The  first  two  editions  con- 
tinue as  in  our  translation. 

*  The  Oxford  MS.  (d.  35)  continues  this  verse:  "  imto  the  sea  of 
Arabah,  according  to  the  word  of  the  Lord,  the  God  of  Israel,  which 
he  spake  by  the  hand  of  his  servant  Jonah,  the  son  of  Amittai  the 
prophet,  who  was  of  Gathhepher."  In  spite  of  the  sins  of  Israel, 
this  prophecy  of  Jonah  was  fulfilled.  Jonah  is  only  once  referred 
to  in  the  apocryphal  literature,  3  Mace,  vi,  8 ;  see  LXX  text  of  Tobit 
xiv.  4. 

^  The  first  editions  add  :  "  because  they  repented." 

®  It  is  assumed  by  our  Midrash  that  this  prophecy  is  referred  to  by 
Jonah  (iv.  2),  "  Was  not  this  my  saying  when  I  was  yet  in  my  country 
.   .   .  for  I  knew  that  thou  art  a  gracious  God  .  .  .  and  repentest  thee 
of  the  evil."     See  T.B.  S5mhedrin,  89b. 
'  The  first  editions  add  "  Israel." 

*  See  2  Kings  ix.  4,  11,  12.     The  prophet  mentioned  in  these  verses 
is  Jonah,  according  to  Rashi  and  Kimchi,  in  he. 

»  See  T.B.  Jebamoth,  98a. 

1"  The  first  editions  read :  "  to  Nineveh." 


66  RABBI  ELIEZER 

are  nigh  to  repentance,^  now  they  will  repent  and  the  Holy 
One,  blessed  be  He,  will  direct  His  anger  against  Israel. 
And  is  it  not  enough  for  me  that  Israel  should  call  me 
a  lying  prophet ;  but  shall  also  the  nations  of  the  world 
(do  likewise)  ?  Therefore,  behold,  I  will  escape  from  His 
presence  to  a  place  where  His  glory  is  not  declared.  (If)  I 
ascend  above  the  heavens,  it  is  said,^  "  Above  the  heavens 
is  his  glory  "  (Ps.  cxiii.  4).  (If)  above  the  earth,^  (it  is 
said),  "  The  whole  earth  is  full  of  his  glory  "  (Isa.  vi.  3)  ; 
behold,  I  ^^^ll  escape  to  the  sea,^  to  a  place  ||  where  His 
glory  is  not  proclaimed.  Jonah  went  down  to  Joppa, 
but  he  did  not  find  there  a  ship  in  which  he  could  em- 
bark, for  the  ship  in  which  Jonah  might  have  embarked 
was  two  days'  journey  away  from  Joppa,''  in  order  to 
test**  Jonah.  What  did  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He, 
do  ?  He  sent  against  it  a  mighty  tempest  on  the  sea  and 
brought  it  back  to  Joppa.  Then  Jonah  saw  and  rejoiced 
in  his  heart,  saying,  Now  I  know  that  my  ways  will  prosper 
before  me. 

He  said  to  the  (sailors).  We '  will  embark  with  you. 
They  replied  to  him,  Behold,  we  are  going  to  the  islands 

*  See  infra,  pp.  342  f.,  and  Mekhilta  Bo,  i,  p.  2;  T.J.  Synhedrin 
».  7,  30b;  Tanchuma  Vajikra,  §vii.  This  is  an  excellent  dictum.  The 
non-Jews '  are  easily  turned  to  repentance.  The  first  editions  read  : 
"  this  nation  is  nigh  to  repentance." 

-  The  Venice  edition  reads  :  "  it  is  said  that  His  glory  is  there,  as  it 
is  said." 

3  The  Venice  edition  reads:  "  Above  the  earth  ?  It  is  said  that 
His  glory  is  there,  as  it  is  said."  For  similar  questions  see  Chrj-^sosto- 
mus,  Homily  on  Repentance,  3. 

*  In  the  first  editions  the  word  (d'"?)  "  to  the  sea  "  is  replaced  by 
('^)  "  for  myself." 

*  This  addition  to  the  Biblical  narrative  is  preserved  in  the  Midrash 
Jonah  (in  Jellinek's  Beth  Ha-Midrash,  i.  pp.  96-105),  and  see  the 
Zohar,  Gen.  121a,  b,  for  further  embellishment.  This  Midrash,  as  well 
as  our  chapter,  undoubtedly  formed  one  of  the  Homilies  for  the  service 
of  the  Day  of  Atonement,  the  Book  of  Jonah  forming  the  lesson  from 
the  Prophets  for  the  afternoon  service  of  that  day.  This  point  is  of 
importance  in  our  estimate  of  the  probable  use  which  our  book  was 
intended  to  render.  Was  it  a  book  for  the  Synagogue  ?  Was  it 
intended  to  supply  Midrashic  material  for  the  preacher  in  his  pubUc 
discourses  ?  As  far  as  this  loth  Chapter  is  concerned,  the  answer  is  in 
the  affirmative.  We  shall  find  further  evidence  to  support  this  view 
in  the  course  of  our  study  of  this  book. 

*  Perhaps  the  text  should  read  :  "  In  order  to  test  Jonah  what  did 
the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  do  ?  " 

'  The  MS.  reads:  "  we  will  embark."  The  ist  and  2nd  eds.  read  : 
"  I  will  embark," 


THE  HISTORY  OF  JONAH  67 

of  the  sea,  to  Tarshish.^  He  said  to  them,  We  -  will  go  ^vith 
you.  Now  (this)  is  the  custom  on  all  ships  that  when  a 
man  disembarks  therefrom  he  pays  his  fare  ;  but  Jonah, 
in  the  joy  of  his  heart,  paid  his  fare  in  advance,^  as  it  is  said, 
"  But  Jonah  rose  up  to  flee  unto  Tarshish  from  the  presence 
of  the  Lord  ;  and  he  went  down  to  Joppa  and  found  a  ship 
going  to  Tarshish  ;  so  he  paid  the  fare  thereof,  and  went 
down  into  it,^  to  go  with  them  "  (Jonah  i.  3). 

They  had  travelled  one  day's  journey,  and  a  mighty 
tempest  ^  on  the  sea  arose  against  them  on  their  right 
hand  and  on  their  left  hand ;  but  the  movement  ^  of  all 
the  ships  passing '  to  and  fro  was  peaceful  in  a  quiet  sea, 
but  the  ship  into  which  Jonah  had  embarked  was  in  great 
peril  of  shipwreck,  as  it  is  said,  "  But  the  Lord  sent  out  a 
great  wind  into  the  sea,  and  there  was  a  mighty  tempest 
in  the  sea,  so  ^  that  the  ship  was  like  ||  to  be  broken  "  {ibid.  4). 

Rabbi  Chanina  ^  said  :  (Men)  of  the  seventy  languages  i" 

^  Ibn  Ezra  on  Jonah  i.  3  tells  us  on  the  authority  of  Sa" adiah  that 
Tarshish  is  Tarsus ;  he  also  gives  another  opinion  that  Tunis  in  Africa  is 
the  port  referred  to.  For  other  views,  see  Gesenius  (Oxford  edition), 
pp.  1076  f. 

2  The  MS.  reads  also  liere  :  ''we  will  embark."  The  ist  and  2nd 
eds.  read  :  "  I  will  embark." 

'  See  T.B.  Nedarim,  38a,  according  to  which  Jonah  pays  the  fares 
of  all  on  board.  See  J.E.  vii.  226  f.  for  the  story  of  Jonah  in  Rab- 
binical literature. 

*  Our  MS.  ends  the  quotation  here,  but  adds  "etc."  The  first 
editions  add  "  etc."  after  "  Joppa." 

^According  to  the  Midrash  Konen,  p.  23.  at  the  creation  of  the 
world  God  stipulated  with  the  sea  that  it  should  not  suffer  Jonah  to 
sail  to  Tarshish. 

«  Lit.  "  way." 

'  The  versions  in  Tanchuma  Vajikra,  §  viii.,  and  Jalkut  Jonah,  loc. 
cit.,  differ  somewhat.  Our  text  is,  however,  the  source  whence  the 
Midrashim  have  drawn  their  material.  Kimchi  on  Jonah  i.  7  remarks  : 
"  I  have  found  in  the  Pirke  R.  Eliezer,  A  great  tempest  arose  against 
them  on  the  sea,  and  on  their  right  hand  and  on  their  left  hand  all 
the  ships  were  passing  to  and  fro  in  peace  in  the  tranquiUity  of  the 
sea  ;  and  the  ship  into  which  Jonah  had  embarked  was  in  great  distress 
so  that  one  thought  that  it  would  be  broken  in  pieces."  See  Gen. 
Rab.  xxiv.  4  with  reference  to  the  wind  sent  to  hinder  Jonah;  of. 
Lev.  Rab.  xv.  i  on  same  point. 

*  The  first  editions  omit  the  preceding  part  of  the  quotation. 
^  The  first  editions  read  "  Chananjah." 

^°  The  seventy  nations  of  humanity  have  each  one  a  representative 
on  board.  The  ship  is  a  type  of  the  world,  which  only  can  find  its 
salvation  through  the  wilhng  martyrdom  of  the  Hebrew,  who,  although 
he  be  inoffensive  in  his  conduct  with  his  fellow-men  of  all  nationalities, 
is  nevertheless  quite  willing  to  allow  himself  to  be  doomed  to  destruc- 
tion in  order  to  relieve  his  fellow-men  of  their  threatened  ruin.     This 


68  RABBI  ELIEZER 

were  there  on  the  ship,  and  each  one  had  his  god  in  his  hand, 
(each  one)  saying :  ^  And  the  God  who  shall  reply  and 
deliver  us  from  this  trouble,  He  shall  be  God.^  They 
arose  and  every  one  called  upon  the  name  of  his  god,  but  it 
availed  nought.^  Now  Jonah,  because  of  the  anguish  of 
his  soul,  was  slumbering  and  asleep.  The  captain  of  the 
ship  came  to  him,  saying.  Behold,  we  are  standing  bct\Adxt 
death  and  life,  and  thou  art  slumbering  and  sleeping  ;  of 
what  people  art  thou  ?  He  answered  them,  "  I  am  an 
Hebrew  "  {ibid.  9).  (The  captain)  said  to  him,  Have  we 
not  heard  that  the  God  of  the  Hebrews  is  great  ?  Arise, 
call  upon  thy  God,  perhaps  He  will  work  (salvation)  for  us 
according  to  all  His  miracles  which  He  did  for  you  at  the 
Reed  Sea.  He  answered  them,^  It  is  on  my  account  that 
this  misfortune  has  befallen  you ;  take  me  up  and  cast  me 
into  the  sea  and  the  sea  will  become  calm  unto  you,  as  it 
is  said,  "  And  he  said  unto  them.  Take  me  up,  and  cast  me 
forth  into  the  sea ;  so  shall  the  sea  be  calm  unto  you  "  (ibid. 

Rabbi  Simeon  said :  The  men  would  not  consent  to  throw 
Jonah  into  the  sea  ;  but  they  cast  lots  among  themselves 
and  the  lot  fell  upon  Jonah. ^  What  did  they  do  ?  They 
took  all  their  utensils  which  were  in  the  ship,  and  cast  them 
into  the  sea  ^  in  order  to  lighten  it  for  their  (safety),  but  it 
availed  nought.  ||  They  wanted  to  return  '  to  the  dry  land, 
but  they  were  unable,  as  it  is  said,  "  Nevertheless  the  men 

universalistic  aspect  of  the  mission  of  the  Hebrew  is  famihar  to  the 
student  of  the  Bible.  Abraham,  Moses,  and  the  suffering  servant  of 
God,  who  is  none  other  than  Israel,  represent  this  teaching,  which  our 
book  enforces.  The  basis  for  the  Midrashic  idea  of  the  seventy 
nations  is  afforded  b}'  comparing  the  text  of  Jonah  i.  5,  which  says, 
"  And  every  man  cried  unto  his  God,"  with  the  text  in  Mic.  iv.  5, 
"  For  all  the  people  will  walk  every  man  in  the  name  of  his  God." 

1  The  first  two  editions  read  here :  "  as  it  is  said,  '  Then  the 
mariners  were  afraid,  and  cried  everj'  man  unto  his  God '  "  (Jonah  i.  5). 
The  Venice  edition  adds  :  "  They  bowed  down  saying,  Let  each  man 
call  on  the  name  of  his  God." 

2  Cf.  Elijah's  appeal  on  Mount  Carmel,  i  Kings  xviii.  24. 

3  See  Targum,  lonah  i.  5. 

*  The  first  editions  add  :  "  I  will  not  hide  from  you  that." 

*  The  first  editions  add  here  :  "  as  it  is  said,  '  So  they  cast  lots,  and 
the  lot  fell  upon  Jonah  '  "  (Jonah  i.  7). 

'  See  Targum,  Jonah,  loc.  cit.,  and  Midrash  Jonah  (ed.  Jelhnek),  p.  97. 

">  The  reading  in  our  MS.  is  in  agreement  with  the  reading  of  the 
Tanchuma  (loc.  cit.)  and  Jalkut,  Jonah,  loc.  cit.  The  printed  texts 
read,  "  they  wanted  to  row  hard,"  instead  of  our  reading. 


THE  HISTORY  OF  JONAH  69 

rowed  hard  to  get  them  back  to  the  land  ;  but  they  could 
not"  {ibid.  13). i  What  did  they  do?  They  took  Jonah 
and  they  stood  on  the  side  of  the  ship,  saying,  God  of  the 
world  !  O  Lord  !  Do  not  lay  upon  us  innocent  blood,  for 
we  do  not  know  what  sort  of  person  is  this  man  ;  and  he 
says  deliberately,  2  On  my  account  has  this  misfortune 
befallen  you.^ 

They  took  him  (and  cast  him  into  the  sea)  up  to  his  knee- 
joints,  and  the  sea-storm  abated.  They  took  him  up  again 
to  themselves  and  the  sea  became  agitated  again  against 
them.*  They  cast  him  in  (again)  up  to  his  neck,  and  the 
sea-storm  abated.  Once  more  they  lifted  him  up  in  their 
midst  and  the  sea  was  again  agitated  against  them,  until 
they  cast  him  in  entirely  and  forthwith  the  sea-storm 
abated,^  as  it  is  said,  "  So  they  took  up  Jonah,  and  cast 
him  forth  into  the  sea  :  and  the  sea  ceased  from  her  raging  " 
(ibid.  15). 

"  And  the  Lord  had  prepared  a  great  fish  to  swallow 
up  Jonah"  (ibid.  17).^  Rabbi  Tarphon  said:  That  fish 
was  specially  appointed  from  the  six  days  of  Creation  "^  to 
swallow  up  Jonah,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  Lord  had 
prepared  a  great  fish  to  swallow  up  Jonah "  (ibid.).  He 
entered  its  mouth  just  as  a  man  enters  the  great  synagogue, 
and  he  stood  (therein).  The  two  eyes  of  the  fish  were  like 
windows  ^  of  glass  giving  light  to  Jonah. 

Rabbi  Meir  said:  ||  One  pearl  was  suspended  inside  the 

1  This  quotation  is  missing  in  the  first  two  editions. 

-  Lit.  "  with  his  mouth."  The  prayer  of  the  sailors  here  should 
be  compared  with  the  text  in  Jonah  i.  14.  The  first  editions  read  :  "  he 
said  to  them." 

'  The  first  editions  add  :  "  take  me  and  cast  me  into  the  sea.  Forth- 
with." 

'  The  first  editions  add :  "  they  cast  him  (into  the  sea)  up  to  his  navel/ 
and  the  sea-storm  abated.  Again  they  took  him  up  among  them- 
selves, and  the  sea  again  was  agitated  against  them." 

*  The  quotation  is  not  given  by  the  first  editions ;  the  last  clause 
is  wanting  in  the  MS.,  being  replaced  bv  "  etc." 

*  This  quotation  occurs  here  only  in  the  MS.  Its  presence  suggests 
the  probability  of  our  context  being  part  of  a  Midrash. 

'  See  Gen.  Rab.  v.  5  and  T.B.  Bechoroth,  8a. 

^  Our  MS.  reads  "  ampumeth."  According  to  Jastrow,  T.D.  78a, 
this  stands  for  dphsejanioth,  "  glass  windows."  This  represents  6^pLav6s 
(obsidian),  a  stone  used  as  glass,  see  infra,  p.  330.  See  'Arukh,  ed. 
Kohut,  i.  24b.  Does  the  "Great  Synagogue"  refer  to  the  famous 
Synagogue  of  Alexandria  ? 

1  See  T.B.  Sotah,  45b. 


70  RABBI  ELIEZER 

belly  of  the  fish  and  it  gave  illumination  to  Jonah,  like  this 
sun  which  shines  with  its  might  at  noon  ;  and  it  showed 
to  Jonah  all  that  was  in  the  sea  and  in  the  depths,^  as  it  is 
said,  "  Light  is  sown  for  the  righteous  "  (Ps.  xcvii.  11). 

The  fish  said  to  Jonah,  Dost  thou  not  know  that  my  day 
had  arrived  to  be  devoured  in  the  midst  of  Leviathan's 
mouth  ?  Jonah  replied,  Take  me  beside  it,  and  I  will 
deliver  thee  and  myself  from  its  mouth.  It  brought  him 
next  to  the  Leviathan.  (Jonah)  said  to  the  Leviathan, 
On  thy  account  have  I  descended  to  see  thy  abode  in  the 
sea,  for,  moreover,  in  the  future  will  I  descend  and  put  a 
rope  in  thy  tongue,^  and  I  will  bring  thee  up  and  prepare  ^ 
thee  for  the  great  feast  of  the  righteous. '  (Jonah)  showed 
it  the  seal  of  our  father  ^  Abraham  (saying),*^  Look  at  the 
Covenant  (seal),  and  Leviathan  saw  it  and  fled  before  Jonah 
a  distance  of  two  days'  journey.  (Jonah)  said  to  it  {i.e.  the 
fish).  Behold,  I  have  saved  thee  from  the  mouth  of  Leviathan, 
show  me  what  is  in  the  sea  and  in  the  depths.  It  showed 
him  the  great  river  of  the  waters  of  the  Ocean,'  as  it  is 
said,  "  The  deep  was  round  about  me  "  (Jonah  ii.  5),  and  it 
showed  him  the  paths  of  the  Reed  Sea^  through  which 
Israel  passed,  as  it  is  said,  "  The  reeds  were  wTapped  about 
my  head  "  (ibid.) ;  and  it  showed  him  the  place  whence 
the  waves  of  the  sea  and  its  billows  flow,^  as  it  is  said,  "  All  || 
thy  waves  and  thy  billows  passed  over  me  "  {ibid.  3)  ;    and 

1  The  first  editions  read  here  :  "  and  concerning  him  [i.e.  Jonah)  the 
Scripture  says."  The  Zohar,  Exodus,  48a,  offers  a  parallel  to  this 
sentence. 

»  See  Job  xl.  25  (in  Hcb.  =  R.V.  xh.  i). 

'  The  first  editions  read  :  "  to  sacrifice." 

*  The  feast  of  the  righteous  in  the  Messianic  age  is  referred  to  by 
Jesus  in  Matt.  xxvi.  29  ;  sec  also  T.B.  Baba  Bathra,  74a,  T.B.  Chagigah, 
14b,  and  Aboth  iv.  16,  and  cf.  T.B.  Sabbath,  153a.  The  "  secret 
chambers  of  Leviathan  "  are  referred  to  in  Cant.  Rab.  i.  4  ;  Eth. 
Enoch  Ix.  7-9  describes  the  Leviathan  and  the  Behemoth ;  see  also  4  Ezra 
vi.  49-52,  and  Apoc.  Baruch  xxix.  4.  For  further  references  see  Charles' 
note  on  p.  115  of  his  ed.  of  Eth.  Enoch,  and  J.E.  viii.  37  f.  ;  see  also 
Volz,  Judische  Eschatologie,  pp.  351  and  365,  and  Jellinek,  Beth 
Ha-Mtdrash.  vi.  pp.  150  f.,  on  "  Leviathan  Banquet." 

*  The  first  editions  omit  "  our  father." 

*  The  Venice  edition  reads :  "  he  said." 

'  The  river  of  the  waters  of  the  ocean  means  the  water  which  was 
supposed  to  surround  the  earth ;  see  3  Baruch  ii.  i,  Apoc.  Pauli  xxi.,  xxxi., 
Eth.  Enoch  xvii.  5f.,  Test.  Abraham  (A.N.C.L.  extra  vol.),  viii.  yi.  wii. 

*  See  injra,  p.  330,  ami  cf.  J.Q.R.  v.  pp.  151  f. 

"This  is  the  reading  in  Tanchuma  Vajikra,  §  viii.,  and  Jalkut. 
Jonah,  §  530. 


THE  HISTORY  OF  JONAH  71 

it  showed  him  the  pillars  of  the  earth  in  its  foundations,  as 
it  is  said,  "  The  earth  with  her  bars  for  the  world  were  by 
me  "  {ibid.  6) ;  ^  and  it  showed  him  the  lowest  Sheol,^  as  it  is 
said,  "  Yet  hast  thou  brought  up  my  life  from  destruction,^ 
O  Lord,  my  God"  (ibid.);  and  it  showed  him  Gehinnom,^ 
as  it  is  said,  "  Out  of  the  belly  of  Sheol  I  cried, ^  and  thou 
didst  hear  my  voice  "  {ibid.  2)  ;  and  it  showed  him  (what 
was)  beneath  the  Temple  of  God,  as  it  is  said,"  (I  went  down) 
to  the  bottom  of  the  mountains  "  ^  {ibid.  6).  Hence  we  may 
learn  that  Jerusalem  stands  upon  seven  (hills'),  and  he 
saw  there  the  Eben  Shethiyah^  (Foundation  Stone)  fixed 
in  the  depths.^  He  saw  there  the  sons  of  Korah  ^^  standing 
and  praying  over  it.  They^^  said  to  Jonah,  Behold  thou 
dost  stand  beneath  the  Temple  of  God,  pray  and  thou  wilt 
be  answered.  Forthwith  Jonah  said  to  the  fish,  Stand  in 
the  place  where  thou  art  standing,  because  I  msh  to  pray. 
The  fish  stood  (still),  and  Jonah  began  to  pray  before  the 
Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  and  he  said  :  Sovereign  of  all  the 

1  Cf.  Ps.  civ.  5  and  T.B.  Chagigah,  12b. 

-  The  Venice  edition  reads  "  Gehinnom."  See  T.B.  'Erubin,  19a. 
According  to  the  Midrash  Konen,  p.  30,  "  there  is  one  gate  to  Gehinnom 
in  the  sea  of  Tarshish." 

^  The  last  words  of  the  quotation  do  not  occur  in  the  MS.,  but 
the  first  editions  give  them. 

*  The  first  editions  read :  "  the  lowest  Sheol."  The  lowest  region 
in  Gehenna;  see  infra,  pp.  340 f.,  343,  432 f.  On  the  theories  about 
Gehenna  see  Jellinek,  Beth  Ha-Midrash,  i.  pp.  147-149  ;  Jerahmeel 
ix.  II,  xiii.  5,  xiv.  i  ff.  ;  Eth.  Enoch  Ixiii.  10,  with  Charles'  note,  in  loc. 

^  The  first  editions  give  the  last  words  of  this  quotation,  which  are 
missing  in  the  MS. 

^  The  roots  of  the  seven  mountains  in  Jerusalem  whereon  the 
Temple  rested.  The  mountains  are  designated  in  the  O.T.  as  follows: 
Mount  Zion,  Mount  Moriah,  The  Holy  Mount,  The  Mount  of  my  Holy 
Beauty,  The  Mount  of  the  House  of  the  Lord,  The  Mount  of  the  Lord 
of  Hosts,  and  The  Lofty  Mount  of  the  Mountains. 

'  Tlie  word  for  "  hills  "  is  missing  in  the  MS. ;  some  other  word 
was  inserted  and  then  erased.  It  occurs  in  the  Oxford  MS.  (d.  35). 
In  the  letter  of  Aristeas  (83  f.)  Jerusalem  is  described  as  being  situated 
"  on  the  top  of  a  mountain  of  considerable  altitude.  On  the  summit  the 
Temple  had  been  built  in  all  its  splendour." 

*  According  to  T.J.  Joma  v.  4,  42c,  it  was  called  Foundation 
Stone  because  the  whole  world  was  founded  thereon ;  see  also  T.B. 
Joma,  54b  ;  T.B.  Synhedrin,  26b ;  cf .  Eth.  Enoch,  xviii.  2  ;  and  infra, 
p.  266. 

*  The  first  editions  read  here :  "  beneath  the  Temple  of  God." 

^o  Luria  notes  that  according  to  Midrash  Konen  (p.  31)  the  "com- 
pany of  Korah  "  are  in  the  third  department  of  Gehenna.  Should  the 
reading  be  "  the  company  of  Korah  "  instead  of  "  the  sons  of  Korah  "  ? 
Cf.  J.Q.R.  v.  p.  152. 

"  The  Venice  edition  and  Midrash  Jonah,  p.  98,  read  :  "  The  fish  said." 


72  RABBI  ELIEZER 

Universe !  ^  Thou  art  called  "  the  One  who  kills  "  and  "  the 
One  who  makes  alive,"  behold,  my  soul  has  reached  unto 
death,  now  restore  me  to  life.  He  was  not  answered  until 
this  word  came  forth  from  his  mouth,  "What  I  have  vowed 
I  will  perform  "  {ibid.  9),  namely,  I  vowed  to  draw  up 
Leviathan  and  to  prepare '■^  it  before  Thee,  I  will  perform 
(this)  on  the  day  of  the  Salvation^  of  Israel,  as  it  is  said, 
"  But  I  will  sacrifice  unto  thee  with  the  voice  of  thanks- 
giving" (ibid.).^  Forthwith  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He, 
hinted  (to  the  fish)  and  it  vomited  out^  Jonah  ]]  upon 
the  dry  land,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  Lord  spake  unto  the 
fish,  and  it  vomited  out  Jonah  ^  upon  the  dry  land  "  {ibid. 
10). 

The  sailors  saw  all  the  signs,  the  miracles,  and  the  great 
wonders  which  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  did  unto 
Jonah,  and  they  stood  and  they  cast  away '  every  one  his 
God,  as  it  is  said,  "  They  that  regard  lying  vanities  forsake 
their  own  shame  "^  {ibid.  8).  They  returned  to  Joppa  and 
went  up  to  Jerusalem  and  circumcised  the  flesh  of  their 
foreskins,  as  it  is  said,  "And  the  men^  feared  the  Lord 
exceedingly ;  and  they  offered  a  sacrifice  unto  the  Lord  " 
{ibid.  i.  16).  Did  they  offer  sacrifice  ?  ^^  But  this  (sacrifice) 
refers  to  the  blood  of  the  covenant  of  circumcision,  which  is 
like  the  blood  of  a  sacrifice. ^^  And  they  made  vows  every 
one  to  bring  his  children  and  all  belonging  to  him  to  the 
God  ^2  of  Jonah ;  and  they  made  vows  and  performed  them, 

1  The  first  editions  add  :  "  Thou  art  called  '  the  One  who  brings 
up  '  and  '  the  One  who  brings  down."  I  have  gone  down,  now 
bring  me  up." 

-  The  first  editions  read  :  "  to  sacrifice."     See  Midrash  Jonah,  p.  99. 

'  This  is  the  day  of  the  Messianic  judgment.  For  the  idea  of 
salvation  in  the  Messianic  age  see  Singer,  pp.  49  (second  paragraph), 
loi  (last  paragraph),  and  129.     See  also  Volz,  op.  cit.  pp.  226  f. 

^  This  quotiition  is  missing  in  the  first  editions. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  it  cast  forth." 

*  The  first  editions  continue  the  verse  as  in  the  translation  ;  the 
MS.  omits  "  upon  the  dry  land." 

^  The  first  editions  add  :  "  into  the  sea." 

*  See  Kimchi,  in  loc,  for  the  meaning  of  Chesed.  Kimchi  quotes 
in  his  commentary  on  Jonah  ii.  9  our  passage  with  a  variant  reading. 

*  The  text  of  the  Bible  reads  here  "  men,"  as  in  our  MS.,  but  the 
first  editions  read  "  the  sailors."     See  Zohar,  lix.  231a. 

'"  The  first  editions  add  :  "  Is  it  not  (a  fact)  that  they  do  not  accept 
sacrifices  from  the  nations  ?  "  See  T.B.  Menachoth,  73b,  and  cf.  Paul's 
attitude  towards  the  table  of  the  idolaters  of  his  daj'  (see  i  Cor.  x.  21). 

"  Cf.  Ex.  Rab.  xvii.  3  anJ  5. 

•*  The  first  editions  read  :   "  They  vowed  and  performed  (it)  that 


THE  HISTORY  OF  JONAH  73 

and  concerning  them  it  says,  "  Upon  the  proselytes,  the 
proselytes  of  righteousness."  ^ 

each  one  should  bring  his  wife  and  all  his  household  to  the  fear  of  the 
God  of  Jonah."  The  "  Phoboumenoi  "  and  "  Sebomenoi  "  correspond 
to  these  proselytes  who  fear  God.  On  the  subject  see  Schiirer,  ii. 
ii.  311-319  (E.T.). 

1  This  refers  to  the  Shemoneh 'Esreh,  the  xiiiih  benediction  (Singer, 
p.  48,  last  paragraph).  See  also  T.B.  Megillah,  17b,  and  Midrasii 
Jonah,  loc.  cit. 

This  chapter  should  be  compared  with  the  Midrash  Jonah  (ed. 
Jellinek,  and  td.  Eisenstein,  Ozar  Midrashim,  pp.  21  7b  If.).  Our  book 
was  the  source  used  by  the  author  of  the  Midrash.  The  variant 
readings  which  a  comparison  of  the  two  texts  affords  may  be  illustrated 
by  one  example  :  instead  of  "  the  day  of  the  salvation  of  Israel,"  the 
Midrash  reads,  "  the  day  of  my  salvation."  Again,  the  prayer  of  Jonah 
in  the  Midrash  is  considerably  longer  than  that  of  P.  R.  E. 

The  story  of  Jonah  is  interpreted  in  a  fine  Midrashic  spirit  by  Zeno 
in  his  17th  tractate.  Ephraim  (29th  chap,  on  the  prophet  Jonah) 
refers  to  Jonah's  dread  of  being  called  a  "  lying  prophet,"  and  mentions 
also  the  dread  inspired  by  Jonah  among  the  terrible  monsters  of  the 
deep.  A  very  interesting  point  is  suggested  by  a  passage  in  Origen, 
contra  Celsum,  vii.  57,  according  to  which  Jonah  was  considered  to  be 
the  Messiah  in  place  of  Jesus.  Our  book  ascribes  certain  Messianic 
functions  to  Jonah  in  connection  with  the  Leviathan  and  the  Day  of 
Israel's  salvation.  Perhaps  he  is  a  type  of  the  "  Messiah  ben  Jos?ph  " 
who  is  to  overcome  the  Anti-Christ  or  Satan  {i.e.  the  Leviathan). 
The  New  Testament  connects  the  story  of  Jonah  with  its  Messiah ; 
see  Matt.  xii.  39-41  and  ihid.  xvi.  4  ;  cf.  Luke  xi.  29-32.  The 
"  Fish  "  as  a  Christian  Messianic  emblem  may  be  associated  with  the 
Jonah  legends. 


CHAPTER    XII 

THE    WORK    OF    CREATION    ON   THE    SIXTH    DAY    [I2b.    i.] 

On  the  sixth  day  (God)  brought  forth  from  the  earth  all 
kinds  of  animals,  male  and  female,  clean  and  unclean.  By 
two  signs  -  are  they  declared  to  be  clean  :  (the  signs  are) 
chewing  the  cud,  and  dividing  the  hoof.^  Three  ^  kinds  of 
animals  were  chosen  for  the  sacrifice  of  a  burnt-offering, 
namely,  the  ox,  the  lamb,  and  the  goat.  Every  kind  of 
clean  animal  which  is  neither  Nevelah  ^  {i.e.  which  has  not 
been  slaughtered  according  to  the  rules  of  Shechitah  ^)  nor 
Terephah'  {i.e.  torn)  in  the  field  ^  is  permitted  to  be  eaten, 
except  with  regard  to  three  parts,  namel)'',  the  fat,  ||  the 
blood,  and  the  sinew  of  the  thigh,^  as  it  is  said,  "  As  the 
green  herb  have  I  given  you  all  "  (Gen.  ix.  3).^" 

^  This  is  the  tenth  chapter  in  our  MS. 

2  See  T.B.  Chullin,  59a,  and  supra,  p.  60.  The  attention  drawn 
to  the  ritual  regulations  of  Shechitah  and  to  the  clean  animals  is  what 
one  would  expect  in  a  popular  treatise  for  perusal  in  the  home  or 
Synagogue.  This  seems  to  be  the  tendency  of  much  of  the  Pseud- 
epigrapha,  such  as  the  Book  of  Jubilees  or  the  Testaments  of  the  Twelve 
Patriarchs.  The  Jewish  law  as  to  clean  animals  is  explained  alle- 
gorically  bj'  the  Epistle  of  Barnabas  x. 

'  See  Lev.  xi.  4. 

*  See  Tanchuma,  Shemini,  §  vii.  ;  there  are  only  these  three  kinds 
of  clean  animals.     Cf.  T.B.  Chullin.  63b. 

^  This  word  is  usually  rendered  "  carrion." 

*  On  Shechitah  see  J.E.  xi.  253  ff. 

'  Terephah  is  interpreted  to  mean  not  merely  the  flesh  of  an  animal 
torn  in  the  field,  but  all  animal  flesh  which  has  not  been  killed  according 
to  the  rules  of  Shechitah.  and  which  has  become  unfit  for  consumption 
according  to  Jewish  law  and  custom.  See  Acts  x.  14,  for  "  unclean" 
food. 

*  Thr  Oxford  MS.  (d.  35)  and  some  editions  read  here  "its  flesh." 
instead  of  "  in  the  field."  The  Prague  edition  reads:  "it  is  kasher" 
(ritually  in  order  and  permitted).  Cf.  Ex.  xxii.  31,  on  which  our  text  is 
based,  and  soe  Baraitha  of  the  32  Middoth.  rd.  Reiffmann.  p.  37. 

*  See  Gen.  xxxii.  32. 

1"  According  to  T.B.  Synhedrin,  59b  (and  cf.  Siphra,  Shemini.  ]>.  ^Sa). 
animal  flesh  was  permitted  to  the  "  sons  of  Noah."  Had  Adam 
not  sinned,  animal  flesh  would  have  been  prohibited,  says  the  Midrash 
Agadah,  Genesis,  p.  5. 

74 


CREATION  ON  SIXTH  DAY         75 

On  the  sixth  day  (God)  brought  forth  from  the  earth 
seven  clean  beasts ;  ^  their  slaughter  and  the  method  of 
consumption  are  similar  ^  to  the  (rules  observed)  with  a 
bird ;  and  all  the  rest  of  the  beasts  in  the  field  are  entirely  ^ 
unclean. 

He  ^  brought  forth  from  the  earth  all  kinds  of  abomina- 
tions ^  and  creeping  things,  all  of  them  are  unclean.^ 
Such  (creatures)  which  have  been  created  from  the  earth, 
their  life  (or  soul)  and  body  are  from  the  earth,  and  when 
they  return  they  touch  their  dust '  at  the  place  whence 
they  were  created,  as  it  is  said,  "  Thou  takest  away  their 
breath,  they  die,  and  return  to  their  dust  "  ^  (Ps.  civ.  29)  ; 
and  it  is  written,  "  And  the  spirit  of  the  beast  goes  down- 
ward to  the  earth  "  (Eccles.  iii.  21).^ 

On  the  sixth  day  He  brought  forth  from  the  earth  a 
beast  (Behemoth)  which  lies  stretched  out  on  a  thousand 
hills  1°  and  every  day  has  its  pasture  on  a  thousand  hills, 
and  overnight  (the  verdure)  grows  of  its  own  account  as 
though  he  had  not  touched  it,  as  it  is  said,  "  Surely  the 
mountains  bring  him  forth  food  "  (Job  xl.  20).     The  waters 

1  The  first  editions  add  here  :  "  namely,  the  hart,  the  gazelle,  the 
roebuck,  the  wild-goat,  the  pygarg,  the  antelope,  and  the  chamois."  ^ 

^  The  text  is  difficult  to  interpret  ;  as  regards  fowl,  only  "  one 
sign  "  is  essential  for  tiie  ritual  slaughter,  whereas  "  two  signs  "  are 
requisite  in  the  case  of  the  animals  mentioned ;  see  T.B.  Chullin,  71a, 
89b,  and  92b. 

3  Lit.  "  all  of  them." 

■*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  On  the  sixth  day  He  brought  forth." 

^Perhaps  the  original  text  was  "  Sherazim  "  (reptiles),  instead  of 
"  Shekazim  "  (abominations);  see,  however,  Deut.  xiv.  3.  The  printed 
texts  omit  "  kinds  of." 

*  And  therefore  not  to  be  eaten. 

■^  The  first  editions  read :  "  when  they  die  they  return  to  the  place 
whence  they  were  created." 

^  The  first  editions  do  not  give  the  last  clause  of  the  quotation. 

'  The  distinction  implied  here  between  man  and  beast  is  in  the  origin 
of  the  spirit,  that  of  man  is  heavenly  whilst  that  of  the  beast  is  of  the 
earth. 

1"  Cf.  Ps.  1.  10  and  Job  xl.  15,  "  Behold  now  Behemoth,  which  I 
made  "  ;  see  T.B.  Baba  Bathra,  74b,  and  Targum  on  Fs.  1.  10.  Cf.  supra, 
p.  63,  note  II,  and  see  4  Ezra  (ed.  Box),  pp.  90  ff.  The  Leviathan 
was  created,  according  to  our  author,  on  the  fifth  day,  whereas  the 
Behemoth  was  created  on  the  sixth  day ;  see  Jerahmeel  v.  and  vi.  ; 
Jalkut,  Gen.  §  12,  and  ].E.  viii.  37  ff.  ;  and  cf.  Num.  Rab.  xxi.  18, 
and  Lev.  Rab.  xxii.  10.  On  "Behemoth"  see  Midrash  Konen,  pp. 
20  and  37. 


1  See  Deut.  xiv.  5.     The  Venice  ed.  (1544)  adds:  "  and  all  of  them 
(as  regards)  their  slaughter,"  etc. 


76  RABBI  ELIEZER 

of  the  Jordan  give  him  water  to  drink,  for  the  waters  of 
the  Jordan  surround  all  the  earth,^  half  thereof  (flow) 
above  the  earth  and  the  other  half  below  the  earth,-  as 
it  is  said,  "  lie  is  confident,  though  Jordan  swell  even  to 
his  mouth  "  {ibid.  23).  This  (creature)  is  destined  for  the 
day  of  sacrifice,  for  the  great  banquet  of  the  righteous,^ 
as  it  is  said,  "  He  only  that  made  him  can  make  his  sword  ' 
to  approach  imto  him  "  {ibid.  19). 

The  ^  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  spake  to  the  Torah : " 
"  Let  us  make  ||  man  in  our  image,  after  our  likeness  " 
(Gen,  i.  26).  (The  Torah)  spake  before  Him  :  Sovereign 
of  all  the  worlds !  The  man  ^  whom  Thou  wouldst  ^  create 
will  be  limited  in  days  and  full  of  anger  ;  and  he  will  come 
into  the  power  of  sin.  Unless  Thou  wilt  be  long-suffering 
with  him,  it  would  be  well  for  him  not  to  have  come  into 
the  world,^  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  rejoined :  And 
is  it  for  nought  that  I  am  called  "slow  to  anger  "  i"  and 
"abounding  in  love"?  He  began  to  collect  the  dust  of 
the  first  man  from  the  four  corners  of  the  world  ;  ^^  red, 

1  The  first  editions  read:  "the  land  of  Israel."  Cf.  Eth.  Enoch 
xxvi.  2  f . 

2  See  T.B.  Baba  Bathra,  loc.  cit. ,  and  cf .  Gen.  Rab.  v.  8,  and  xxiii.  ~. 

*  See  supra,  p.  70.  According  to  Midrash  Agadah,  Gen.  p.  3,  the 
female  companion  of  the  I^eviathan  is  reserved  for  the  Messianic 
Banquet;  ct.  Pal.  Targ.  on  Gen.  i.  z.  and  cf.  T.B.  Baba  Bathra,  75a. 
Gen.  Rab.  vii.  .1,  Lekach  Tob,  Gen.  p.  14. 

*  To  slay  him. 

°  The  first  editions  read  :   "  Forthwith  the  Holy  One,"  etc. 

*  The  Torah  is  the  instrument  in  God's  hand  at  theCreation;  see  supra, 
p.  12,  and  Gen.  Rab.  i.  i.  Cf.  Midrash  Konen,  p.  z^,  based  on  Prov.  iii. 
19.  The  idea  was  used  by  the  author  of  the  Epistle  of  Barnabas  v.  5, 
vi.  12,  where  God  is  represented  as  consulting  the  Christ.  According 
to  other  traditions  of  the  Church  and  Synagogue,  God  consulted 
the  ministering  angels  at  the  creation  of  man;  cf.  Midrash  Agadali, 
Gen.  p.  4,  and  Irenaeus,  adv.  H(Br.  i.  24. 

'The  first  edition  reads:  "This  man."  The  Venice  edition  has: 
"  The  world  is  Thine,  this  man,"  etc. 

®  The  Venice  edition  adds  here:  "is  Thine."  The  idea  exnress^^d 
by  the  next  few  words,  "  that  man  would  have  but  few  days,"  is  to 
be  compared  with  p.  125,  infrct.  The  sentence  is  based  on  Job 
xiv.  I. 

•  See  Matt,  xviii.  6,  and  Eth.  Enoch  xxxviii.  z. 

'"See  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  p.  212,  and  Test  Abraham. 
A.N.C.L.  (extra  vol.)  p.  102,  and  cf.  Wisdimi  xi.  23  f. 

"  The  first  editions  read  :  "  earth."  The  Pal.  Targum  on  Gen.  ii.  7 
says  :  "  And  the  Lord  God  created  man  with  two  inclinations  ;  and 
He  took  dust  from  the  place  of  the  House  of  the  Sanctuary  and  from 
the  four  quarters  of  the  world,  and  mixed  (the  dust)  with  all  the 
waters  of  the  world,  and  created  him  red,  dark  red  (or  brown),  and 


CREATION  ON  SIXTH  DAY         11 

black,  white,^  and  "  pale  green."  ^  (which)  refers  to  the 
body. 

Why  (did  He  gather  man's  dust)  from  the  four  corners 
of  the  world  ?  ^  Thus  spake  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He : 
If  a  man  should  come  from  the  east  to  the  west,  or  from 
the  west  to  the  east,*  and  his  time  comes  to  depart  from 
the  world,  then  the  earth  ^  shall  not  say.  The  dust  of  thy 
body  is  not  mine,*^  return  to  the  place  whence  thou  wast 
created.'  But  (this  circumstance)  teaches  thee  that  in 
every  place  where  a  man  goes  or  comes,^  and  his  end  ap- 
proaches when  he  must  depart  from  the  world,  thence  is  the 
dust  of  his  body,  and  there  it  returns  to  the  dust,  as  it  is 
said,  "For  dust  thou  art,  and  unto  dust  shalt  thou  return" 
{ibid.  iii.  19). 

The  day  had  twelve  hours ;  ^  in  the  first  hour  He  collected 

white."  It  is  evident  that  the  Targum  has  used  our  book  in  this 
context.  See  also  Tanchuma,  Pekude,  §  iii.  On  the  creation  of  Adam 
see  T.B.  Synhedrin,  38b,  Zohar,  Gen.  35b,  ihid.  205b,  and  in^ra. 
Chapter  XII.     Cf.  Griiiibaum,  Beiirdge,  pp.  54  ff. 

1  The  first  editions  add  the  following  :  "  and  yellow.  '  Red,' 
this  is  the  blood  ;  '  black '  refers  to  the  entrails ;  ^  '  white  '  refers  to 
the  bones  and  sinews."     Cf.  T.B.  Niddah,  31a. 

2  Jalkut,  Gen.  S  13,  reads  as  our  MS.,  "pale  green."  The  first 
editions  read  "yellow."  Might  the  four  colours  indicate  the  different 
colours  of  the  skin  of  men  ? 

^  See  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  (ed.  Alalaii)  i.  xxxiv.,  and  Slavonic 
Enoch  XXX.  13;  and  cf.  Tertullian,  Against  the  Valentinians,  xxiv,, 
and  the  Book  of  the  Bee  (ed.  Budge),  p.  16. 

*  The  first  editions  add  :   "  or  to  any  place  where  he  may  go." 

*  The  first  editions  add  :   "  which  is  in  that  place." 

*  The  first  editions  add  :   "  and  I  will  not  receive  thee." 

'  According  to  Gen.  Rab.  xx.  10,  and  Tanna  de  be  Elijahu  Rab. 
xxxi.  fed.  Friedmann),  p.  164,  the  "  return  "  of  man  to  the  dust  is  held 
to  signify  the  resurrection. 

*  The  first  editions  read :  "  and  his  end  comes  to  depart  from  the 
world,  whence  the  dust  of  his  body  comes  thence  it  returns,  and  that 
dust  will  raise  its  voice,  as  it  is  said,"  etc. 

*  Luria  thinks  that  the  order  of  the  hours  of  the  day  whereon 
Adam  was  created  is  a  gloss  added  by  a  copyist  who  knew  the  legends 
of  the  Talmud  ;  cf .  T.B.  Synhedrin,  loc.  cit.  See  Aboth  de  R.  Nathan 
((.')  i.  p.  3a;  Pesikta  Rabbathi,  §  xlvi.  p.  187b,  note  7  ;  Lev.  Rab.  xxix. 
I  ;  Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  xcii.  3  ;  Tanchuma,  Shemini.  §  viii.  R.  Bechai  on 
Gen.  ii.  7  gives  parallel  readings  to  our  text.  The  Church  literature 
also  has  many  legends  of  the  Haggadic  type  concerning  the  creation 
of  Adam;  thus  the  Apostolic  Constitutions,  vii.  34,  says:  "Thou 
hast  exhibited  man  (Adam)  as  the  ornament  of  the  world, 
and  formed  him  a  body  out  of  the  four  elements."  Irenaeu? 
{adv.   HcBY.   v.    23)    says  :    "  Adam    sinned   on   the  sixth   day   of   the 

1  See  T.B.  Kerithoth,  22a ;  perhaps  the  reference  is  to  the  liver 
and  spleen. 


78  RABBI  ELIEZER 

the  dust  for  (the  body  of)  Adam,  in  the  second  (hour)  He 
formed  it  into  a  mass/  in  the  third  (hour)  He  gave  it  its 
shape,  in  the  fourth  (hour)  He  endowed  ||  it  with  breath,'^ 
in  the  fifth  (hour)  he  stood  on  his  feet,^  in  the  sixth  (hour) 
he  called  the  (animals  by  their)  names,  in  the  seventh 
(hour)  Eve  was  joined  to  him  (in  wedlock),  in  the  eighth 
(hour)  they  were  commanded  concerning  the  fruits  of  the 
tree,  in  the  ninth  (hour)  they  went  up  to  (their)  couch  as 
two  and  descended  as  four,  •  in  the  tenth  (hour)  ^  they 
transgressed  His  commandment,  in  the  eleventh  (hour) 
they  were  judged,  in  the  twelfth  (hour)  they  were  driven 
forth,  as  it  is  said,  "  So  he  drove  out  the  man  "  {ibid.  24). 

And  He  formed  *'  the  lumps  of  the  dust  of  the  first  man 
into  a  mass '  in  a  clean  place,^  (it  was)  on  the  navel  ^  of 
the  earth.  He  shaped  him  and  prepared  ^°  him,  but  breath 
and  soul  were  not  in  him.  What  did  the  Holy  One,  blessed 
be  He,  do  ?  He  breathed  with  the  breath  of  the  soul  of  His 
mouth,  and  a  soul  was  cast^^  into  him,  as  it  is  said,  "And 
he  breathed  into  his  nostrils  the  breath  of  life  "  {ibid.  ii.  7). 

Creation."  See  also  Aphraates,  Homilies,  ed.  Wright,  p.  i68  ;  other 
references  are  given  by  Ginzberg,  Die  Haggada  bei  den  Kirchenvdtern, 
p.  50  ;  and  cf.  Kohut  in  Z.D.M.G.  xxv.  pp.  59-94,  and  J  E.  i.  174  flf. 

1  See  Hippolytus  (in  A.N.C.L.  vi.  p.  130)  for  Adam  legends,  zind  cf. 
Clementine  Homilies,  ii. 

2  Or,  "a  soul  was  cast  into  him."  The  first  editions  read:  "He 
cast  a  soul  into  him."  See  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  15,  and  Midrash  Abkhir, 
and  cf.  W.  R.  Harper  Memorial  Vols.  i.  p.  258. 

'  The  first  editions  read  :   "  He  made  him  stand  on  his  feet." 

*  See  Jubilees  iii.  34,  and  cf.  Gen.  Rab.  xxii.  2  and  Book  of  Adam 
and  Eve  (cd.  Malan)  i.  Ixxiii.  Perhaps  our  book  refers  to  the  conception 
of  Abel  and  his  twin-sister.  The  Church  Fathers  deal  with  similar 
legends,  see  Cyril  of  Jerusalem,  Catechism,  xii.  6  ;  cf.  Schatzhohle,  p.  7, 
and  the  Book  of  the  Bee,  p.  24. 

*  The  first  editions  add  :  "  They  were  brought  into  the  Garden 
of  Eden  and."  This  reading  is  contradicted  by  our  book,  see  infra, 
p.  84.     Sec  also  th'.-  Book  of  the  Bee,  p.  23. 

*  The  story  of  man's  creation  is  recapitulated  here  and  in  the  next 
chapter.  We  have  a  collection  of  three  variant  accounts  of  the  same 
legend.     See  Introduction. 

'  See  Pal.  Targ.  Gen.  ii.  7  quoted  supra,  p.  76,  nolo  11  ;  Gen.  Rab. 
xiv.  7  and  8  on  the  creation  of  Adam.     See  also  T.J.  Sabbath  ii.  4,  p.  5b. 

'  Gen.  Rab.  xiv.  8  says:  "  He  was  created  from  the  place  of  his 
atonement,"  i.e.  the  Temple. 

'  Palestine ;  see  Ezek.  xxxviii.  12  for  the  term  "  navel  of  the  earth." 
See  Jubil  es  viii.  12,  19;  Eth.  Enoch  xxvi.  i. ;  the  Book  of  the  Bee, 
p.  17;  and  infra,  p.  266. 

^^  i.e.  adorned  him  with  the  faculties  which  distinguish  man  from 
the  beast. 

'1  See  supra,  note  2,  on  this  phrase;  and  cf.  Gen.  Rab.  loc.  cit. 


CREATION  ON  SIXTH  DAY  79 

Adam  stood  and  he  began  to  gaze  upwards  and  down- 
wards.i  He  saw  all  the  creatures  which  the  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  had  created ;  and  he  ^  was  wondering  in  his 
heart,  and  he  began  to  praise  and  glorify  his  Creator,  saying, 
"  O  Lord,  how  manifold  are  thy  works  !  "  (Ps.  civ.  24). ^ 
He  stood  on  his  feet  and  was  adorned  with  the  Divine 
Image.  His  height  was  from  east  to  west,  as  it  is  said, 
"  Thou  hast  beset  me  behind  and  before  "  {ibid,  cxxxix.  5). 
"  Behind  "  refers  to  the  west,  "  before  "  refers  to  the  east.^ 
All  the  creatures  saw  him  and  became  afraid  ^  of  him,  think- 
ing that  he  was  their  Creator,  and  they  came  to  prostrate 
II  themselves  before  him. 

Adam  said  to  them :  What  (is  this),  ye  creatures  !  Why 
are  ye  come  to  prostrate  yourselves  before  me  ?  ^  Come, 
I  and  you,  let  us  go  and  adorn  in  majesty  and  might,  and 

^  The  first  editions  add  here  :  "  and  his  height  was  from  one  end  of 
the  world  to  the  other/  as  it  is  said,  '  Thou  hast  beset  me  behind 
and  before  '  (Ps.  cxxxix.  5).  '  Behind  '  refers  to  the  west,  '  before  ' 
refers  to  the  east." 

2  The  first  editions  read  :  "he  began  to  glorifv  the  Name  of  his 
Creator." 

3  This  quotation  from  Ps.  civ.  is  very  appropriately  placed 
in  Adam's  mouth,  inasmuch  as  this  psalm  is  a  song  of  the 
Creation. 

*  This  passage  in  this  connection  is  not  in  the  printed  texts. 

^  See  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  p.  22,  and  Eccles.  Rab.  to 
Eccles.  vi.  10.  The  word  "creatures"  of  our  text  reads  "ministering 
angels"  in  the  Midrashim.  Slav.  Enoch  xxxi.  3  refers  to  the  envy  of 
Satan  "  because  things  were  subservient  to  Adam  on  earth."  See  also 
Philo,  G.T.  i.  p.  57,  n.  3,  and  Wisdom  ix.  2,  x.  2. 

*  Have  we  here  a  polemic  against  Gnostic  doctrines  ?  See 
Freudenthal,  Hellenistische  Studien,  p.  69.  The  idea  of  the  first  Adam 
being  a  "  lower  "  God  is  reflected  in  the  doctrine  of  the  "  Second 
Adam."  See  i  Cor.  xv.  45-49  for  the  "  Second  Adam,"  and  cf. 
Hellenism  and  Christianity ,  pp.  44  f . 

^  See  T.B.  Chagigah,  12a  ;  and  cf.  Gen.  Rab.  viii.  i  and  xxiv.  2. 
According  to  Ecclesiasticus  xUx.  16  Adam  was  "  above  every  hving 
thing  in  the  creation  "  ;  the  Church  Fathers  have  many  legends  as  to 
the  original  state  of  Adam  before  he  sinned ;  see  Basil,  discourse  on 
"  God  not  being  the  cause  of  evil,"  vii.,  where  the  original  glory  of 
Adam  in  Paradise  is  described;  Irenaeus,  adv.  Hcsr.  i.  30.  6,  refers 
to  the  legend  of  the  immense  size  of  Adam  ;  according  to  Chry- 
sostomus  (Homilies  on  i  Cor.  xvii.  3)  Adam  was  like  an  angel  en- 
dowed with  the  gift  of  prophecy.  See  also  Hilgenfeld,  Die  JUdische 
Apokalyptik,  p.  230  f .  For  later  views  of  Christian  scholars  see  Diestel, 
op.  cit.  pp.  488  f.  On  Adam's  creation  see  also  Slav.  Enoch  xxx. 
10  ff.  The  Rabbis  held  different  views  on  the  question  of  the  size  of 
Adam's  body;  cf.  T.B.  Rosh  Ha-Shanah,  iia;  Baba  Bathra,  75a.  Cf. 
Philo,  de  Mundi  opific.  Mi.  32  f.  and  35,  C.W.  i.  p.  39,  §  136  f.,  and 
P-  4^.  §51- 


80  RABBI  ELIEZER 

acclaim  as  King  over  us  the  One  *  who  created  us.  If 
there  be  no  people  to  acclaim  the  king  as  king,  the  king 
acclaims  himself.-  If  there  be  no  people  to  praise  the  king, 
the  king  praises  himself.  In  that  hour  Adam  opened  his 
mouth  and  all  the  creatures  answered  after  him,  and  they 
adorned  in  majesty  and  might  and  acclaimed  their  Creator 
as  King  over  themselves,  and  they  said,  "  The  Lord  reigneth, 
he  is  apparelled  with  majesty  "  {ibid,  xciii.  1).^ 

Ten  kings  ruled  from  one  end  of  the  world  to  the  other. 
The  first  king  was  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  who  rules 
in  heaven  and  on  earth, ^  and  it  was  His  intention  to  raise 
up  kings  on  earth,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  he  changeth  the  times 
and  the  seasons ;  ^  he  removeth  kings,  and  setteth  up  kings  " 
(Dan.  ii.  21). 

The  second  king  was  Nimrod,  who  ruled  from  one  end 
of  the  world  to  the  other,  for  all  the  creatures  were 
dwelling  in  one  place  and  they  were  afraid  of  the  waters 
of  the  flood,''  and  Nimrod  was  king  over  them,'^  as  it  is 
said,  "And  the  beginning  of  his  kingdom  was  Babel  "^ 
(Gen.  X.  10). 

The  third  king  was  Joseph,  who  ruled  from  one  end 
of  the   world  to  the  other,  as  it   is  said,  "  And   all  the 

^  The  Prague  edition  reads  :  "  The  Living  One."  The  Slavonic  Book 
of  Adam  and  Eve  (ed.  Jagic,  p.  9)  speaks  of  Adam  praising  God  in 
Paradise  in  company  with  the  angels. 

2  The  ist  ed.  reads  this  sentence  thus:  "Because  the  people 
acclaim  the  king  and  no  king  acclaims  himself,  if  there  be  no  people 
to  acclaim  him."  The  next  sentence  is  omitted  by  the  first  editions; 
their  text  continues :  "  Adam  went  alone  and  acclaimed  Him  king 
first,  and  all  the  creatures  (did  likewise)  after  him,  and  he  said,  '  The 
Lord  reigneth,'  "  etc. 

^  According  to  T.B.  Rosh  Ha-Shanah,  31a.  this  psalm  was  recited 
in  the  Temple  on  the  sixth  day  of  the  week.  This  custom  still  obtains 
in  the  Sjmagogue  :  see  Singer,  p.  83. 

*  See  Targumim  (Rishon  and  Sheni)  on  Esth.  i.  i,  T.B.  'Erubin, 
53a,  T.B.  Megillah,  iia,  where  Ahab,  Nebuchadnezzar,  and  Ahasuerus 
only  are  mentioned.  The  text  of  Neh.  ix.  5,  6  was  probably  used  by 
the  writer  of  our  Mid  rash.  Our  book  has  been  used  by  the  writer  of 
the  Midrash  of  the  Ten  Kings ;  see  Horowitz,  op.  cit.  pp.  39  f. 

*  The  MS.  omits  the  rest  of  the  quotation,  which  is  given  by  the 
first  editions. 

*  Cf.  Josephus,  Ant.  i.  4.  i. 

'  See  infra,  pp.  ij^i-.  and  cf.  Jalkut.  Gen.  §  62,  and  see  Book  of 
Jashar  vii.  45,  "  And  Nimrod  reigned  in  the  earth  over  all  the 
sons  of  Noah  "  ;  and  cf.  Jerahmccl  xxxi.  20,  Pal.  Targ.  Gen.  x.  10,  and 
Jalkut  ii.  §  211.     A  different  explanation  is  given  by  Josephus,  loc.  cit. 

*  On  Nimrod  see  J.E.  ix.  309  ff.  and  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics, 
pp.  44  f . 


CREATION  ON  SIXTH  DAY         81 

earth  came  |1  into  Egypt  to  Joseph "  {ibid.  xli.  57).  It  is 
not  written  here  "Egypt  came,"  ^  but  "they  came  into 
Egypt,"  2  for  they  brought  their  tribute  and  their  presents 
to  Joseph  to  buy  (corn)  ;  for  forty  years  he  was  second 
to  the  king,3  and  for  forty  years  he  was  king  *  alone,  as 
it  is  said,  "  Now  there  arose  a  new  king  over  Egypt  " 
(Ex.  i.  8).5 

The  fourth  king  was  Solomon,  who  reigned  from  one 
end  of  the  world  to  the  other,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Solomon 
ruled  over  all  the  kingdoms  "  (1  Kings  iv.  21) ;  and  it  says, 
"  And  they  brought  every  man  his  present,^  vessels  of 
silver,  and  vessels  of  gold,  and  raiment,  and  armour,  and 
spices,  horses,  and  mules,  a  rate  year  by  year  "  {ibid.  x.  25). 

The  fifth  king  was  Ahab,  king  of  Israel,  who  ruled  from 
one  end  of  the  world  to  the  other,'  as  it  is  said,  "  As  the  Lord 
thy  God  liveth,  there  is  no  nation  or  kingdom,^  whither 
my  lord  hath  not  sent  to  seek  thee  "  {ibid,  xviii.  10).  All 
the  princes  of  the  provinces  ^  were  controlled  i"  by  him  ; 
they  sent  and  brought  their  tribute  and  their  presents  to 
Ahab.  Are  not  all  the  princes  of  the  provinces  of  the 
world  two  hundred  and  thirty-two  ?  ^^  as  it  is  said,  "  Then  he 
mustered  the  young  men  of  the  princes  of  the  provinces, 
and  they  were  two  hundred  and  thirty-two  "  {ibid.  xx.  15). 

^  The  first  editions  read :  "  '  Earth'  is  not  written  here,  but  '  and 
all  the  earth."  "  Earth  or  land  would  refer  to  Egypt  alone,  all  the  earth 
refers  to  all  countries. 

-  See  infra,  pp.  306 f.,  and  cf.  Gen.  Rab.  xc.  6.  "The  famine  was 
restricted  to  Phoenicia,  Arabia,  and  Palestine,"  says  the  Midrash. 

^  The  first  editions  add  :  "  of  Egypt." 

*  See  T.B.  Sotah,  iia.  Book  of  Jashar  Iviii.  6;  and  cf.  J.E.  vii. 
248  ff.  for  "  Joseph  in  Rabbinical  literature." 

*  The  Oxford  MS.  (d.  35)  adds  "  etc."  The  verse  continues  :  "  who 
knew  not  Joseph."  Hence  the  inference  that  the  new  king  did  not 
know  his  predecessor  Joseph. 

*  The  rest  of  the  verse  is  omitted  by  our  MS.,  but  it  is  given  by  the 
first  editions.     On  Solomon  see  J.E.  xi.  439  f. 

'  The  first  editions  omit  the  words  "  who  ruled  .  .  .  other." 

^  The  first  editions  and  our  MS.  do  not  continue  the  quotation,  but 
add  "  etc." 

9  N'Dns'N  or  N'3i3x  {eirapxla) ,  prefecture. 

1"  Or,  "  were  conquered." 

"  The  first  editions  read  here  :  "  Ahasuerus  ruled  over  half  the  world, 
116  provinces,  and  by  the  merit  of  Esther  11  more  provinces  were 
added  to  him,  as  it  is  said,  '  Ahasuerus  who  reigned,  from  India  unto 
Ethiopia,  one  hundred  and  seven  and  twenty  provinces  '  "  ^  (Esth.  i.  i). 

^  See  Esth.  Rab.  on  Esth.  i.  i  and  T.B.  Megillah,  iia,  on  the  127 
provinces. 

6 


82  RABBI  ELTEZER 

The  sixth  king  was  Nebuchadnezzar,  who  ^  ruled  from  one 
end  of  the  world  to  the  other.-  Moreover,  he  ruled  over 
the  beasts  of  the  field  and  the  birds  of  heaven,  and  they 
could  not  open  their  mouth  except  by  the  permission  of 
Nebuchadnezzar,  ||  as  it  is  said,^  "  And  wheresoever  the 
children  of  men  dwell,  the  beasts  of  the  field  and  the 
fowls  of  the  heaven  hath  he  given  into  thine  hand " 
(Dan.  ii.  38). 

The  seventh  king  was  Cyrus,''  who  ruled  from  one  end  of 
the  world  to  the  other,  as  it  is  said,  "  Thus  saith  Cyrus 
king  of  Persia,^  All  the  kingdoms  of  the  earth  hath  the 
Lord,  the  God  of  heaven,  given  me  "  (2  Chron.  xxxvi.  23). 
Ahasuerus  ruled  over  half  the  world.  Is  not  half  the  world 
but  116  provinces,  as  it  is  said,  "  This  is  Ahasuerus,  who 
reigned  from  India  unto  Ethiopia"  (Esth.  i.  1)." 

The  eighth  king  was  Alexander  ^  of  Macedonia,  who  ruled 
from  one  end  of  the  world  to  the  other,  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
as  I  was  considering,  behold,  an  he-goat  came  from  the 
west  8  over  the  face  of  the  whole  earth  "  (Dan.  viii.  5). 
"  Over  the  earth  "  is  not  written  here,  but  "  over  the  face 
of  the  whole  earth."  ^  And  not  only  that,  but  he  \\ished 
to  ascend  to  heaven  in  order  to  know  what  is  in  heaven, 
and  to  descend  into  the  depths  in  order  to  know  what  is  in 

'  See  supra,  p.  8i,  note  7. 

-  The  MS.  omits  here  the  following  passage,  which  occurs  in  this 
context  in  the  first  two  editions  :  "  as  it  is  said,  '  And  wheresoever  the 
children  of  men  dwell'"  (Dan.  ii.  38).  The  preceding  verse  reads: 
"  Thou,  O  king,  art  king  of  kings." 

'  The  first  editions  vary  the  quotation  by  reading  Isa.  x.  14 : 
"  And  there  was  none  that  moved  the  wing,  or  that  opened  the  mouth, 
or  chirped."  This  verse  is  applied  by  Isaiah  to  Sennacherib ;  see  infra, 
pp.  3gc  If.,  for  a  reference  to  Nebuchadnezzar;  and  cf.  Dan.  ii.  37,  and 
T.B.  Sabbath,  149b.  The  printed  texts  differ  from  the  MS.  here  by 
omitting  any  reference  to  the  beasts  of  the  field. 

^  On  Cyrus  as  king  of  the  earth  see  Jerahmeel  Ixxviii.  i.  See 
also  T.B.  Megillah,  12a.  and  T.B.  Rosh  Ha-Shanah,  3b. 

^  The  MS.  ends  the  quotation  here  ;  the  first  editions  continue  till 
"  earth,"  adding  "  etc.,"  which  also  occurs  in  the  MS. 

*  This  paragraph  in  its  context  is  peculiar  to  our  MS.  ;  see  supra, 
p.  81,  note  II. 

'  On  Alexander  the  Great  in  Rabbinic  literature  see  J .E.  i.  342  f., 
where  a  good  bibliography  is  to  be  found  at  the  end  of  the  article. 
See  also  Jerahmeel,  Index,  p.  299,  s.v.  "  Alexander." 

*  The  quotation  in  the  MS.  ends  here  ;  the  first  editions  agree  in 
this  instance. 

"  The  first  editions  add  here  :  "  that  he  might  know  what  was  at 
the  ends  of  the  earth."  The  phrase  occurs  in  a  modified  form  a  few 
lines  lower  down  in  our  MS. 


CREATION  ON  SIXTH  DAY  83 

the  depths,  1  and  not  only  that,  but  he  attempted  to  go  to 
the  ends  of  the  earth  in  order  to  know  what  was  at  the  ends 
of  the  earth.  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  divided  his 
kingdom  ^  among  the  four  corners  (or  winds)  of  the  heavens, 
as  it  is  said,  "  And  when  he  shall  stand  up,  his  kingdom  shall 
be  broken,  and  shall  be  divided  towards  the  four  winds  of 
the  heaven  "  {ibid.  xi.  4). 

The  ninth  king  is  King  ||  Messiah,  who,  in  the  future,  will 
rule  from  one  end  of  the  world  to  the  other,^  as  it  is  said, 
"  He  shall  have  dominion  also  from  sea  to  sea  "  (Ps.  Ixxii.  8) ;  ^ 
and  another  Scripture  text  says,  "  And  the  stone  that  smote 
the  image  became  a  great  mountain,  and  filled  the  whole  earth  " 
(Dan.  ii.  35).^ 

The  tenth  king  will  restore  the  sovereignty  to  its 
owners.^  He  who  was  the  first  king  will  be  the  last  king, 
as  it  is  said,  "  Thus  saith  the  Lord,  the  King  ...  I  am  the 
first,  and  I  am  the  last;'  and  beside  me  there  is  no  God  " 
(Isa.  xliv.  6) ;  and  it  is  written,  "  And  the  Lord  shall  be  king 
over  all  the  earth  "  (Zech.  xiv.  9).^ 

^  See  T.J.  'Abodah  Zarah  iii.  i,  42c. 

*  See  Num.  Rab.  xiii.  14. 

^  Not  merely  over  Palestine  does  the  Messianic  kingdom  extend, 
but  over  the  whole  world.     This  universaUsm  is  noteworthy. 

*  This  verse  is  not  given  in  the  first  editions.  The  verse  continues  : 
"  And  from  the  river  unto  the  ends  of  the  earth." 

^  See  Jalkut,  in  loc,  and  Num.  Rab.  loc.  cit.  This  verse  was  known 
to  Josephus  as  a  Messianic  text ;  see  Ant.  x.  10.  4. 

*  The  first  editions  read:  "  to  its  owner";  see  infya,  p.  130,  and 
Maimonides,  Hilkhoth  Melakhim  xi.  4. 

'  The  MS.  ends  quotation  here  ;  the  first  editions  continue  the  text. 

*  The  Messianic  kingdom  is  universal  in  space,  but  not  in  time ;  the 
kingdom  of  God  which  follows  the  kingdom  of  the  Messiah  will  be 
eternal  and  universal.  The  first  editions  continue  :  "  and  the  sove- 
reignty shall  return  to  its  (rightful)  heirs  and  then,  '  The  idols  shall 
utterly  pass  away.  And  the  Lord  alone  shall  be  exalted  in  that  day  ' 
(Isa.  ii.  18,  17).  And  He  will  tend  His  flock  and  cause  them  to  lie 
down,  as  it  is  written,  '  I  myself  will  feed  my  sheep,  and  I  will  cause 
them  to  lie  down  '  (Ezek.  xxxiv.  15)  ;  and  we  shall  see  Him  eye  to 
eye,  as  it  is  written,  '  For  they  shall  see,  eye  to  eye,  when  the  Lord 
retumeth  to  Zion  '  "  (Isa.  Iii.  8). 


CHAPTER    XIP 

ADAM    IN    PARADISE    [14a.    ii.] 

With  love  abounding  did  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  love 
the  first  man,  inasmuch  as  He  created  him  in  -  a  pure  locality, 
in  the  place  of  the  Temple,^  and  He  brought  him  into  His 
palace,^  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  Lord  God  took  the  man, 
and  put  him  into  the  garden  of  Eden  ^  to  dress  it  and  to  keep 
it"  (Gen.  ii.  15).  From  which  place  did  He  take  him? 
From  the  place  of  the  Temple,  and  He  brought  him  into 
His  palace,  which  is  Eden,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  he  put  him 
into  the  garden  of  Eden  to  dress  it  "  {ibid.).^  Perhaps  thou 
wilt  say : '  To  plough  (the  fields)  and  cast  out  ^  the  stones 

*  In  the  MS.  this  is  ch.  xi. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  from  a  pure  and  holy  place.  From 
which  place  did  He  take  him  ?     From  the  site  of  the  Temple." 

^  Man's  body  is  an  emblem  of  God's  sanctuary.  In  the  preceding 
chapter  we  are  told  that  God  gathered  the  dust  to  form  the  first  man 
from  the  four  corners  of  the  earth,  establishing  thereby  the  right  of 
every  human  being  to  live  and  to  be  buried  in  any  part  of  the  earth. 
A  similar  idea  was  known  to  Philo,  de  Muiidi  optftc.  Mi.  35,  C.W.  i. 
p.  42,  §  51.  As  to  the  Temple  being  the  site  of  Adam's  origin 
see  T.J.  Na?;ir  vii.  2,  52b.  and  Gen.  Rab.  xiv.  8,  and  cf.  infra, 
p.  143.     Eden  was  more  than  a  mere  garden.     See  T.B.  Berakhoth, 

34b. 

*  "  Palace  "  recalls  Dan.  xi.  45. 

^  The  words  "  lo  dress  it  and  to  keep  it  "  are  missing  in  the  MS.,  but 
they  are  found  in  the  ist  ed. 

•This  does  not  occur  here  in  the  printed  texts,  which  continue: 
"  What  labour  then  was  there  in  the  midst  of  the  garden,  that  (the 
text)  should  say  :  '  to  dress  it  and  to  keep  it '  ?  "  According  to  Jubilees 
iii.  15,  "  Adam  and  his  wife  were  in  the  garden  of  Eden  for  seven 
years  tilling  and  keeping  it,  and  we  gave  him  work,  and  we  in- 
structed him  to  do  everything  that  is  suitable  for  tillage."  As  we 
shall  see,  our  book  gives  an  allegorical  interpretation  of  this  "  work 
in  Eden." 

''  The  first  editions  add  here  :  "  There  was  work  (to  be  done)  in  the 
garden  of  Eden,  namely,  that  he  should  prune  the  vines  in  the  vine- 
yards." 

•*  See  Isa.  xxviii.  24  for  phraseology. 

84 


ADAM  IN  PARADISE  85 

from  the  ground.^     But  did  not  all  the  trees  grow  up  of 
their  own  accord  ?  ^ 

Perhaps  thou  wilt  say  :  There  was  some  other  work  (to 
be  done)  in  the  garden  of  Eden,  (such  as)  to  water  the  garden. 
But  did  not  a  river  flow  through  and  issue  forth  from 
Eden,  and  water  the  garden,  as  it  is  said,  ||  "  And  a  river 
went  out  of  Eden  to  water  the  garden  "  (ibid.  10)  ? 

What  then  is  the  meaning  of  this  expression :  "to  dress 
it  and  to  keep  it "  ?  (The  text)  does  not  say  "  to  dress  it 
and  to  keep  it "  except  (in  the  sense)  of  being  occupied  with 
the  words  of  the  Torah  ^  and  keeping  all  its  commandments,'' 
as  it  is  said,  "  to  keep  the  way  of  the  tree  of  life  "  {ibid.  iii.  24). 
But  the  "  tree  of  life  "  signifies  only  the  Torah,*^  as  it  is 
said,  "It  is  a  tree  of  life  to  them  that  lay  hold  upon  it  " 
(Prov.  iii.  18). 

And  (Adam)  was  at  his  leisure  in  the  garden  of  Eden, 
like  one  of  the  ministering  angels.^  The  Holy  One,  blessed 
be  He,  said  :  I  am  alone  in  My  world  and  this  one  (Adam) 
also  is  alone  in  his '  world.  There  is  no  propagation  before 
Me  and  this  one  (Adam)  has  no  propagation  in  his  life ;  ^ 
hereafter  all  the  creatures  ^  will  say  :  Since  there  was  no 
propagation  in  his  life,^  it  is  he  who  has  created  us.^"     It  is 

^  The  first  editions  add  :  "or  again,  that  he  should  pile  up  the  sheaves 
or  cut  (the  corn)." 

^  Cf.  Gen.  Rab.  xiii.  i. 

3  Torah  means  not  merely  the  written  word  of  God,  but  also  its 
interpretation  and  implication. 

*  The  printed  texts  read  differently  here  :  "  to  keep  the  way  of 
the  tree  of  life."     See  Siphre,  D  ut.  §  41. 

^  The  Palestinian  Targum  renders  Gen.  ii.  15  as  follows :  "  And  the 
Lord  God  took  the  man  from  the  mountains  of  worship,  where  he  had 
been  created,  and  made  him  dwell  in  the  garden  of  Eden,  to  do  service 
in  the  Law  and  to  keep  its  commandments."  A  similar  interpretation 
occurs  in  the  Church  Father  Theophilus  {To  Avdolycus,  ii.  24)  and  in  the 
Slavonic  Enoch  xxxi.  i  :  "  And  I  made  a  garden  in  Eden  in  the  East,  and 
(I  ordained)  that  he  should  observe  the  Law  and  keep  the  instruction." 

*  Man  is  become  "  like  one  of  us,"  was  interpreted  by  the  Midrash, 
Gen.  Rab.  xxi.  5,  and  Mekhilta,  Beshallach,  vi.  p.  33a  (n.  18  for 
parallels)  as  meaning:  "like  one  of  the  ministering  angels."  This 
idea  of  the  Midrash  was  known  to  Justin  Martyr,  Dial.  c.  Tryph.  Ixii. 

'  Some  texts  read  :  "  My."     See  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  ii.  rS. 
«  Lit.  "  before  him." 

*  Supra,  p.  79,  we  read  that  the  animals  wished  to  worship  Adam, 
thinking  he  was  their  Maker.  The  belief  was  prevalent  in  former  days 
that  all  the  animals  in  Paradise  were  endowed  with  speech  and  reasoning 
power.     See  Jubilees  iii.  28  (n.  28),  and  Griinbaum,  op.  cit.  pp.  56,  60. 

^^  Our  author  may  wish  to  refute  the  notion  obtaining  in  some 
non-Jewish  rehgions  that  God  had  physical  oSspring. 


86  RABBI  ELIEZER 

not  good  for  man  to  be  alone,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  Lord 
God  said.  It  is  not  good  for  man  to  be  alone  ;  I  will  make 
him  an  help  meet  for  him  ..."  (Gen.  ii.  18).^ 

Rabbi  Jehudah  said  :  -  If  he  be  worthy  she  shall  be  an 
help  meet  for  him  ;  if  not,  she  shall  be  against  him  to  fight 
him.^ 

When  the  earth  heard  this  expression  •*  thereupon  it 
trembled  and  quaked,  crying  before  its  Creator  :  Sovereign 
of  all  worlds  !  I  have  not  the  power  to  feed  the  multi- 
tude ^  of  mankind.  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  replied : 
I  and  thou  will  (together)  feed  the  multitude  ^  of  mankind. 
They  agreed  to  divide  (the  task)  between  themselves  :  the 
night  was  for  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  ||  and  the 
day  (was  apportioned)  to  the  earth.''  What  did  the 
Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  do  ?  He  created  the  sleep  of 
life,'  so  that  man  lies  down  and  sleeps  whilst  He  sustains 

*  Thereby  divine  attributes  will  not  be  given  to  him  by  the  other 
creatures.  They  will  perceive  that  man  is  not  omnipotent.  Our 
Midrash  may  also  hint  that  Adam  (first  or  Second  Adam)  was  not 
the  Creator.  As  we  have  pointed  out,  the  view  that  the  Second  Adam 
was  the  Creator  obtained  in  early  Christian  circles.  See  Gen.  Rab. 
xii.  7. 

*  The  first  editions  insert  here:  "Do  not  read*  (in  Gen.  ii.  18) 
k'negdo,  '  meet  for  him,'  but  (read)  I'negdo.  '  against  him.'  " 

3  Jalkut.  Gen.  §  23,  reads  :  "  If  he  be  fortunate  she  will  correspond 
to  him  (and  be  in  harmony  with  him)  ;  if  not,  she  will  oppose  him." 
According  to  Rashi  she  will  be  a  "lash"  ("  Nigdo  ")  to  him;  see 
Midrash  Agadah  on  Gen.  ii.  18. 

*  i.e.  of  man's  supremacy  over  it.  Man  was  to  increase  and 
multiply,  to  fill  the  earth  and  to  subdue  it  (Gen.  i.  28).  The  Oxford 
MS.  (d.  35)  reads  :  "  When  the  earth  heard  the  expression  help-meet." 

*  Lit.  sheep  or  herd. 

*  See  Ps.  xlii.  8. 

'  See  Ps.  iii.  5  ;  T.B.  Berakhoth,  58b  ;  Gen.  Rab.  xiv.  g,  and 
Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  xxv.  2;  and  cf.  infra,  p.  253.  For  further 
references  to  Adam  legends  see  Die  Sagen  der  Juden,  ed.  Micha  Josef 
bin  Gorion,  191 3  (Anhang).  Two  volumes  of  this  Midrashic  collection 
have  appeared,  and  in  the  appendix  the  sources  are  given  for  the 
legends  deahng  with  the  Creation,  the  Patriarchs,  etc.  Equally 
interesting  and  valuable  are  the  Legends  of  the  Jews,  by  L.  Ginzberg  ; 
the  sources  of  the  legends  have  not  yet  appeared  in  the  promised 
final  volume.  Parallels  to  the  Midrashim  in  Christian  literature  are 
dealt  with  by  L.  Ginzberg  in  his  Haggada  b.  d.  Kirchenvutern,  i.,  Amster- 
dam, 1899.  Parallels  in  Mohammedan  literature  are  given  by  Geiger, 
Was  hat  Mohammed,  etc.,  and  M.  Griinbaum,  op.  cit.  pp.  60  ff..  and  in 
Z.D.M.G.  xxxi.  pi>.  183!?.;  the  monographs  by  Rahmer  (on  Jerome), 
Funk  (on  Aphraatcs),  Gerson,  and  Goldfahn  (on  Justin  Martyr)  should 
be  consulted  for  "  Christian  "  Midrashic  parallels. 

*  Jerome  employs  this  formula  of  Midrashic  exegesis  {e.g.  on  Zech. 
xiv.  20). 


ADAM  IN  PARADISE  87 

him  and  heals  him  and  (gives)  him  hfe  and  repose,  as  it  is 
said,  "  I  should  have  slept :  then  had  I  been  at  rest " 
(Job  iii.  13).  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  supports  (man) 
with  1  the  earth,  giving  it  water ;  and  it  yields  its  fruit  and 
food  for  all  creatures — but  the  first ^  man's  food  "in  toil^ 
shalt  thou  eat  of  it  all  the  days  of  thy  life  "  (Gen.  iii.  17). 

The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  had  compassion  upon  the 
first  man  (Adam),  and,  in  order  that  he  should  not  feel  any 
pain.  He  cast  upon  him  the  sleep  of  deep  slumber,^  and  He 
made  him  sleep  whilst  He  took  one  of  his  bones  from  his  side 
and  flesh  from  his  heart  ^  and  made  it  into  an  help  (meet  for 
him)  and  placed  her  opposite  to  him.  When  he  awoke  from 
his  sleep  he  saw  her  standing  opposite  to  him.^  And  he  said, 
"  Bone  of  my  bones  and  flesh  of  my  flesh  "  {ibid.  ii.  23). 
As  long  as  he  was  alone  he  was  called  Adam  (man).' 

Rabbi  Jehudah  ^  said  :  Because  of  the  name  Adamah 
(ground)  whence  he  was  taken,  his  name  was  called  Adam. 
Rabbi  Joshua  ben  Korchah  said :  He  was  called  Adam  because 
of  his  flesh  and   blood  {dclrn  ^).     He  said  to  him  :    Adam  ! 

^  The  first  editions  read  :  "  supports  the  earth." 

*  The  first  editions  omit :  "  the  first." 

^  Or  "  sorrow/'  see  4  Ezra  vii.  12,  and  Jewish  Sources  of  the  Sermon 
on  the  Mount,  p.  191. 

*  The  deep  sleep  made  Adam  insensible  to  pain  ;  cf .  T.B.  Synhedrin, 
39a.     Tertullian,  De  Anima,  xhii.,  discusses  the  "  sleep  "  of  Adam. 

^  See  Pal.  Targ.  Gen.  ii.  21.  According  to  the  Lekach  Tob,  Gen.  ii. 
21,  Eve  was  made  from  the  sixth  rib.  Theophilus,  op.  cit.  xxviii., 
discusses  why  Eve  was  formed  from  Adam's  rib. 

*  A  similar  expression  is  used  by  the  Book  of  Jashar  i.  4. 

'  According  to  the  Talmud  (T.B.  Jebamoth,  63b)  an  adult  male 
who  lives  without  a  wife  is  not  called  man  ("  Adam  ").  This  designa- 
tion was  given  w^hen  God  blessed  the  first  pair.  This  view  is  opposed 
by  our  author. 

*  The  first  editions  omit  till  "  R.  Joshua  ben  Korchah." 

*  See  'Arukh,  ed.  Kohut,  i.  p.  34b:  "The  first  man  was  called 
Adam  because  of  the  word  for  earth  (Adamah),  whence  he  was  taken  ;  " 
and  see  ibid.  p.  307a  for  another  version.  The  Church  Fathers  also  find 
fanciful  interpretations  of  the  name  of  the  first  man.  Augustine  on 
the  Gospel  of  John  ix.  14  explains  the  four  letters  of  Adam's  name 
(in  Greek)  as  referring  to  the  East,  West,  North,  and  South.  Cf. 
Slavonic  Enoch  xxx.  13,  and  Sibylline  Oracles  iii.  24-26.  Augustine 
{op.  cit.  X.  12)  gives  the  numerical  value  of  Adam  as  46,  pointing  out 
that  the  Temple  had  stood  46  years  at  the  time  of  the  death  of  the 
Founder  of  Christianity.  The  Rabbis  were  not  the  only  people  who 
had  recourse  to  "  Gematria."  The  first  editions  add  the  following 
paragraph  :  "  Immediately  he  embraced  her  and  kissed  her,^  and  he 
said  :    Blessed   art  thou   of   the  Lord,^   thy   bone  is  from   my  bones 

^  Cf.  Gen.  Rab.  xxiii.  5. 

*  Cf.  Ruth  iii.  10  for  similar  phraseology. 


I 


88  RABBI  ELIEZER 

Adam  !  And  when  an  help-mate  had  been  built  for  him,  his 
name  was  called  csh  (fire),  and  she  (was  called)  csli  (fire).^ 

What  did  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  do  ?  He  put 
His  name  (n')  between  their  (names),  saying :  If  they  go 
in  My  ways  ||  and  keep  all  My  precepts,  behold  My  name  is 
given  to  them,-  it  will  deliver  them  from  all  distress.  If 
they  do  not  (walk  in  My  ways),  behold  I  will  take  away  My 
name  from  their  (names),  and  they  will  become  tsh  (fire).^ 
And  fire  consumes  fire,  as  it  is  said,  "  For  it  is  a  fire  that 
consumeth  unto  destruction  "  (Job  xxxi.  12).* 

The  Holy  One, blessed  be  He,  made  ten  wedding  canopies^ 
for  Adam  in  the  garden  of  Eden.  They  were  all  (made)  of 
precious  stones,  pearls,  and  gold.  Is  it  not  a  fact  that  only 
one  wedding  canopy  is  made  for  every  bridegroom,®  whilst 
three  wedding  canopies  are  made  for  a  king  ?  '  But  in  order 
to  bestow  special  honour  upon  the  first  man,  the  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  made  ten  (wedding  canopies)  in  the  garden  of 
Eden,  as  it  is  said,  "Wast  thou  in  Eden  the  garden  of 
God  ;  was  every  precious  stone  "  thy  covering,  the  sardius, 
topaz,  and  the  diamond,  the  beryl,  the  onyx,  and  the  jasper, 
the  sapphire,  the  emerald,  and  the  carbuncle,  and  gold  ?  " 
(Ezek.  xxviii.  13).^  Behold  these  are  the  ten  canopies. 
The  angels  were  playing  upon  timbrels  and  dancing  with 

and  it  is   becoming  for  thcc   to  be   called   woman    [ishah),   as   it   is 
said." 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  When  an  help- mate,  a  woman  (ishah), 
had  been  built  for  him,  his  name  was  called  man  (ish),  and  she  was 
called  woman  (ishah)." 

*  Ish  (ty-N)  and  ishah  (nifN)  have  the  letters  Yod  (')  and  Heh  (n) 
apart  from  the  letters  rx  which  they  have  in  common.  See  Jerah- 
meel  vi.  i6,  and  cf.  Pal.  Targ.  Ex.  xxviii.  30,  on  the  Ineffable 
Name. 

3  By  removing  the  letters  Yod  and  Heh  from  the  Hebrew  words 
ish  and  ishah  each  word  spells  esh,  fire;  and  see  T.B.  Sotah,  17a. 

''  See'Arukh,  s.v.  "  Adam"  and  s.v.  "esh,"  and  cf.  T.B.  Sotah,  5a. 

"*  The  canopy  used  at  Jewish  weddings  is  still  called  Chuppah. 
The  word  may  also  mean  Wedding  Chamber.  For  further  details, 
see  Jewish  EncyclopcBdia,  s.v.\  and  cf.  T.B.  Baba  Bathra,  75a;  Gen. 
Rab.  xviii.  i;  Jalkut,  Gen.  §20;  and  Biichler  in  Monatsschrijt,  xlix., 
1905,  pp.  18  ft.,  and  in  J.Q.R.  (New  Series)  iv.  pp.  490  f. 

*  See  Ps.  xix.  5. 

^  See  Cant.  iii.  9-1 1. 

*  The  rest  of  the  ver.se  is  omitted  by  the  MS.  and  the  first  editions, 
which  read  :  "  etc." 

*  On  this  verse  see  Hellenism  and  Christianity,  pp.  99  f.  The  ten 
canopies  are  apparently  indicated  by  the  nine  precious  stones  and 
gold  as  mintioned  in  the  verse.  Menorath  lia-^Iaor,  §  205,  states  that 
the  Messiah  will  have  ten  canopies.     See  also  B.H.M.  iii.  p.  60. 


ADAM  IN  PARADISE  89 

pipeSji  as  it  is  said,  "  The  workmanship  -  of  thy  tabrets 
and  of  thy  pipes  was  with  thee  "  (ibid.). 

On  the  day  when  the  first  man  was  created,  as  it  is  said, 
"  In  the  day  when  thou^  wast  created  they  were  prepared  " 
(ibid.),  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  said  to  the  ministering 
angels  :  Come,  let  us  descend  and  render  loving  service  to 
the  first  man  and  to  his  help-mate,  for  the  world  rests  upon 
the  attribute  of  the  service  of  loving-kindness.^  The  Holy 
One,  blessed  be  He,  said :  More  beloved  is  the  service  of  loving- 
kindness  than  the  sacrifices  and  burnt-offerings  which  Israel 
will  bring  in  the  future  upon  the  altar  before  Me,  as  it  is 
said,  II  "  For  I  desire  love,  and  not  sacrifice  "  (Hos.  vi.  6).^ 

The  ministering  angels  were  going  to  and  fro  and  walking 
before  him  like  friends  who  guard  the  wedding  canopies,^  as 
it  is  said,  "  For  he  shall  give  his  angels  charge  over  thee,' 
to  keep  thee  in  all  thy  ways  "  (Ps.  xci.  11).  (The  word) 
'"''way^''  here  means  only  the  way^  of  bridegrooms.  The 
Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  was  like  a  precentor.^   What  is  the 

^  The  first  editions  read  :  "  like  females."  ^  See  Jalkut  Makhiri, 
Ps.  xci.  p.  46a. 

2  The  Hebrew  here  {Melekheth)  suggests  angels  [Mdldkhim).  The 
Midrashim  which  deal  with  the  "Canopies"  are  numerous.  The 
subject  has  not  been  considered  in  all  its  bearings.  The  Jewish  Messiah 
will  be  married,  hence  the  "  Canopies,"  for  his  wedding.  This  is 
probably  a  disguised  attack  on  the  Christian  exaltation  of  the  un- 
married state,  as  exemplified  by  the  Founder  of  the  Christian  Church. 
The  discussion  on  the  Canopies  is  to  be  found  also  in  Lev.  Rab.  xx.  2 ; 
Eccles.  Rab.  viii.  i  ;  Jalkut,  Eccles.  §  764.  According  to  Dr.  Biichler 
{J.Q.R.,  New  Series,  iv.  pp.  490  f.)  the  word  Chuppah  might  be  rendered 
"  bower."  One  also  thinks  of  cave  or  cavern  in  this  connection. 
According  to  the  Schatzhohle,  p.  7,  Adam  had  one  cave  after  his  expul- 
sion from  Paradise;  see  also  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  (ed.  Malan)  i.  v. 

^  Adam. 

*  On  Gemilluth  Chasadim  (Service  of  Loving-kindness)  see  Paul 
Goodman,  Die  Liebestdtigkeit  im  Judentum,  and  Bergmann,  in  Soziale 
Ethik  im  Judentum,  pp.  51  ff.,  and  see  infra.  Chapter  XVI. 

*  See  infra,  p.  107. 

*  The  reading  in  Menorath  Ha-Maor,  loc.  ciL,  isas  follows :  "  And  the 
ministering  angels  were  going  before  him  like  friends  who  guard  the 
wedding  canopies,  as  it  is  said,  '  For  he  shall  give  his  angels  charge 
over  thee,  to  guard  thee  on  all  thy  ways'"  (Ps.  xci.  11).  The  first 
editions  read  :  "  ministering  angels  were  like  groomsmen." 

'  The  MS.  quotes  this  verse  up  to  "  thee  " ;  the  entire  verse  is  given 
by  the  first  editions. 

*  See  Prov.  xxx.  19. 

®  Our  text  is  preserved  in  Menorath  Ha-Maor,  loc.  cit.,  and  cf. 
Jalkut  Makhiri,  Ps.  xcii.  p.  46a.  The  precentor  is  the  Chazan.  The 
period  when  the  Chazan   became   the   Reader  of  the  prayers  is  that 

^  The  Hebrew  in  the  text  has  the  same  root  as  the  word  for  female. 


90  RABBI  ELIEZER 

custom  observed  by  the  precentor  ?  He  stands  and  blesses 
the  bride  in  the  midst  of  her  wedding  chamber.^  Likewise 
the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  stood  and  blessed  Adam  and 
his  help-mate,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  God  blessed  them  " 
(Gen.  i.  28y- 

of  the  Geonim.  See  Sopherini,  x.  7,  xi.  3,  5,  and  xiv.  14  ;  Eppenstein's 
article  in  Monatsschrift,  lii.,  1908,  pp.  467  ft.,  and  infra,  p.  109. 

1  Qr  canopy. 

2  This  indicates  the  sacred  nature  of  matrimony,  which  is  aptly 
termed  Kiddushin  (sanctification).  See  Gen.  Rab.  xviii.  2  for  the 
marriage  of  Adam  and  Eve. 


CHAPTER    XIIIi 

THE    SERPENT   IN    PARADISE  [15 A.  ii.] 

"  Envy,  cupidity,  and  ambition  remove  man  (Adam)  from 
the  world."  ^  The  ministering  angels  ^  spake  before  the 
Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  saying :  Sovereign  of  all  Worlds  ! 
"  What  is  man,  that  thou  shouldst  take  note  of  him  ?  " 
(Ps.  cxhv.  3).  "  Man  (Adam)  is  hke  unto  vanity  "  ^  {ibid.  4), 
upon  earth  there  is  not  his  like.^  (God)  answered  them  : 
Just  as  all  of  you  praise  Me  in  the  heights  of  heaven  so  he 
professes  My  Unity  on  earth,  ^  nay,  moreover,  are  you  able 
to  stand  up  and  call  the  names  for  all  the  creatures  which  I 
have  created  ?  They  stood  up,  but  were  unable  (to  give  the 
names).  Forthwith  Adam  stood  up  and  called  the  names  for 
all  His  creatures,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  man  gave  names 
to  all  cattle  "  (Gen.  ii.  20).  When  the  ministering  angels 
saw  this  they  retreated,'  and  the  ministering  angels  said : 
If  we  do  not  take  ||  counsel  against  this  man  so  that  he  sin 
before  his  Creator,  we  cannot  prevail  against  him.^ 

^  In  our  MS.  this  is  ch.  xii. 

2  This  is  taken  from  Aboth  iv.  28.  The  three  sins  enumerated 
brought  about  the  sin  and  punishment  of  Adam  and  Eve.  See  Aboth 
de  R.  Nathan  {a)  i.  and  {b)  i. ;  T.B.  Synhedrin,  59b;  and  infra,  p.  125. 

^  The  parallel  text  preserved  in  the  Midrash  Haggadol,  Gen.  (ed. 
Schechter),  c.  86,  reads :  "  the  subordmate  angels  became  jealous  of  him." 

*  According  to  our  author,  if  Adam  had  not  sinned  he  would  have 
lived  for  ever.     See  Z.D.M.G.  xxxi.  p.  232. 

»  See  Job  xli.  33  (Heb.  xli.  24),  and  cf.  infra,  p.  265. 

*  Lit.  "  in  the  lower  regions."  See  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  25.  According 
to  Slavonic  Enoch  xxx.  2,  Adam  in  Paradise  sees  the  heavens  open 
"  that  he  should  perceive  the  angels  singing  the  song  of  triumph." 

'  Or,  "  they  retraced  their  steps,"  or  "  betook  themselves  back- 
ward." This  is  missing  in  the  first  two  editions.  On  the  theme  see 
Gen.  Rab.  xvii.  4. 

*  See  infra,  pp.  367  f.,  436,  and  cf.  Jerahmeel  xxii.  i.  The 
spirit  animating  the  angels  in  desiring  the  fall  of  man  is  that  of 
jealousy;  this  explains  the  "envy"  quoted  from  Aboth  iv.  at  the  be- 
ginning of  the  chapter. 

9' 


92  RABBI  ELIEZER 

Sammael  was  the  great  prince  in  lieaven  :  ^  the  Chajjoth  ^ 
had  four  wings  and  the  Seraphim  had  six  \vings,  and 
Sammael  had  twelve  wings.  What  did  Sammael  do  ?  He 
took  his  band  ^  and  descended  '  and  saw  all  the  creatures 
which  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  had  created  in  His  world 
and  he  found  among  them  none  so  skilled  to  do  evil  as  the 
serpent,  as  it  is  said,  "  Now  the  serpent  was  more  subtil  ^ 
than  any  beast  of  the  field  "  {ibid.  iii.  1).  Its  appearance 
was  something  like  that  of  the  camel, ^  and  he '  mounted  and 
rode  upon  it.^  The  Torah  began  to  cry  aloud,  saying,  Why, 
O  Sammael !  now  that  the  world  is  created,  is  it  the  time  ^  to 
rebel  against  the  Omnipresent  ?  Is  it  like  a  time  when  thou 
shouldst  lift  up  thyself  on  high  ?  i"  The  Lord  of  the  world 
"  will  laugh  at  the  horse  and  its  rider  "  ^^  (Job  xxxix.  18). 

A  parable,  to  what  is  the  matter  like  ?  ^^     To  a  man  in 

*  At  first  the  "  great  prince  "  was  Sammael,  but  after  his  fall 
Michael  is  "the  great  prince";  cf.  T.B.  Chagigah,  12b.  On  Sam- 
mael and  Michael  see  mfra,  pp.  192  f.,  and  J.E.  x.  665  f.  (s.v. 
Samael). 

^  The  Jalkut,  Gen.  loc.  cit..  reads:  "  The  Chajjoth  with  four  wings 
and  the  Seraphim  with  six  wings."  Our  text  and  Jalkut  {loc.  cit.)  are 
parallel  texts  ;  the  printed  texts  differ  slightly.  The  first  editions  read  : 
"  The  Chajjoth  and  the  Seraphim  ^vith  six  wings."  The  Midrash  Hagga- 
dol  (Genesis),  loc.  cit.,  differs  in  the  arrangement,  and  omits  the  reference 
to  the  Chajjoth. 

*  i.e.  troop  of  angels  obeying  him.     See  Geigcr,  op.  cit.  pp.  toi  f. 

*  See  iw/ra,  pp.  99,  193!.  1  he  v, ord  m^i,  "descended,"  recalls  Eth. 
Enoch  vi.  6,  and  Jubilees  iv.  15  ;  cf.  Luke  x.  18. 

°  Our  MS.  ends  quotation  here,  adding  "  etc." 

"  The  Serpent  had  the  appearance  of  the  camel  prior  to  the  punish- 
ment meted  out  to  it  by  God.  On  the  theme  see  T.B. 'Erubin,  i8a; 
T.B.  Sj^nhedrin,  59b;  Gen.  Rab.  xix.  i  ;  Zohar,  Ex.  136a  ;  and  Aboth 
de  R.  Nathan  (a)  i.  p.  3a.  In  the  Slavonic  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve 
(ed.  Jagic,  p.  26)  Satan  uses  the  Serpent  to  deceive  Eve.  See 
Archelaus,  "Disputation  with  Manes,"  in  A.N.C.L.  xx.  p.  344,  for  a 
parallel. 

'  Sammael,  or  Satan.     See  Ascension  of  Isaiah  i.  8. 

®  The  Midrash  Haggadol,  Gen.  loc.  cit.,  adds  :  "  and  betook  himself 
to  mislead  the  man." 

^  The  MS.  veads'dd,  the  first  editions  read  'is  (time) ;  so  also  Midrash 
Haggadol,  loc.  cit. 

1"  This  is  quoted  from  Job  xxxix.  18.  The  R.V.  renders.  "  What 
time  she  lifteth  up  herself  on  high."  The  verse  is  intended  to  illustrate 
Sammael's  sin  in  approaching  Eve  and  causing  Adam  to  rebel.  Accord- 
ing to  TertuUian,  de  Patient,  v.,  the  Evil  One  "impatiently  bore  that 
the  Lord  God  subjected  the  universal  works  "  to  man.  This  led  on  to 
his  "  envy."     He  deceived  him  because  he  envied  him. 

'1  The  R.V.  reads:  "She  scorneth  the  horse  and  his  rider." 
The  "  horse  "  is  applied  in  the  Midrash  to  the  Serpent  and  "  the 
rider  "  to  Sammael. 

'^  The  deed  of  Sammael  is  illustrated  by  the  parable. 


THE  SERPENT  IN  PARADISE        93 

whom  there  was  an  evil  spirit.  All  the  deeds  which  he 
does,^  or  all  the  words  which  he  utters,  does  he  speak  by 
his  own  intention  ?  Does  he  not  act  only  according  to  the 
idea  of  the  evil  spirit,  which  (rules)  over  him  ?  So  (was  it 
with)  the  serpent.  All  the  deeds  which  it  did,  and  all  the 
words  which  it  spake,  it  did  not  speak  ^  except  by  the 
intention  of  Sammael.  Concerning  him,  the  Scripture  says, 
"  The  wicked  is  thrust  down  in  his  evil-doing "  (Prov. 
xiv.  32).3 

A  parable,  to  what  is  the  matter  like  ?  To  a  king  ||  who 
married  a  woman  and  made  her  supreme  over  all  that  he 
had.^  He  said  to  her  :  All  that  I  have  shall  be  in  thy 
hands,  except  this  house,^  which  is  full  of  scorpions.  A 
certain  old  man  visited  her ;  he  asks,  for  instance,**  for 
vinegar.  He  said  to  her  :  Wilt  thou  argue  that  he  deals 
kindly  with  thee  ?  '  He  deals  with  me  (thus) :  over  all  that 
he  possesses  has  he  made  me  supreme.  Thus  said  he  to  her : 
Behold,  all  that  I  have  is  given  into  thy  hands  except  this 
house,^  which  is  full  of  scorpions.  (The  old  man)  said  to  her : 
Is  not  all  the  jewellery^  of  the  king  indeed  in  this  house ^? 
But  9  he  wishes  to  marry  another  woman,  and  to  give  them 
to  her.  The  king  is  the  first  man  (Adam),  the  woman  is 
Eve,  and  the  one  who  asked  for  vinegar  is  the  serpent  ;i" 
and  concerning  them  (the  text)  says,  "  There  are  the  workers 
of  iniquity  fallen,  they  are  thrust  down,  and  shall  not  be 
able  to  rise"  ^^  (Ps.  xxxvi.  12). 

1  The  first  editions  add  :  "  does  he  do  them  at  his  own  suggestion  ?  " 

2  The  first  editions  read  :  "  it  neither  spake  nor  did." 

3  Cf.  the  version  in  Jalkut,  Gen.  loc.  cit. 

*  The  first  editions  add :  "  consisting  of  precious  stones  and 
pearls." 

5  The  first  editions  read  "cask"  (rran),  and  so  throughout  tlie  parable  ; 
this  is  more  correct  than  "  house  "  (n'nn)  in  our  text. 

*  This  expression  is  omitted  in  the  Amsterdam  edition  of  1708  and  in 
the  Dyhrenf  iirth  edition.  The  vinegar  was  used  by  the  poor  for  dipping 
therein  their  bread  ;  see  Aboth  de  R.  Nathan  [a)  xx.  p.  36a. 

'  The  first  editions  read  here :  "  How  does  the  king  treat  thee  ? 
She  said  to  him :  All  that  he  possesses  has  he  given  to  me  and  left 
in  my  hands  except  this  cask." 

^  Kosmin  (Koafxos).  jewellery;  see'Arukh,  s.v.  'Dip.  The  reading  in  the 
first  editions  is  corrupt. 

»  The  first  editions  read  :  "  He  spake  not  thus  to  thee  save  for  the 
rea.son  that  he  wishes  to  marry  another  woman." 

1"  For  a  variant  parable  to  illustrate  the  theme  taken  from  Aboth 
de  R.  Nathan  (a)  i.  p.  3b,  see  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  p.  29. 

11  The  printed  editions  omit  the  second  half  of  the  verse. 


94  RABBI  ELIEZER 

The  serpent  argued  with  itself,  saying :  If  I  go  and  speak 
to  Adam,  I  know  that  he  will  not  listen  to  me,  for  a  man 
is  always  hard  ^  (to  be  persuaded),  as  it  is  said,  "For  a  man 
is  churlish  and  evil  in  his  doings  "  (1  Sam.  xxv.  3) ;  but 
behold  I  will  speak  to  Eve,'-  for  I  know  that  she  will  listen 
to  me  ;  for  women  listen  to  all  creatures,  as  it  is  said,  "  She 
is  simple  and  knoweth  nothing  "  (Prov.  ix.  13).  The  serpent 
went  and  spake  to  the  woman:  ^  ||  Is  it  ^(true  that)  you  also 
have  been  commanded  concerning  the  fruit  of  the  tree  ?  ^ 
She  said  (to  him) :  Yes,  as  it  is  said,  "  Of  the  fruit  of  the  tree 
which  is  in  the  midst  of  the  garden  "  (Gen.  iii.  3).  And  when 
the  serpent  heard  the  words  of  Eve,  he  found  a  way  ®  through 
which  he  could  enter  (to  approach  her),  so  he  said  to  her  : 
This  precept  is  nought  else  except  the  evil  eye,  for  in  the 
hour  when  ye  eat  thereof,  ye  will  be  like  Him,  a  God.  Just 
as  '  He  creates  worlds  and  destroys  worlds,^  so  will  ye  be 
able  to  create  worlds  and  to  destrov  worlds.  Just  as  He 
slays  and  brings  to  life,  so  also  will  ye  be  able  to  kill  and 
to  bring  to  life,  as  it  is  said,  "  For  God  doth  know  that  in 

*  See  Gen.  Rab.  xvii.  S  to  illustrate  the  notion  that  a  man 
is  more  easily  appeased  than  a  woman.  The  quotation  from  i  Sam. 
is  not  in  the  printed  editions.  The  Midrash  Haggadol,  Gen.  c.  87, 
reads:  "for  Sammael  has  no  authority  over  man  because  he  is 
hard." 

*  The  first  editions  read  here  :  "  the  woman  whose  mind  is  feeble." 
Slavonic  Enoch  xxxi.  6  tells  us  how  Satanail  or  Satan  "  conceived 
designs  against  Adam  ;  in  such  a  manner  he  entered  and  deceived  Eve. 
But  he  did  not  touch  Adam."  The  "  evil  eye  "  mention;!  in  our  text, 
infra,  might  be  rendered  "envy." 

^  For  a  Christian  Midrash  on  this  theme  see  "  Fragments  from  the 
lost  writings  of  Irenseus  "  in  A. N.C.L.  ix.  p.  166. 
■*  The  first  editions  add  the  words  in  brackets. 

*  The  text  is  probably  corrupt  here  ;  Luria  suggests  that  instead  of 
the  words  "  this  tree  "  which  occur  in  the  printed  texts  we  should 
read  "this  garden."  This  agrees  with  the  reading  preserved  in  the 
Oxford  MS.  (d.  35),  and  in  Jerahmeel  xxii.  2.  According  to  the  reading 
"  this  tree,"  the  answer  desired  by  the  Serpent  would  not  have  been 
forthcoming.  By  asking  about  the  "  fruit  of  the  garden"  the  Serpent 
was  enabled  to  mislead  Eve.  The  Talmud  (T.B.  Synhedrin,  29a)  lays 
stress  on  the  addition  to  the  Divine  command  made  by  Eve  when 
she  said,  "  neither  shall  ye  touch  it"  (Gen.  iii.  3).  Our  MS.  intends 
the  question  to  be  quite  general :  "  Is  it  a  fact  that  you  have  been 
commanded  (not  to  eat)  the  fruit  of  any  tree  ?  "  This  agrees  with  the 
Midrash  Haggadol,  Gen.  loc.  cit. 

*  Lit.  "  opening."     See  TertuUian,  de  Patient.,  lot.  cit. 
'  The  first  editions  read  :  "  What  does  He  do  ?  " 

*  This  idea  of  being  able  to  create  other  worlds  has  a  parallel  in 
Slavonic  Enoch  xxxi.  3  :  "  And  the  devil  took  thought,  as  if  wishing 
to  make  anothey  world." 


THE  SERPENT  IN  PARADISE        95 

the  day  ye  eat  thereof,^  then  your  eyes  shall  be  opened  " 
{ibid.  5). 2 

The  serpent  went  and  touched  the  tree,  which  commenced 
to  cry  out,  saying  :  ^  Wicked  One  !  do  not  touch  me !  as  it 
is  said,  "  Let  not  the  foot  of  pride  come  against  me,  and 
let  not  the  hand  of  the  wicked  drive  me  away.  There  are 
the  workers  of  iniquity  fallen  "  ^  (Ps.  xxxvi.  11,  12). 

The  serpent  went  and  said  to  the  woman  :  Behold,  I 
touched  it,  but  I  did  not  die  ;  thou  also  mayest  touch  it, 
and  thou  wilt  not  die.^  The  woman  went  and  touched  the 
tree,  and  she  saw  the  angel  of  death  **  coming  towards  her ; 
she  said  :  Woe  is  me  !  I  shall  now  die,  and  the  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  will  make  another  woman  ^  and  give  her  to 
Adam,^  but  behold  I  will  cause  ||  him  to  eat  with  me ;  if  we 
shall  die,  we  shall  both  die,^  and  if  we  shall  live,  we  shall 
both  live.  And  she  took  of  the  fruits  of  the  tree,  and  ate 
thereof,  and  also  gave  (of  its  fruits)  to  her  husband,  so  that 
he  should  eat  with  her,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  she  took  of  the 
fruit  thereof,  and  did  eat;  and  she  gave  also  unto  her  husband 
with  her  "  (Gen.  iii.  6).  When  Adam  had  eaten  of  the  fruit 
of  the  tree,  he  saw  that  he  was  naked,!''  and  his  eyes  were 
opened,  and  his  teeth  were  set  on  edge.  He  said  to  her  : 
What  is  this  that  thou  hast  given  me  to  eat,  that  my  eyes 
should  be  opened  and  my  teeth  set  on  edge  ?  ii     Just  as  my 

1  The  MSS.  end  the  quotation  here,  but  add  "  etc." ;  the  first  editions 
continue  the  verse. 

2  Our  MS.  ends  here  the  12th  chapter. 

3  See  Aboth  de  R.  Nathan  (a)  i.  p.  2b,  the  tree  cried  out  when  Eve 
stared  at  it  and  (desired  its  fruit).     See  also  Jerahmeel  xxii.  3. 

*  The  MSS.  give  only  the  verse  from  Ps.  xxxvi.  11;  the  first 
two  editions  omit  the  second  half  of  this  verse  and  add  the  first  half 
of  the  next  verse. 

s  The  Midrash  Haggadol,  Gen.  c.  88,  adds  :  "  Forthwith  the  woman 
saw  that  the  tree  was  good  for  food."  See  Aboth  de  R.  Nathan,  loc. 
cit.,  and  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  iii.  6. 

»  According  to  the  Pal.  Targum  {loc.  cit.),  "and  the  woman  beheld 
Sammael,  the  angel  of  death,  and  she  was  afraid." 

'  The  printed  editions  add  :  "  for  him." 

*  See  Tertulhan,  de  Patient.,  loc.  cit.,  where  Adam  is  described  as 
"  not  yet  Eve's  husband." 

9  See  a  similar  Midrash  in  the  Church  Father  Ephraim,  Comm.  in 
Gen.  vol.  i.  p.  35. 

^<*  See  infra,  p.  98. 

"  The  first  editions  add  :  "  against  my  knowledge."  See  Jer. 
xxxi.  29,  30,  and  Ezek.  xviii.  2.  For  the  Rabbinic  sources  dealing 
with  the  Serpent,  Eve,  and  Adam  see  Tosephta  Sotah  iv.  (end) ;  T.B. 
Sotah,  9a ;  Gen.  Rab.  xix.  4 ;  Pesikta  Rabbathi,  §  xv.  p.  68b  ;  Tanchuma, 


96  RABBI  ELIEZER 

teeth  were  set  on  edge,  so  shall  the  teeth  of  all  generations 
be  set  on  edge.^ 

Lekach  Tob  and  Jalkut,  in  loc. ;  and  see  Midrash  Agadah  and  Rashi 
on  Gen.  iii.,  and  cf.  Jerahmcel  xxii. ;  sec  also  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and 
Ethics,  pp.  27  ff.;  Ginzbcrg,  Legends  of  the  Jews,  vol.  i.  pp.  71  ii.  ;  and 
F.  R.  Tennant,  The  Fall  and  Original  Sin,  190  s,  pp.  152  and  158. 

'  See  the  parallel  version  from  Gen.  Rab.  xix.  5,  translated  in 
Rabbinic  Philosophy  atid  Pthics,  p.  28,  and  cf.  Aboth  de  R.  Nathan. 
loc.  cit.,  Midrash  Haggadol,  Gen.  c.  90,  "  their  teeth  and  the  teeth  of 
all  generations."  According  to  Slavonic  Enoch  xxx.  16:  "Therefore 
his  ignorance  is  a  woe  to  him  that  he  should  sin,  and  I  appointed 
death  on  account  of  his  sin."  The  expression  "  to  .set  the  teeth  on 
edge"  in  our  text  means  "paying  the  penalty."  See  also  4  Ezra 
iii.  7. 


i 


CHAPTER    XIV 

THE    SIN   OF   ADAM   AND   EVE  [16a.  ii.] 

Ten  descents  upon  the  earth  ^  were  made  by  the  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He ;  they  were :  (1)  Once  in  the  Garden  of  Eden  ; 

(2)  once  at  (the  time  of)  the  generation  of  the  Dispersion  ;  2 

(3)  once  at  Sodom  ;  ^  (4)  once  at  the  thorn-bush  ;  ^  (5)  once 
in  Egypt ;  ^  (6)  once  at  Sinai ;  «  (7)  once  at  the  cleft  of 
the  rock ;  ^  (8)  and  (9)  twice  in  the  tent  of  Assembly  ;  * 
(10)  once  in  the  future.^ 

Once  in  the  Garden  of  Eden ;  whence  do  we  know  ? 
Because  it  is  said,  "  And  they  heard  the  voice  of  the  Lord 
God  walking  in  the  garden  ^^  in  the  cool  of  the  day  "  (Gen. 
iii.  8).     And  it  is  written,"  "  My  beloved  ^^  is  gone  down  to 

1  See  Siphre,  Numbers,  §  93  ;  Mekhilta  Jethro.  3,  p.  64a  ;  Aboth  de  R, 
Nathan  (a)  xxxiv.  Other  parallels  are  given  by  Schechter,  p.  51b,  note  32 
of  his  edition  of  Aboth  de  R.  Nathan.  The  other  descents  are  mentioned 
in  Chapters  XXIV.,  XXV.,  XXXIX.,  XL.,  XLL,  XLVI..  and  LIII. 

2  Cf.  infra,  pp.  176 1.,  and  Gen.  Ralj.  xxxviii.  9. 

^  See  infra,  p.  179,  and  Gen.  Rab.  xlviii.  7  ;  and  cf.  Jalljut,  Gen.  §  27, 
which  reads  :  "  Once  in  Egypt,  once  at  the  thorn-bush,  once  at  Sinaii 
once  at  the  cleft  of  the  rock."  The  reference  to  Egypt  will  be  dis- 
cussed infra,  p.  303. 

*  See  T.B.  Megillah,  29a,  and  cf.  infra,  p.  312. 

*  This  is  not  in  the  first  editions.     See  supra,  note  3. 

«  See  Mekhilta  Jethro,  g,  p.  72b  ;  and  cf.  infra,  p.  318. 

'  Cf.  infya,  p.  365.  The  reading  in  the  first  two  editions  is  :  "twice 
at  the  cleft  of  the  rock."  This  is  probably  incorrect ;  see  supra,  note  3, 
and  cf.  Aboth  de  R.  Nathan,  loc.  cit. 

^  See  infra,  p.  433.  Here  also  we  should  read,  "  Once  in  the  tent  of 
Assembly."  Aboth  de  R.  Nathan,  loc.  cit.,  has  this  reading,  and  refers 
to  Num.  xi.  25. 

9  Aboth  de  R.  Nathan  {loc.  cit.)  refers  here  to  Zech.  xiv.  4.  The 
ninth  and  tenth  descents  are  to  be  in  the  future  also :  see  Siphre,  loc. 
cit.;  T.B.  Sukkah,  5a;  and  Othijoth  de  R.'A^iba,  letter  He  (Tellinek, 
B.H.M.  iii.  p.  24).  ^ 

'0  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here,  the  fiirst  editions  continue 
the  verse. 

11  The  first  editions  have  :  "  And  another  text  says." 

1*  The  "  beloved  "  is  God.  This  verse  is  quoted  because  it  contains 
the  verb  (nT)  "to  descend." 

7 


98  RABBI  ELIEZER 

his  garden,  to  the  beds  of  spices  "  (Cant.  vi.  2).  (God)  sat 
in  judgment,!  and  He  judged  with  judgment.  He  said  to 
him  (Adam) :  Why  didst  thou  flee  -  before  Me  ?  He  answered 
Him  :  I  heard  Thy  voice  ^  and  my  bones  trembled, '  as  it 
is  said,  "  I  heard  thy  voice  in  the  garden,  and  I  was  afraid, 
II  because  I  was  naked  :    and  I  hid  myself  "  (Gen.  iii.  10). '' 

What  was  the  dress  of  the  first  man  ?  A  skin  of  nail,^ 
and  a  cloud  of  glory  covered  him.  When  he  ate  of  the  fruits 
of  the  tree,  the  nail-skin  was  stripped  off  him,'  and  the  cloud 
of  glory  departed  from  him,  and  he  saw  himself  naked, 
as  it  is  said,  "  And  he  said.  Who  told  thee  that  thou  wast 
naked  ?  ^  Hast  thou  eaten  of  the  tree,  whereof  I  commanded 
thee?"  {ibid.  11). 

Adam  said  before  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He :  Sovereign 
of  all  worlds  !  When  I  was  alone,  I  did  not  sin  against  Thee. 
But  the  woman  whom  Thou  hast  brought  to  me  enticed  me 

'  See  Gen.  Rab.  xx.  2  ft.  for  the  judgment  of  the  Serpent,  Eve,  and 
Adam.  The  first  editions  read  here  :  "  He  sat  in  a  judgment  of  truth, 
the  Judge  of  righteousness  and  truth.  He  called  to  Adam  and  said 
to  him."     Cf.  I'm  pM^  (Burial  Service)  in  Singer,  pp.  3181. 

-  For  similar  phraseology  see  Ps.  cxxxix.  7.  This  psalm  is  interpreted 
by  the  Midrashim  as  referring  to  Adam ;  see  infra,  p.  143. 

^  The  first  editions  read  :  "  I  heard  the  report  of  Thee."  Cf . 
Hab.  iii.  2  and  Cant.  Rab.  iii.  6. 

*  See  Job  iv.  14  for  a  similar  expression. 

*  The  first  editions  read  here  :  "And  I  hid  myself  from  my  deed,  and 
I  was  afraid  of  my  deed,  for  I  was  bare  of  (the  fulfilment  of)  mv  com- 
mandment,^  as  it  is  said,  '  For  I  was  naked  '  "  (Gen.  iii.  10).- 

*  The  dress  of  Adam  and  Eve  was,  according  to  the  Pal.  Targum, 
Gen.  iii.  7,  "onyx-coloured  "  ;  cf.  Gc-n.  Rab.  xx.  12  The  legend  of  an 
original  skin  of  nail  is  preserved  in  the  custom  which  still  obtains 
among  orthodox  Jews,  who  gaze  at  their  nails  with  the  Habdalah 
light  at  the  termination  of  the  Sabbath.  Dr.  S.  Daiches  considers  this 
custom  as  a  relic  of  nail  magic  (see  Jews'  College  Publications,  v. 
pp.  31  f.  n.  i).  According  to  the  Church  Father  Ephraim,  op.  cit.  p. 
139,  Adam  and  Eve  lost  their  angelic  endowments  immediately  after 
their  sin,  their  sight  and  power  of  discerning  became  limited  only  to 
matters  corporeal  and  sensible  ;  see  the  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  (ed. 
Malan),  p.  215,  for  this  reference.  See  also  Odes  o[  Solomon,  pp.  66  ff. 
and  69,  notes  i,  2. 

'  The  first  editions  add  here,  "  and  he  saw  himself  naked,"  and  not 
after  the  words,  "  and  the  cloud  of  glory  departed  from  him."  See 
Pal.  Targ.  Gen.  loc.  cit.  A  similar  tradition  is  preserved  in  the  Coptic 
Apocryph:!,  ed.  Budge,  p.  250. 

*  The  MSS.  end  the  quotation  here,  the  first  editions  continue  the 
verse. 

*  Some  of  the  old  editions  read  :  "  Thy  commandment"  ;  see  also 
Ezek.  xvi.  39. 

*  "  Naked,"  i.e.  Adam  was  stripped  of  his  dress  of  glory  as  a  conse 
quence  of  his  disobedience. 


THE  SIN  OF  ADAM  AND  EVE       99 

away  from  Thy  ways,*  as  it  is  said,  "  The  woman  whom 
thou  gavest  to  be  with  me,^  she  gave  me  of  the  tree,  and  I 
did  eat  "  {ibid.  12).  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  called  3 
ujito  Eve,  and  said  to  her  :  Was  it  not  enough  for  thee  that 
thou  didst  sin  in  thy  own  person  ?  But  (also)  that  thou 
shouldst  make  Adam  sin  ?  She  spake  before  Him  :  Sovereign 
of  the  world  !  The  serpent  enticed  my  mind  to  sin  before 
Thee,  as  it  is  said,  "  The  serpent  beguiled  me,  and  I  did 
eat "  {ibid.  13).  He  brought  the  three  *  of  them  and 
passed  sentence  of  judgment  upon  them,  consisting  of 
nine  curses  and  death. 

He  cast  down  Sammael  '  and  his  troop  from  their  holy 
place  in  heaven,*"  and  cut  off  the  feet  of  the  serpent,'  and 
decreed  that  it  should  cast  its  skin  and  suffer  pain  once  in 
seven  years  in  great  pain,  and  cursed  it  ||  that  it  should 
drag  itself  with  its  belly  (on  the  ground),  and  its  food  is 
turned  in  its  belly  into  dust^  and  the  gall  of  asps,^  and 
death  is  in  its  mouth,*"  and  He  put  hatred  between  it  and 
the  children  of  the  woman,**  so  that  they  should  bruise  its 

^  The  first  editions  read  :  "  Thy  words."     See  B.H.M.  iii.  pp.  60  f. 

^  The  MSS.  end  the  quotation  here. 

'  The  first  editions  add  here  :  "  He  said." 

*  See  Pal.  Targ.  Gen.  iii.  16  and  cf.  Gen.  Rab.  xx.  2,  3. 

^  On  the  identification  of  Sammael  with  the  Devil  see  Wisdom  ii. 
24,  Pal.  Targum  on  Gen.  iii.  6  ;  see  also  Rev.  xii.  9  and  xx.  2. 
Paul  in  2  Cor.  xi.  3  refers  to  the  beguiling  of  Eve  by  the  Serpent. 
On  the  speaking  of  the  Serpent  see  Jubilees  iii.  7  and  Josephus, 
Ant.  i.  I.  4.  According  to  Slavonic  Enoch  xxxi.  3,  "  The  devil 
took  thought,  as  if  wishing  to  make  another  world,  because  things 
were  subservient  to  Adam  on  earth.  .  .  .  He  became  Satan  after  he 
left  the  heavens."  See  T.B.  Sabbath,  55a,  for  the  Haggadic  account 
of  Adam  and  Eve  and  the  Serpent. 

*  "  But  the  wicked  Satan  .  .  .  I  hurled  him  down  from  heaven, 
he  it  is  who  made  the  tree  appear  pleasant  in  your  eyes,"  says 
the  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  (ed.  Malan)  i.  i.;  cf.  ibid.  xlv.  The 
Fall  of  Satan  is  mentioned  in  Luke  x.  18,  John  xii.  31,  and  cf. 
Eph.  ii.  2. 

'  This  Midrash  was  known  to  Josephus  ;  see  Ant.  loc.  cit.  The  first 
editions  add :  "  And  He  cursed  it  more  than  all  living  beasts  and  all 
cattle."  Two  curses  are  set  forth  here ;  cf.  T.B.  Bechoroth,  8a,  and  see 
Gen.  Rab.  xx.  5,  Tosephta  Sotah  iv.  17,  18. 

*  Cf.  Job  XX.  14  ;  T.B.  Joma,  75a  :  "  The  serpent  brought  man  back 
to  dust,  and  therefore  dust  is  its  food." 

^  See  Pal.  Targum  on  Gen.  iii.  14.  "A  deadly  venom  shall  be  in 
thy  mouth,  and  thou  shalt  eat  dust  all  the  days  of  thy  life." 

1"  See  Job  XX.  16. 

^^  The  New  Testament  refers  to  this  incident  in  i  John  iii.  8,  Col.  ii. 
15,  Heb.  ii.  14  ff.,  Rom.  xvi.  20,  and  see  Revelation  of  Moses  (in 
"Ante-Nicene  Christian  Library,"  xvi.  p.  461).     Ephraim,  op.  cit.,  refers 


100  RABBI  ELIEZER 

head,^  and  after  all  these  (curses  comes)  death.^  He  gave 
the  woman  nine  curses  and  death  :  the  afflictions  arising 
from  menstruation  and  the  tokens  of  virginity ;  ^  the 
affliction  of  conception  in  the  womb  ;  and  the  affliction 
of  child-birth  ;  and  the  affliction  of  bringing  up  children  ; 
and  her  head  is  covered  like  a  mourner,'  and  it  is  not 
shaved  except  on  account  of  immorality,  and  her  ear  is 
pierced  like  (the  cars  of)  perpetual  slaves ;  ^  and  like  a 
hand-maid  she  waits  upon  her  husband ;  and  she  is  not 
believed  in  (a  matter  of)  testimony  ;  ^  and  after  all  these 
(curses  comes)  death. 

He  extended  pardon  "  to  Adam  (as  to  a  part  of  the) 
nine  curses  and  death.  He  curtailed  his  strength,  and  He 
shortened  his  stature  ^  by  reason  of  the  impurity  connected 
with  issues  and  with  pollution ;  ^  as  well  as  the  impurity 
arising  from  sexual  intercourse  ;  he  was  to  sow  wheat  and 
to  reap  thistles,^"  and  his  food  was  to  be  the  grass  of  the  earth, 
like  that  of  the  beast ;    and  (he  was  to  earn)  his  bread  in 

to  the  cutting  off  of  the  Serpent's  feet ;  see  ■^upra,  p.  99,  note  7.  The 
first  editions  read  :  "  between  it  and  the  woman." 

'  See  T.J.  Kiddushin  iv.  11,  p.  66c,  and  Sophrim  xv.  10,  for  the 
rule,  "  Break  the  head  of  the  best  among  serpents." 

-  Cf.  the  words  of  Wisdom,  loc.  cit.,  "  But  through  the  devil's  envy 
came  death  into  the  world  "  ;  see  also  Slavonic  Enoch  xxxi.  3. 

3  See  T.B. 'Erubin,  loob,  and  Aboth  de  R.  Nathan  fa)  i.  p.  2b. 

^  For  an  example  of  this  see  Biichler,  The  Economic  Condition  of 
Judea,  p.  53,  and  see  T.B.  Kiddushin,  72a.  The  New  Testament  also 
directs  women  to  have  their  heads  covered  ;  see  i  Cor.  xi.  5  and  cf.  the 
Apostolic  Constitutions,  i.  8.  In  our  MS.  and  in  the  Oxford  MSS.  as 
well  as  in  some  of  the  old  editions  of  our  book  {e.g.  Venice,  1544) 
after  "  mourner  "  the  words  "  she  is  not  shaved  except  on  account  of 
immorality,"  occur,  but  later  editions  have  deleted  the  passage.  This 
phrase  is  of  great  importance  in  view  of  Dr.  Biichler's  interesting 
and  learned  monograph  on  this  theme.  A  special  note  at  the  end  of 
the  book  will  recapitulate  the  results  of  Dr.  Biichler's  investigations, 
as  the  date  of  P.R.E.  may  possibly  be  determined  by  the  perio.l  when 
the  custom  of  cutting  the  hair  of  the  immoral  woman  as  a  punishment 
obtained. 

*  Schwally,  Das  Leben  nach  dem  Tode,  p.  39,  refers  to  the  inference 
suggested  by  the  perforation  of  a  woman's  ears;  see  also  Z.A.T.W., 
i89i,p.  183. 

*  Because  Adam  listened  to  Eve,  and  was  led  astray  by  her ;  see 
'Arukh,  ed.  Kohut,  v.  394b. 

'  Our  MS.  TLads  Dicn  (pardon).  The  Oxford  MS.  (d.  35)  reads 
D'on  (retribution),  and  Oxford  MS.  (O.A.  107)  ha^^  in  (his  sentence). 
The  printed  texts  omit  this  and  read  :  "  He  drew  Adam  aside  and 
decreed  against  him  nine  curses  and  death." 

*  See  Coptic  Apocrypha,  p.  250  :   "  his  body  diminished  in  size." 
»  See  T.B.  Synhedrin,  ibb. 

"  See  Gen.  Rab.  xx.  10,  and  Tanna  de  bd  Elijahu  Rab.  xxxi.  p.  164. 


THE  SIN  OF  ADAM  AND  EVE     101 

anxiety,  and   his  food   by  the  sweat  (of  his  brow) ;    and 
after  all  these  (curses  came)  death.^ 

If  Adam  sinned,  what  was  the  sin  of  the  earth,  that  it 
should  be  cursed  ?  Because  it  did  not  speak  against  the 
(evil)  deed,2  therefore  it  was  cursed  ;  for  in  the  hour  when 
the  sons  of  man  transgress  the  graver  sins  ||  God  sends  a 
plague  ^  to  the  sons  of  man ;  and  in  the  hour  when  the  sons 
of  man  transgress  sins  less  vital,  He  smites  the  fruits  of  the 
earth,*  because  of  (the  sins  of)  the  sons  of  man,  as  it  is  said 
"  Cursed  is  the  ground  for  thy  sake  "  {ibid.  17). 

1  For  a  Christian  interpretation  of  the  judgment,  see  Revelation  oL 
Moses,  loc.  cit.  p.  460  f. 

"  By  protesting  and  warning  Adam  ;  see  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  iii.  17. 

3  See  Aboth  (v.  end).  T.B.  Sabbath,  32a,  and  T.B.  Joma,  83a. 
The  Church  Fathers  have  very  elaborate  expositions  of  the  "  Fall  " 
and  its  consequences.  Thus  Irenaeus  (adv.  Hcbv.  iii.  3)  writes :  "  It 
was  for  this  reason,  too,  that  immediately  after  Adam,  as  the  Scripture 
relates,  He  pronounced  no  curse  against  Adam  personally,  but  against 
the  ground,  in  reference  to  his  works;  as  a  certain  person  among  the 
ancients  has  observed,  '  God  did  indeed  transfer  the  curse  to  the  earth, 
that  it  might  not  remain  in  man.'  But  man  receives  as  a  punish- 
ment of  his  transgression  the  toilsome  task  of  tilling  the  earth,  and  to 
eat  bread  in  the  sweat  of  his  face,  and  to  return  to  the  dust  whence  he 
was  taken.  Similarly  also  did  the  woman  (receive)  toil,  and  labour, 
and  groans,  and  the  pangs  of  parturition,  and  a  state  of  subjection,  that 
is,  that  she  should  serve  her  husband  ;  so  that  they  should  neither  perish 
altogether  when  cursed  by  God,  nor,  by  remaining  unreprimanded, 
should  be  led  to  despise  God.  But  the  curse  in  all  its  fulness  fell  upon 
the  serpent  which  had  beguiled  them."  For  other  references  see 
Diestel,  op.  cit.  (in  Index),  and  Thalhofer,  Bibliothek  dev  Kirchenvdter  (in 
Index). 

*  See  Coptic  Apocrypha,  p.  243  :  "  the  fruit  of  the  earth  is  Uttle 
because  of  the  sins  of  man." 


CHAPTER    XV 

THE   TWO    WAYS  [17 A.  i.J 

Rabbi  Eliezer  said :  I  heard  with  my  ear  ^  the  Lord  of 
hosts  speaking.  What  did  He  speak  ?  He  said  :  "  See,  I 
have  set  before  thee  this  day  life  and  good,  and  death  and 
evil  "  (Dent.  xxx.  15).  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He, 
said  :  Behold,  these  two  ways  ^  have  I  given  to  Israel,  one 
is  good,  the  other  is  evil.  The  one  which  is  good,  is  of 
life  ;  and  the  one  which  is  evil,  is  of  death.^  The  good 
way  has  two  byways,  one  of  righteousness  and  the  other 
of  love,  and  Elijah,^  be  he  remembered  for  good,  is  placed 
exactly  between  these  two  ways.-^  When  a  man  comes 
to  enter  (one  of  these  ways),  Elijah,*'  be  he  remembered 
for  good,   cries   aloud   concerning  him,  saying,    "  Open  ye 

1  See  Isa.  v.  9,  and  note  the  Targum  thereon.  R.  EHezer  ben 
Hyrkanos  was  held  to  be  worthy  of  being  endowed  with  the  Holy  Spirit ; 
see  T.J.  Sotah  (end)  and  T.B.  Synhedrin,  iia;  Jalkut,  Job,  §  919. 

*  The  theme  of  this  chapter  of  our  b^ok  is  the  Jewish  doctrine  of 
the  Two  Ways,  the  ways  of  good  and  evil,  or  of  Hfe  and  death.  Adam 
did  not  keen  the  "way  of  life"  (see  supra,  p.  85)  ;  he  disobeyed  God 
by  taking  of  the  fruit  of  the  tree  of  "good  and  evil."  The  "Way  of 
Life"  in  Paradise  was  guarded  by  the  Cherubim,  and  the  earthly  way 
of  "  good  and  evil  "  is  likewise  in  the  charge  of  angels,  good  and  evil. 
Slavonic  Enoch  xxx.  15  connects  the  "  two  ways  "  with  Adam  before 
his  disobedience.  On  the  "  Two  Ways  "  see  Jewish  Sources  of  the 
Sermon  on  the  Mount,  pp.  239  flf.  See  also  Gen.  Rab.  xxi.  5.  The 
Christian  literature  has  also  its  doctrine  of  the  Two  Ways ;  sec  the 
Apostolic  Constitutions,  vii.  i  ;  Epistle  of  Barnabas  xviii.-xx. ;  Hermas, 
Mand.  vi.  2  ;  Pseudo-Clementine  Homilies,  v.  7;  and  for  "Heaven  and 
Hell "  see  the  Revelation  of  Peter  (ed.  Robinson  and  James,  1892,  pp.  48  £f.) . 
See;  also  Test.  XII  Pal.,  Asher  i.  3,  with  Charles'  note  in  loc.  Some  of 
the  printed  texts  read  "  ttvo  words  "  instead  of  "  two  ways."  The 
latter  is,  of  course,  the  correct  reading  ;  see  Jalkut,  Job,  loo.  cit. 

3  SeeT.B.  Joma,  38b.  '    "    "■ 

*  On  Elijah  in   Jewish  Uterature  see  supra,  p.  2,  note  7  ;  J.E.  v. 
122  ff .  ;  Schechter,  Aspects  of  R.ibbinic  Theology,  p.  288. 

^  i.e.  the  ways  leading  to  life  and  death. 

'See  supra,  p.  95;    T.B.  Kiddushin,  70a;    Ruth  Rab.  v.  6.      On 
Elijah's  work  see  Seder  Olam  Rab.  xvii. 


THE  TWO  WAYS  103 

the  gates,  that  the  righteous  nation  which  keepeth  truth 
may  enter  in  "  (Isa.  xxvi.  2).  And  there  cometh  Samuel 
the  prophet,  and  he  places  himself  between  these  two  by- 
ways.i  He  says  :  On  which  of  these  (two  byways)  shall  I 
go  ?  If  I  go  on  the  way  of  righteousness,  then  (the  path) 
of  II  love  is  better  than  the  former ;  if  I  go  on  the  way  of 
love,  (the  way)  of  righteousness  is  better :  but  I  call  heaven 
and  earth  to  be  my  witnesses  ^  that  I  will  not  give  up  either 
of  them.^ 

The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  said  to  him  :  Samuel  ! 
Thou  hast  placed  thyself  between  these  two  good  byways. 
By  thy  life!  I  will  give  to  thee  three  good  gifts.  This 
teaches  thee  that  everyone  who  doeth^  righteousness  and 
sheweth  the  service  of  love,  shall  inherit  three  good  gifts, 
and  they  are:  life,  righteousness,  and  glory,  as  it  is  said, 
"  He  that  followeth  after  righteousness  and  love,  findeth 
life,  righteousness,  and  glory"  (Prov.  xxi.  21).  It  is  only 
written  here  (in  the  text) :  "  He  findeth  life,  righteousness, 
and  glory."  ^ 

(Leading)  to  the  way  of  evil,  there  are  four  *'  doors,  and 
at  each  door  seven  angels  ^  are  standing — four  without, 
and  three  within.  The  (angels)  without  are  merciful,  and 
those  within  are  cruel.  When  a  man  comes  to  enter,^  the 
merciful  angels  go  to  meet  him  and  say  to  him  :  What 
hast  thou  to  do  with  the  fire  yonder?  What  hast  thou 
to   do    with   those    glowing    coals  ?  ^     Listen    to   us    and 

1  Samuel,  like  Elijah,  sought  to  reconcile  God  and  man.  On  Samuel 
in  Rabbinic  literature  see  J.E.  xi.  7.  On  the  idea  in  our  Midrash  see 
I  Sam.  ii.  26 ;  according  to  this  text,  Samuel  grew  in  favour  with  God 
and  man.  The  favour  of  God  is  the  result  of  "  righteousness,"  whilst 
the  favour  of  man  is  due  to  "  love  "  between  man  and  his  fellow. 

-  This  expression  is  verv  common  in  the  Tanna  de  be  Elijahu. 

'  The  first  editions  add  here  :  "  but  I  will  take  them  for  myself."  See 
Eccles.  vii.  18. 

*  The  first  editions  read  "  who  desireth  and  doeth,"  instead  of 
"  doeth."     Luria  suggests  "  pursueth." 

°  This  sentence  is  missing  in  the  printed  editions. 

*  Cf .  the  three  sins  ai  Israel  mentioned  by  Amos  ii.  6  and  the  four 
calls  of  Wisdom  in  Prov.  i.  20  ff. 

'  The  first  editions  read  :  "  seven  watchers,  angels,  are  sitting,"  i.e. 
guardian  angels. 

*  The  first  editions  add  :   "  the  first  door." 

»  The  first  editions  read  :  "  Why  wilt  thou  enter  into  the  midst  of 
this  fire  ?  Why  wilt  thou  enter  among  the  uncircumcised  and  the 
glowing  coals  ?  "  Luria  reads  "  flames  "  instead  of  "  uncircumcised." 
The  picture  of  Gehenna  in  our  context  may  be  suggested  by  the  "  swords 


104  RABBI  ELIEZER 

repent.^  If  he  hearken  to  them  and  repent,  behold 
it  is  well,  and  if  not,  he  says  to  them  :  -  Amongst  them 
(yonder)  let  my  life  (be).  ||  They  say  to  him  :  Thou  hast 
entered  the  first  door ;  do  not  enter  the  second  door. 
When   he   comes   to   enter   the   second   door,   the   merciful  ^, 

angels  go  to  meet  him  and  say  to  him  :    What  benefit  is  it 
to  thee  to  be  erased  ^  from  the  Torah  of  thy  God  ?  '    Would 
it  not  be  better  to  be  inscribed  in  the  Torah  of  thy  God  ? 
Hearken  unto  us  and  repent.     If  he  listen  to  them  and 
repent,  it  is  well ;  and  if  not,  he  says  to  them  :  ''  With  them 
yonder  let  my  life  (be).     They  say  to  him  :    Behold  thou 
hast  entered  the  second  door,  do  not  enter  the  third  door. 
When  he  is  about  to  enter  the  third  door  the  merciful  angels 
go  to  meet  him  and  say  to  him  : "  What  benefit  is  to  thee 
that  they  {i.e.  the  good  angels)  should  flee  from  thee  and 
call  tliee  "  Unclean  "  ?     Would  it  not  be  better  that  they 
should    call    thee     "  Pure    One "    and    not    "  Unclean "  ? 
Hearken   to   us    and    repent.      If   he    hearken   unto   them, 
behold,  it  is  well ;  and  if  not,  he  says  unto  them  :  With  them 
(yonder)  let  my  life  (be).     They  say  to  him  :    Behold  thou 
hast  entered  the  third  door  ;  do  not  enter  the  fourth  door  ! 
When  he  is  about  to  enter  the  fourth  door  the  merciful 
angels  go  to  meet  him  and  say  to  him  :    Behold,  thou  hast 
entered   these    doors,   and    thou    hast    not    hearkened    nor 
returned.'     Thus  far  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  receives 

of  flaming  fire  "  in  the  hands  of  the  Cherubim  guarding  Paradise. 
The  "  flaming  fire  "  is  outside  Paradise.  For  the  "  everlasting  fire  " 
m  the  New  Testament  see  Matt.  xxv.  41  ;  the  old  editions  {e.g.  Amster- 
dam) read  D'li,  "  mountains,"  instead  of  "  wicked." 

1  Or  "  return  "  ;  possibly  the  word  implies  "  repent  and  return." 
^  The  first  editions  read  here  :    "  If  he  hearken  to  them  it  is  well; 
and  if  not,  verily  they  say  to  them  :  Amongst  them  (yonder)  there  is  no 
life."     Our  MS.  has  undoubtedly  the  better  reading. 
^  The  first  editions  read  :  "  to  bo  removed." 

*  The  first  editions  omit  the  next  sentence  and  read  instead :  "  that 
they  (i.e.  the  good  angels)  should  call  thee  '  Unclean,'  and  that  they 
should  flee  from  thee." 

*  See  note  z  iihovr. 

*  The  first  editions  read,  instead  of  our  text,  the  following  :  "Why 
wilt  thou  be  erased  from  the  book  of  life  ?  *  Is  it  not  better  for  thee 
to  be  inscribed  (therein)  rather  than  to  be  erased  (therefrom)  ?  Hearken 
unto  us,  and  repent.  If  he  listen  to  them,  it  is  well ;  and  if  not,  woe  to 
him  and  to  his  head  !  "      See  Wisdom  i.  13. 

'  The  translation  might  also  be,  "  repented."    See  Jalljut,  Job,  loc.  cit. 

» On  the  "  Book  of  Life  "  see  T.B.  Rosh  Ha-Shanah,  i6b,  and  cf. 
Jeremias,  Babyl.  im  N.T. ;  see  also  Isa.  xxx.  8. 


THE  TWO  WAYS  105 

II  the  penitent ;  thus  far  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  pardons  ^ 
and  forgives,^  and  every  day  He  says  :  Return,  ye  children 
of  man,  as  it  is  said :  ^  "  Thou  turnest  man  to  contrition  "  ^ 
(Ps.  xc,  3). 

The  cruel  angels  ^  say :  Since  he  would  not  hearken 
to  the  first  (angels),  let  us  cause  his  spirit  to  depart,  as  it  is 
said,  "  Let  his  spirit  go  forth,  let  him  return  to  his  earth  " 
(ibid,  cxlvi.  4).  And  concerning  them  ^  (the  Scripture)  says :  ^ 
"  Upon  the  third  and  upon  the  fourth  generation  of  them 
that  hate  me  "  (Ex.  xx.  5) ;  and  another  verse  says  :  "  Lo, 
all  these  things  doth  God  work,  twice,  yea  thrice,  with  a 
man  "  (Job  xxxiii.  29).     And  thus  He  calls  to  Eliezer.^ 

The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  said  :  Eliezer  !  Thou 
hast  made  thyself  like  a  threefold  cord,^  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
a  threefold  cord  is  not  quickly  broken  "  (Eccles.  iv.  12).  I 
also  will  apply  to  thee  this  verse  :  "  Thou  shalt  be  perfect 
with  the  Lord  thy  God  "  (Deut.  xviii.  13).  Do  not  read  thus, 
but :   "  Thou  shalt  be  perfect  before'^^  the  Lord  thy  God." 

'  The  first  editions  add  "  sins." 

2  See  T.B.  Joma,  86b,  and  T.B.  Rosh  Ha-Shanah,  i6a. 

'  The  first  editions  read,  instead  of  our  quotation,  the  following  : 
"  '  Return,  ye  backsliding  children  '  (Jer.  iii.  14).  If  man  hearken  unto 
them,  it  is  well ;  and  if  not,  woe  to  him  and  to  his  destiny  !  "  1 

*  Or  "  destruction.  '  See  T.B.  Chagigah,  i6a,  for  an  instance  of  re- 
pentance even  after  death;  see  also  Jalkut  Makhiri,  Ps.  xci.  18,  and 
infra,  p.  341. 

^  See  Prov.  xvii.  11  and  cf.  Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  i.  22,  p.  lib,  and 
cf.  Justin  Martyr,  Dialogue  with  Trypho,  cv.,  on  the  "  evil  angel  taking 
our  soul."       See  also  Hippolytus  (Against  Plato,  ed  Lagarde,  p.  69). 

®  The  unrepentant. 

^  The  printed  texts  omit  the  quotation  from  Ex.  xx.  5  and  conclude 
the  quotation  from  Job  xxxiii.  29  with  the  word  "  work,"  adding  "  etc." 

*  Luria  thinks  that  probably  the  text  originally  ended  with  a 
reference  to  Samuel.  The  first  editions  agree  with  our  MS.  and  read 
"  to  Eliezer,"  indicating  Rabbi  Eliezer  ben  Hyrkanos,  whose  name 
also  occurs  at  the  beginning  of  the  chapter. 

*  The  printed  texts  omit  the  quotation  from  Eccles.  iv.  12.  Some  of 
the  texts  read,  "  Hast  thou  made  thyself  ?  "  etc.  The  threefold  cord  is 
Torah,  Divine  Worship,  and  Loving  Service.  R.  Ehezer  had  acquired 
Torah,  and  devoted  his  life  to  the  service  of  God  ;  and  by  his  action  to 
his  brothers  he  rendered  loving  service  to  them.  The  reference  to 
Samuel  would  be  just  as  likely. 

*"  In  the  MS.  the  texts  "  with  the  Lord  "  are  identical.  This  is  clearly 
due  to  an  error  of  a  copyist.  See  Jalljut,  Deut.  §  919,  and  cf.  Siphre, 
Deut.  §  173.  I  have  followed  the  reading  of  the  Pesiljta  ?utarta, 
p.  30b. 

^  Sjd,  planet,  luck  or  destiny. 


CHAPTER   XVI 

THE    SERVICE    OF    LOVING-KINDNESS    [17b.  ii.] 

The  world  rests  upon  three  things :  upon  the  Torah,  upon 
Divine  Worship,  and  upon  the  service  of  loving-kindness.^ 
"■  Upon  the  Torah,"  whence  do  we  know  (this)  ?  Because 
it  is  written,  "  If  my  covenant  -  of  day  and  night  stand 
not "  (Jer.  xxxiii.  25) ;  and  (another  text)  says,  "  This 
book  of  the  Torah  shall  not  depart  out  of  thy  mouth, ^ 
but  thou  shalt  meditate  therein  day  and  night "  (Josh.  i.  8). 
Whence  do  we  know  (that  the  world  rests)  upon  the  service 
of  loving-kindness  ?  Because  it  is  said,  "  For  I  desired 
love,  II  and  not  sacrifice  "  (Hos.  vi.  6).  Whence  do  wc  know 
(that  the  world  rests)  upon  Divine  Worship  ?  Because 
it  is  written,  "And  the  prayer  of  the  upright  is  his  delight "  ^ 
(Prov.  XV.  8).5 

*  See  Aboth  i.  2;  Pesikta  Rabbathi,  v.  p.  15b;  and  cf.  supra, 
p.  89,  and  infya,  p.  122. 

^  God's  covenant  is  the  Torah  ;  see  T.B.  Sabbath,  33a  ;  cf.  T.B. 
Pesachim,  54a;  and  T.B.  Nedarim,  32a.  The  argument  by  analogy 
afforded  by  comparing  similar  words  in  two  different  verses  of  Scripture 
is  known  as  "  Gezerah  Shavah,"  and  is  employed  here.  For  examples 
see  Levy,  N.H.W.  i.  320  f . ;  and  cf .  Bacher's  Terminologie,  i.  ■;.«.  pp.  1 3  ff . 

^  The  rest  of  the  verse  is  omitted  by  our  MS. ;  it  occurs  in  the  first 
editions.  The  MS.  adds  the  paragraph  following  dealing  with  the  service 
of  loving-kindness. 

■•  Luria  thinks  that  the  text  should  read :  "  (The  world  rests)  upon 
Divine  Worship.  What  is  this  (Worship)?  Prayer."  The  preceding  part 
of  the  verse  quoted  reads :  ' '  The  sacrifice  of  the  wicked  is  an  abomination 
to  the  Lord,  and  the  prayer  of  the  upright  is  his  delight"  (Prov.  xv.  8). 
In  Mai.  ii.  13  "delight"  is  used  instead  of  "offering."  On  this  theme  see 
Aboth  de  R.  Nathan  {a)  iv.  p.  gb  ;  T.J.  Megillah  iii.  7.  74b  ;  Num.  Rab. 
xii.  12.  The  ethical  lesson  here  is  noteworthy  :  knowledge  of  God's  Law 
must  find  expression,  on  the  one  hand,  in  Divine  Worship,  and,  on  the 
other,  in  the  service  of  loving-kindness  to  humanity.  Judaism  claims 
to  be  the  highest  expression  of  religious  truth,  and  stands  or  falls  by 
the  ethical  teaching  it  enunciates. 

*  The  first  editions  add  :  "  What  is  the  Divine  Worship  ?  Prayer, 
for  thus  we  find  in  Daniel,  to  whom   Darius  said :    '  Thy  God  whom 

106 


SERVICE  OF  LOVING-KINDNESS     107 

Whence  do  we  learn  of  the  service  of  loving-kindness  for 
bridegrooms  ?  We  learn  (this)  from  the  Holy  One,  blessed 
be  He ;  for  He  Himself  bestowed  loving-kindness  upon 
Adam  and  his  help-mate.  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He, 
said  to  the  ministering  angels  :  Come  ye  and  let  us  show 
loving-kindness  to  Adam  and  his  help-mate.  The  Holy 
One,  blessed  be  He,  descended  with  the  ministering  angels 
to  show  loving-kindness  to  Adam  and  his  help-mate.^  The 
Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  said  :  More  beloved  unto  Me  is  the 
service  of  loving-kindness  than  sacrifices  and  burnt-offer- 
ing which  Israel,  in  the  future,  will  bring  on  the  altar  before 
Me,  as  it  is  said,  "  For  I  desired  love,  and  not  sacrifice  " 
(Hos.  vi.  6).2 

Rabbi  Jose  said  :  From  whom  do  we  learn  of  the  seven 
days  of  banquet  ?  ^  From  our  father  Jacob.*  For  when 
our  father  Jacob  married  Leah,  he  made  a  banquet  with 
rejoicing  for  seven  days,  as  it  is  said,  "  Fulfil  the  week  ^ 
of  this  one"  (Gen.  xxix.  27).^ 

thou  servest  continually,  he  will  deliver  thee  '  (Dan.  vi.  i6).  Was 
there  any  Divine  Worship  in  Babylon  ?  ^     But  this  (refers  to)  Prayer." 

1  In  the  Garden  of  Eden  ;   see  supra,  pp.  S8  If. 

^  See  supra,  pp.  76,  84,  89,  for  the  idea  that  the  world  rests  on  love. 
Here  the  stress  is  on  "  I  desire!,"  since  God's  desire  or  will  is  the  cause 
of  the  world's  existence.  The  bridegroom  is  especially  mentioned, 
because  the  study  of  the  Torah  is  to  be  set  aside  in  order  to  render 
the  service  of  loving-kindness  to  the  bride  and  bridegroom.  The 
Jewish  teachers  did  not  encourage  celibacy ;  neither  was  the  cult  of 
virginitrs'-  considered  a  desirable  element  in  religion,  as  was  the  case 
in  the  Christian  Church.  It  is  possible  that  the  emphasis  laid  on  the 
Divine  participation  in  Adam's  nuptials  was  intended  to  counteract 
the  attitude  of  the  Church  towards  marriage ;  see  i  Cor.  vii.  8 ;  Matt. 
xix.  10,  12.  This  section  in  our  book  should  be  compared  with  the  latter 
part  of  Chapter  XII. ;  see  also  Pesikta  de  R.  Kahana,  p.  172b  (end). 

^  At  a  wedding.  The  marriage  feast  is  mentioned  in  the  parables 
of  the  N.T. ;  see  Matt.  xxii.  2  ff . 

*  See  Nachmanides  on  Gen.  xxix.  27  ;  and  cf.  T.J.  Kethuboth  i.  i, 
p.  25a,  and  Jalkut,  Judges,  §  70. 

*  See  Pal.  Targum,  in  loc. 

*  The  first  editions  add  :  "  And  all  the  men  of  the  place  were  gathered 
together  to  render  loving  service  to  Jacob,  as  it  is  said  :  '  And  Laban 
gathered  together  all  the  men  of  the  place,  and  made  a  feast '  (Gen. 
xxix.  22).  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  said  to  them  :  Ye  have 
shown  loving-kindness  to  Jacob,  My  servant.  I  will  deal  kindly  and  give 
you  your  reward  in  this  world, ^  because  there  is  no  reward  for  evil- 
doers in  the  world  to  come,  as  it  is  said,  '  Because  by  him  the  Lord 

*  In  Babj'lon  and  elsewhere  outside  Palestine  the  sacrificial  cult 
was  replaced  by  prayer;  see  Siphre,  Deut.  §  41,  p.  Soa  ;  and  cf.  Esther 
Rab.  viii.  7. 

*  See  T.B.  Kiddushin,  40b,  and  T.B.  'Erubin,  22a. 


108  RABBI  ELIEZER 

Rabbi  Simeon  ^  said  :  Our  father  Abraham  wrote  (in 
his  will  and  bequeathed)  all  that  he  had  as  an  inheritance  ^ 
to  Isaac,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Abraham  gave  all  that  he  had 
unto  Isaac  "  {ibid.  xxv.  5).  He  took  the  document  and 
gave  it  into  the  hands  of  Eliczer,  his  servant,  (who)  said, 
Since  the  document  is  in  my  hand  all  his  money  is  in  my 
hand,'  so  that  he  might  go  and  be  recommended  '  (thereby) 
in  his  ^  father's  house  and  with  his  family. 

From  Kirjath  ||  Arba  unto  Haran  was  a  journey  of  seven- 
teen days  ;  and  in  three  hours  ^  the  servant  came  to  Haran. 
He  was  astonished  in  his  mind  ^  and  he  said  :  This  day  I 
went  forth,  and  this  day  I  arrived,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  I 
came  this  day  unto  the  fountain  "  {ibid.  xxiv.  42). 

Rabbi  Abbahu  said  :  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He, 
wished  to  show  loving-kindness  to  Isaac,  and  he  sent  an 
angel  *^  before  Eliczer ;  and  the  way  was  shortened  for 
him,  so  that  the  servant  came  to  Haran  in  three  hours. 

And  everything  ^  is  revealed  before  the  Holy  One,  blessed 
be  He.  A  daughter  of  Icings,^*'  who  in  all  her  life  had  never 
gone  forth  to  draw  water,  went  out  to  draw  water  in  that 
hour.  And  the  girl,  who  did  not  know  who  the  man  ^^  was, 
accepted   (the  proposal)  to   be  married  to   Isaac.     Why  ? 

had  given  victory  unto  Syria'   (2   Kings   v.  i),  and  he*    received  his 
reward."  * 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  Shemajah." 

-See  infra,  p.  215;  and  cf.  T.B.  Baba  Bathra,  130a.  Isaac  was 
destined  to  be  Abraham's  heir  according  to  God's  promise;  see  Gen. 
XV.  4.     The  first  editions  omit  the  quotation,  Gen.  xxv.  5. 

*  The  words  of  Ehezer  are  not  in  the  first  editions. 

*  By  the  will  of  Abraham  everything  in  his  possession  passed  to 
Isaac.  This  circumstance  would  be  appreciated  by  the  family  of 
Rebecca.     Sec  Gen.  Rab.  lix.  10. 

'  Abraham's. 

*  The  "  shortening  of  the  way  "  occurs  also  in  the  Gospel  of  Pseudo- 
Matthew  xxii.  (A.N.C.L.  xvi.  p.  38),  and  see  A.R.W.  xvi.  p.  169. 

'  Lit.  "  heart." 

*  See  Gen.  xxiv.  7,  and  cf.  Gen.  Rab.  loc.  cit 

*  Cf.  Luria's  reading  based  on  Jalkut  Makhiri,  Ps.  Ixii.  5. 

10  SeeMidrashHaggadol,  Gen.  c.  367.  For  Bethuel  as  king  see  Jalkut, 
Gen.  §  109,  and  Sopherim  xxi.  (cd.  MuUer)  p.  304,  n.  46. 

11  The  reading  in  the  Jalkut,  loc.  cit..  is :  "  And  the  girl  knew  not  man." 
This  reading  is  probably  due  to  Gen.  xxiv.  16.  Clement  of  Alexandria 
gives  a  parallel  Haggadic  interpretation  in  his  Strom,  iv.  25. 

*  Laban. 

*  By  the  victory  of  Aram,  the  service  of  loving-kindness  rendered 
to  Jacob  by  Laban  was  requited  to  the  descendants  of  Laban  the 
Aramean.     See  infra,  p.  112. 


SERVICE  OF  LOVING-KINDNESS     109 

Because  she  had  been  destined  ^  for  him  from  his  mother's 
womb,2  as  it  is  said,  "  In  the  balances  they  will  go  up,  they 
are  together  lighter  than  vanity  "  ^  (Ps.  Ixii.  9). 

Laban  and  Bethuel  answered  :  Since  (this)  word  has 
come  forth  from  the  mouth  of  the  Almighty,  we  cannot 
prevent  it,  as  it  is  said,  "  Then  Laban  and  Bethuel  answered 
and  said,  The  thing  proceedeth  from  the  Lord :  ^  we  cannot 
speak  unto  thee  bad  or  good  "  (Gen.  xxiv.  50).  "  Behold; 
Rebecca  is  before  thee  ;  take  her  and  go  "  (ibid.  51). 

The  servant  arose  early  in  the  morning  and  saw  the  angel 
standing  and  waiting  for  him  in  the  street.  He  said  to 
them :  ^  "Do  not  hinder  me,^  for  the  Lord  hath  prospered 
my  way  "  {ibid.  56).  For  behold,  the  man  who  came  with 
me  yesterday,  he  has  prospered  my  way ;  behold,  he  is  stand- 
ing II  and  waiting  for  me  in  the  street,''  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
he  said  to  them.  Do  not  hinder  me,  for  the  Lord  hath  pros- 
pered my  way."  They  ate  and  drank  at  Rebecca's  (bridal) 
banquet.*^  Like  a  precentor,  who  is  standing  and  blessing 
the  bride  in  her  bridal  canopy,^  so  they  stood  and  blessed 
Rebecca  their  sister  (wedded)  to  Isaac,  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
they  blessed  Rebecca,  and  said  unto  her,  Our  sister  ..." 
{ibid.  60).i» 

At  six  hours  of  the  day  ^^  the  servant  went  forth  from 
Haran,  and  he  took  Rebecca  and  Deborah  her  nurse  and 
made  them  ride  upon  the  camels.  So  that  the  servant 
should  not  be  alone  with  the  maiden  (Rebecca)  by  night, 

1  See  Targum  On^elos  to  Gen.  xxiv.  14. 

2  i.e.  from  his  birth.  The  first  editions  read  :  "  from  her  mother's 
womb." 

3  Cf.  Lev.  Rab.  xxix.  8,  Gen.  Rab.  Ux.  9,  T.J.  Bezah  v.  2,  63a. 

*  The  MS.,  the  Midrash  Haggadol,  Gen.  c.  368,  and  the  first  editions 
end  the  quotation  here,  and  add:  "  etc." 

°  Eliezer  is  speaking  to  Laban  and  his  friends. 

«  The  MS.  ends  the  quotation  here  ;  the  first  editions  continue  the 
verse,  and  then  the  printed  texts  read  :  "  Behold  he  is  in  the  street,  wait- 
ing for  me.     Thev  ate  and  drank  at  Rebecca's  banquet,  as  it  is  said." 

'  The  Midrash  Haggadol,  Gen.  c.  370,  refers  here  to  the  "  angel  "  who 
accompanied  Ehezer. 

«  The  first  editions  add  parts  of  verses  54  and  56  of  Gen.  xxiv. 

»  See  Midrash  Haggadol,  Gen.  loc.  cit.  ;  and  cf.  supra,  pp.  Sgf.,  and 
see  Kallahi.,  and  Tosaphoth,  Kethuboth,  7b,  s.v.  nDNJB'. 

10  This  was  a  marriage  by  proxy.  The  Rabbis  differ  as  to  whether 
the  nuptial  benedictions  caii  be  said  only  in  the  presence  of  the  bride 
and  bridegroom;  see  R.  Nissim  on  T.B.  Sukkah,  25b,  and  RITBA  on 
Kethuboth,  8a. 

11  i.e.  at  noon,  twelve  o'clock.  See  Midrash  Haggadol,  Gen.  c.  371, 
for  a  parallel  text. 


110  RABBI  ELIEZER 

the  earth  was  contracted  ^  before  him,  and  in  three  hours  the 
servant  came  to  Hebron  at  the  time  of  the  prayer  of 
the  afternoon-evening.-  And  Isaac  had  gone  forth  to  say 
the  afternoon-evening  prayer,  as  it  is  said,  "And  Isaac  went 
forth  to  meditate  in  the  field  towards  even"  [ibid.  63). ^ 

Rabbi  Simeon  '  said :  Abraham  spake  to  Isaac  his  son 
(saying),  This  servant^  is  suspected  of  all  the  transgressions 
of  the  Torah,  and  deceit  is  in  this  servant,^  as  it  is  said, 
"  He  is  a  Canaanite,"  the  balances  of  deceit  are  in  his  hand ; 
he  loveth  to  defraud  "  (Hos.  xii.  7).  See,  lest  he  has  defiled 
her,^  therefore  bring  the  girl  into  the  tent  and  examine  her 
tactually;^  1|  and  if  she  be  undefiled,  behold,  she  is  destined 

1  The  Pal.  Targum  on  Gen.  xxiv.  6i  states:  "And  as  the  way  was 
shortened  for  him  in  his  journey  to  Paddan-Aram,  so  was  it  shortened 
for  him  on  his  return,  so  that  in  one  day  he  went  and  in  one  day  he 
returned." 

-i.e.  at  3  p.m.  The  MS.  reads:  "  the  afternoon  of  the  evening." 
The  first  editions  read  "  afternoon."  Midrash  Haggadol,  loc.  cit.,  has 
"  evening."  The  word  "  Minchah  "  is  used  to  designate  the  "  afternoon 
prayer  "  or  the  "  afternoon  offering  "  ;  see  Jastrow,  T.D.  779a. 

^  The  first  editions  add  :  "  Meditation  (Sichah)  is  nought  else  save 
prayer,*  as  it  is  said,  '  A  prayer  of  the  afflicted,  when  he  is  overwhelmed 
and  poureth  out  his  complaint  (Siach)  before  the  Lord'  "  (Ps.  cii.  i). 
See  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  p.  84.  Gen.  Rab.  Ixviii.  9  quotes 
here  Ps.  cxlii.  2,  instead  of  Ps  .  cii.  i  as  above. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  Ishmael." 

*  The  Prague  edition  reads :  "  O  my  son !  this  servant,"  etc. 

'  The  first  editions  read  :  "  This  servant  is  suspected  of  transgres- 
sions, and  deceit  is  in  his  hand."  n-^^zy  (transgression)  often  means 
"  immorality." 

'Servants  or  slaves  were  called  "Canaanites"  in  consequence  of 
Noah's  curse  upon  his  son  Ham,  whose  son  was  Canaan ;  cf.  T.B.  Baba 
Bathra,  92b. 

*  "Zinor,"  euphem.  for  vagina;  see  2  Sam.  v.  8. 

*  For  a  parallel  see  the  legends  of  the  Virgin  Mary  and  Salome  in 
"  Ante-Nicene  Christian  Library,"  xvi.  p.  12  (The  Protevangelium  of 
James)  ;  and  cf .  same  story  in  same  volume,  p.  32,  The  Gospel  of  Pseudo- 
Matthew,  and  see  Hennecke,  Apokryphen  d.  N.T.,  p.  61  ;  see  also 
Tertullian,  "  Oa  the  Veiling  of  Virgins,"  xi.  R.  Simeon's  infer- 
ence is  based  on  the  view  that  obtained  in  ancient  times  that  slaves 
could  be  reasonably  suspected  of  loose  conduct ;  see  T.B.  Berakhoth, 
45b  ;  T.B.  Pesachim,  91a  and  113b.  Clement  of  Alexandria,  to  quote 
but  one  of  the  Church  Fathers,  held  a  similar  opinion  of  the  slaves 
of  his  day;  sec  The  Instructor,  iii.  4.  The  Midrash  in  our  text  also 
occurs  in  Jalkut  on  Gen.,  §  109,  Midrash  Abkhir,  and  in  the  Midrash 
Agadah,  Gen.  p.  60.  Sec  alsoRokcach,  pp.  54a,  b  (ist  ed.).  According  to 
the  Book  of  Jashar  (xxiv.  40)  Rebecca  was  ten  years  old  when  wedded  to 

*  Jerome,  in  loc.  knew  this  Haggadic  interpretation,  which  also 
occurs  in  Onkelos  and  Pal.  Targum,  in  loc.  See  Gen.  Rab.  Ix.  1  .j  ; 
T.B.  Berakhoth,  26b ;  cf .  Rahmer,  Die  Hebrdischen  Traditionen  in  den 
Werken  des  Hieronymus  (1861),  p.  38. 


SERVICE  OF  LOVING-KINDNESS     111 

for  thee  from  her  mother's  womb.^  He  brought  her  into  the 
tent  and  examined  her  tactually,  and  he  showed  the  result 
to  Abraham  his  father,  and  afterwards  he  took  her  to  be  his 
wife,  as  it  is  said,  "And  Isaac  brought  her  into  the  tent  of 
Sarah  his  mother  .  .  .  And  Isaac  was  comforted  after  his 
mother's  death  "  (Gen.  xxiv.  67)  ;  ^  for  the  deeds  of  Rebecca 
were  Hke  unto  those  of  Sarah. ^  Hence  the  Israehtes  have 
the  custom  of  producing  the  tokens  of  the  damsel's  virginity,"* 
as  it  is  said,  "  Then  shall  the  father  of  the  damsel,  and  her 
mother,  take  and  bring  forth  the  tokens  of  the  damsel's 
virginity "  (Dent.  xxii.   15).^ 

The  steward  of  Abraham's  household®  was  his  servant 
Eliezer,  and  whence  was  his  servant  ?  When  (Abraham) 
went  forth  from  Ur  of  the  Chaldees  all  the  magnates  of 
the  kingdom  '  came  to  give  him  gifts  ;  and  Nimrod  ^  took 
his  first-born  (son)  ^  Eliezer  and  gave  him  to  (Abraham)  as 
a  perpetual  slave. 

When  (Eliezer  had  thus)  dealt  kindly  with  Isaac,  he  set 
him  free,  and  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  gave  him  his 
reward  in  this  world,  so  that  there  should  not  be  a  reward 

Isaac.  Another  opinion  is  to  be  found  in  Sopherim  xxi.  g,  and  in  Seder 
'01am  Rab.  i.  p.  4a. 

1  The  first  editions  read :  "  She  is  thine  by  the  word  of  the 
Almighty."     See  Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  373. 

2  The  last  clause  of  the  quotation  is  not  in  the  first  editions. 

^  The  first  editions  add  :  "  she  was  found  to  be  as  perfect  as  Sarah 
his  mother. 1  '  The  king's  daughter  within  is  all  glorious  '  (Ps. 
xlv.  13) ;  '  And  Isaac  was  comforted  after  his  mother's  death  '  "  (Gen. 
xxiv.  67). 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  custom  of  tactual  examination  so  that 
they  should  not  be  in  doubt,  as  it  is  said,  '  Then  shall  the  father  of 
the  damsel,  and  her  mother,  take'  "  (Deut.  xxii.  15).  On  the  custom  see 
Miiller's  Chiluf  Minhagim,  p.  37,  where  it  is  pointed  out  that  it  is  a 
Palestinian  custom.  This  might  point  to  a  Palestinian  as  the  author 
of  P.R.E.,  or  to  Palestine  as  its  home. 

^  See  the  rest  of  the  verse. 

*  Lit.  "  The  steward  of  his  house  (was)  the  servant  of  Abraham,  for 
Eliezer  was  his  servant."  Our  translation  agrees  with  the  text  of  the 
first  two  editions. 

'  The  first  editions  read :  "  All  the  magnates  of  the  generation  arose 
and  gave  him  gifts." 

*  On  Nimrod  see  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  pp.  44  f.  and  51  ; 
J.E.  ix.  309;  Ginzberg,  Legends  of  the  Jews,  i.  pp.  177  ;  cf.  Augustine, 
de  Civ.  Dei,  xvi.  11,3.  See  also  Jerahmeel,  s.v.  in  Index,  for  references. 
The  first  editions  add  :  "  arose  and  wrote  a  document  transferring  his 
servant  Eliezer  to  Abraham." 

*  The  rest  of  the  sentence  is  wanting  in  the  first  editions. 

^  This  is  like  the  reading  in  the  Targumim,  Gen,  in  loc. 


112  RABBI  ELIEZER 

for  the  wicked  in  the  world  to  come ;  ^  and  He  raised  him  to 
kingship,  and  he  is  Og.  king  of  Bashan.- 

Rabbi  Jose  ^  said  :  From  whom  do  we  learn  (that  there 
should  be)  seven  days  of  (the  wedding)  banquet  ?  '  From  our 
father  Jacob,  who  ||  made  a  banquet  with  rejoicing  for  seven 
days,  and  he  took  Leah  (as  his  ^vife).  Again  he  kept  another 
seven  days  of  banquet  and  rejoicing,  and  took  Rachel  (as  his 
wife),  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Laban  gathered  together  all  the  men 
of  the  place,  and  made  a  feast  "  (Gen.  xxix.  22).  The  Holy 
One,  blessed  be  He,  said  to  them  :  Ye  have  shown  loving- 
kindness  to  Jacob,  My  servant.  I  will  give  a  reward  to  your 
children,  so  that  there  be  no  reward  for  the  mcked  in  the  world 
to  come  :  "  Because  by  him  the  Lord  had  given  victory  unto 
Syria"  (2  Kings  v.  1).  From  whom  do  we  learn  (that  there 
should  be)  seven  days  of  banquet  ?  From  Samson  the  Nazirite 
of  God,  for  when  he  went  down  to  the  land  of  the  Philistines, 
he  took  a  wife  and  kept  seven  days  of  banquet  and  re- 
joicing, as  it  is  said,  "  And  it  came  to  pass,  when  they  saw 
him,''  that  they  brought  thirty  companions  to  be  with 
him  "  (Judg.  xiv.  11).  What  were  they  doing  with  him  ? 
They  were  eating  and  drinking  and  rejoicing,^  as  it  is  said, 
"  And  Samson  said  unto  them,  Let  me  now  put  forth  a 
riddle  unto  you"  {ihid.  12);  and  another  text  says,  "They 
could  not  declare  the  riddle  in  three  days  "  {ibid.  14)." 

The  bridegroom  is  like  a  king.  Just  as  a  king  is  praised 
by  everybody,^  so  is  the  bridegroom  praised  by  everybody 
(during)  the  seven  days  of  the  feast.     Just  as  a  king  is 

'  Eliezer,  however,  inherited  the  future  world  according  to  the 
tradition  of  some  Rabbis  ;  see  Derekh  Erez  Zutta,  i.  (end),  and 
Midrash  Agadah,  Gen.  xxiv.  p.  6o. 

2  See  J .E.  V.  ii2,  Pal.  Targum  on  Gen.  xiv.  13,  infra,  p.  167  ;  and 
cf.  Jalkut  on  Num.  §  765,  Gen.  Rab.  Ix.  2,  Deut.  Rab.'i.  25,  T.B. 
Baba  Bathra,  58a,  T.B.  Joma,  28b,  and  Sopherim  xxiv.  9. 

•■'  The  first  editions  read:  "  Rabbi  "  ;  i.e.  Jehudah  i  (c.  200  c.E.)  ; 
see,  however,  supra  in  this  chapter,  p.  toy,  for  a  similar  text.  The 
whole  of  this  section  till  "  Syria  i2  Kings  v.  11  "  is  wanting  in  the  first 
two  editions.     See  supra,  p.  107,  note  6. 

*  The  custom  is  clearly  indicated  in  the  text  Judg.  xiv.  10  and  12  ; 
cf.  Matt.  ix.  15,  and  suprj ,  p.  107. 

*  The  first  editions  end  the  quotation  here. 

"  The  first  editions  read  differently  :  "  What  is  the  meaning  of 
('  when  they  saw)  him  '  ?  They  were  eating  and  drinking  with  him,  as 
it  is  said,"  etc. 

'  See  Jalkut,  in  lor..,  and  Menorath  Ha-Maor,  i;  173. 

*  See  T.B.  Kethuboth,  17a  ;  and  cf.  Singer,  p.  299  :  "  The  jubilant 
voice  of  bridegrooms  from  their  canopies,"  and  Jcr.  xxxiii.  11. 


SERVICE  OF  LOVING-KINDNESS     113 

dressed  in  garments  of  glory,i  so  the  bridegroom  is  dressed 
in  garments  of  glory.^  Just  as  a  king  is  rejoicing,  with  feasts 
in  his  presence,  all  his  days,  so  1|  the  bridegroom  is  rejoicing 
and  has  feasts  before  him  all  the  seven  days  of  the  banquet. 
Just  as  the  king  does  not  go  into  the  market-place  alone, 
likewise  the  bridegroom  does  not  go  into  the  market-place 
alone.3  Just  as  the  face  of  a  king  is  shining  like  the  light 
of  a  sun,^  so  the  face  of  the  bridegroom  is  shining  like  the 
light  of  a  sun,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  he  ^  is  as  a  bridegroom 
coming  out  of  his  chamber,^  and  rejoicing  to  run  his  course  " 
(Ps.  xix.  5). 

1  Cf.  Isa.  Ixi.  lo. 

^  The  first  editions  add  :   "  all  the  seven  days  of  the  banquet." 

*  See  Rashi  on  T.B.  Menachoth,  98a,  catchword  p"i.  The  mourners 
likewise  are  not  permitted  to  go  out  alone.  The  order  of  the  narrative 
here  is  different  in  the  printed  texts. 

*  Ci.  Prov.  xvi.  15. 

*  i.e.  the  sun. 

*  The  MS.  ends  the  quotation  here ;  the  first  editions  add  "  etc." 


8 


CHAPTER    XVII 

LOVING    SERVICE   TO    MOURNERS    [19a.  ii.] 

Concerning  the  one  who  tenders  the  service  of  loving- 
kindness  to  mourners.^  Whence  do  we  learn  of  the  service 
of  loving-kindness  to  mourners  ?  ^  From  the  Omni- 
present, who  alone  showed  loving-kindness  to  Moses,  His 
servant,  and  buried  him  ^  with  His  own  hand.  If 
this  story  had  not  been  written  (in  the  Torah)  it 
would  be  impossible  to  say  it,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  he 
buried  him  in  the  valley  in  the  land  of  Moab  "  (Deut. 
xxxiv.  6).' 

Rabban  Gamaliel,''  the  son  of  R.  Jehudah,  said :  Not  to 
Moses  alone  did  He  show  loving-lcindness,  but  also  to 
Aaron.  For  when  they  "^  went  up  Mount  Hor  all  the  tribes 
of  Israel  were  contending  and  saying,  Moses  and  Eleazar 
have  left  Aaron  on  Mount  Hor  and  have  gone  down  (by 
themselves).'  Thej^  did  not  believe  that  he  was  dead. 
To  show  loving-kindness  to  him,  what  did  the  Holy 
One,  blessed  be  He,  do  ?  He  took  Aaron's  coffin  and 
brought  it  above  the  camp  of  Israel,   and  all  Israel  saw 

*  This  sentence  is  missing  in  the  printed  editions. 

-  On  mourning  customs  see  Bender's  article  in  J.QR.  vi.  pp.  jiy  fif. 
and  664  tt.,  also  article  in  J.E.  ix.  101  If. 

3  On  the  death  of  Moses  see  Ribbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  pp. 
270-272.  The  service  of  loving-kindness  to  mourners  is  not  proved 
from  the  burial  of  Moses.  See  T.B.  Sotah,  14a,  where  the  custom  is 
inferred  from  the  case  of  Abraham  ;  cf.  T.B.  Synhedrin,  46a. 

*  See  T.B.  Sotah,  13b,  and  Siphre.  Deut.  §  ■(57. 

*  On  R.  Gamaliel  see  J .E.  v.  560  It.  On  the  theme  in  our  text  see 
Jalkut,  Num.  §  787,  and  cf.  Num.  Rab.  xix.  20. 

*  Moses,  Aaron,  and  Eleazar.  The  Gaster  MS.  9  begins  with  the 
words  "  were  contending,"  and  continues  to  the  end  of  the  book  as  in 
the  printed  editions.  The  text,  apari  from  the  inserted  and  older  MS. 
section,  follows  the  Venice  edition  very  closely. 

'  For  their  own  advantage  and  glory ;  see  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and 
Ethics  on  the  death  of  Aaron,  pp.  235-238. 


LOVING  SERVICE  TO  MOURNERS     115 

Aaron's  coffin  flying  and  moving  in  the  air.i  They  then 
believed  that  he  was  dead,  and  they  showed  loving-kindness 
to  him,  as  it  is  said  :  ||  "  And  all  the  congregation  saw  that 
Aaron  was  dead  "  (Num.  xx.  29).  Only  the  men  ~  showed 
loving-kindness  to  Moses,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  sons  of 
Israel  wept  for  Moses  "  (Deut.  xxxiv.  8).  The  men  and 
the  women  and  the  children  ^  showed  loving-kindness  to 
Aaron. 

Why  (was  this)  ?  Because  he  loved  peace  and  pursued 
peace,^  and  passed  daily  through  the  entire  camp  of  Israel 
and  promoted  peace  between  a  man  and  his  wife,  and 
between  a  man  and  his  neighbour ;  therefore  all  Israel 
showed  loving-kindness  to  him,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  when 
all  the  congregation  saw  that  Aaron  was  dead,'  they  wept 
for  Aaron  thirty  days,  even  all  the  house  of  Israel  "  (Num. 
XX.  29).^ 

Rabbi  Jose  said  :  From  whom  do  we  learn  of  the  seven 
days  of  mourning  ? "  From  Jacob,  our  father,  for  thus 
did  his  son  Joseph  unto  him,^  as  it  is  said,  "  And  he  made 
a  mourning  for  his  father  seven  days  "  (Gen.  1.  10).^ 

1  See  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  p.  228  ;  and  for  the  loving- 
kindness  see  ibid.  p.  240.  A  similar  legend  as  to  Mohammed's  cof&n 
occurs  in  Arabian  literature. 

-  Not  "  all  the  congregation,"  as  at  the  death  of  Aaron. 

'  The  first  editions  omit  "  and  the  children." 

*  See  Aboth  de  R.  Nathan  (a)  xii.  pp.  24b  ff. 

"  The  first  editions  insert  the  quotation,  "they  wept  for  Aaron," 
etc.,  before  the  paragraph  beginning.  "  Why  (was  this)  ?  "  The  MS. 
as  well  as  the  first  editions  do  not  quote  the  first  part  of  the  verse 
(Num.  XX.  29). 

*  The  first  editions  add  the  following  :  "  This  verse  1  is  not  in  its  right 
place,  for  at  '  Moserah  there  Aaron  died,  and  there  he  was  buried  ' 
(Deut.  X.  6).  And  the  text  points  to  this  (place)  as  though  he  died 
there  and  was  buried  there."  ^ 

^  See  Gen.  Rab.  c.  7,  andT.B.  MdedKatan,  20a;  Tanchuma  Vajechi. 
§  xvii.     Cf.  T.J.  Sotah  i.  10,  17c  ;   Jalkut  i.  §  161. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "for  Joseph  kept  for  him  seven  days  of 
mourning." 

*  The  first  editions  add  the  following  :  "  And  all  the  magnates  of 
the  kingdom  ^  went  up  with  him,  as  it  is  said  :  '  And  there  went  up 
with  him  both  chariots  and  horsemen'  (Gen.  I.  9).*     The  Holy  One, 

^  The  weeping  was  at  Moserah  ;  see  Seder 'Olam  Rab.  ix.,  T.J.  Joma 
i.  I,  p.  38b,  T.J.  Sotah  i.  10,  p.  17c,  and  Pal.  Targumon  Deut.  x.  6,  and  cf. 
Rashi  on  Num.  xxvi.  13. 

*  See  Num.  xxxiii.  38. 

3  The  Amsterdam  edition  reads  :  "  the  kingdoms." 

*  The  rest  of  the  verse  should  be  considered,  "  and  it  was  a  very 
great  company  "  (Gen.  1.  9). 


116  RABBI  ELIEZER 

Whence  do  we  learn  (the  duty  of)  showing  loving- 
kindness  to  mourners  ?  From  Jezebel,  the  daughter  of 
Ethbaal.^  The  palace  of  Jezebel,  daughter  of  Ethbaal, 
was  near  the  market-place.-  When  any  corpse  was  carried 
through  the  market-place,  she  would  go  forth  from  her 
palace,  and  she  clapped  ^  with  the  palms  of  her  hands  and 
praised  with  her  mouth,  and  she  followed  the  corpse  ^  ten 
steps.  Concerning  her,  Elijah,  be  he  remembered  for  good,^ 
prophesied  (and  said)  :  "  In  the  portion  of  Jezreel  shall  the 
dogs  eat  the  flesh  of  Jezebel  "  (2  Kings  ix.  36).  But  over 
the  limbs  which  were  (employed  in)  showing  loving-kind- 
ness, the  dogs  had  no  power,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  they  went  ||  to 
bury  her :  but  they  found  no  more  of  her  than  the  skull, 
and  the  feet,  and  the  palms  of  her  hands  "  {ibid.  So).*^ 

blessed  be  He,  said  to  them :  Ye  have  shown  loving-kindness  to  Jacob, 
My  servant,'  and  I  will  also  give  you  and  your  children  a  good  reward 
in  this  world.  When  the  Egyptians  died  in  the  (Reed)  Sea,  they  were 
not  drowned  -  in  the  sea,  but  they  were  worthy  to  be  buried,^  as  it  is 
said  :  '  Thou  stretchedst  out  thy  right  hand,  the  earth  swallowed 
them  '  "  (Ex.  xv.  12).* 

1  See  I  Kings  xvi.  31. 

2  Or  "  street."  The  basis  of  this  Haggadah  is  to  be  sought  in 
2  Kings  ix.  35.  The  palace  was  near  the  city  gate  which  is  generally 
near  the  market-place  or  the  "  High  Street."  The  first  editions  add 
here  :  "  When  any  bridegroom  happened  to  pass  (her  palace)  she  would 
go  forth  from  her  palace,  and  she  clapped  her  hands  and  praised  with 
her  mouth,  and  she  would  go  ten  steps." 

'  The  first  editions  read  :  "  And  she  made  a  noise  by  rubbing  her 
hands,  and  she  bewailed  with  her  mouth."  The  reading  in  our  MS. 
seems  to  be  drawn  from  the  account  describing  Jezebel's  conduct 
when  she  saw  bridegrooms. 

*  The  usual  distance  was  four  cubits.  See  Tur,  Joreh  Diah,  §  361  ; 
Maimonides,  Hilkhoth  Abel,  xiv.  ;  and  see  also  T.B.  Sotah,  35b  and 
46b. 

*  See  supra,  p.  2.  note  8. 

*  The  quotation  in  the  MS.  is  abbreviated  thus  :  "  And  they  went 
to  bury  her,  but  they  found  no  more  of  her  than  the  palms,"  etc. 
See  Rashi  and  Kimchi  on  2  Kings  ix.  36.  On  the  theme  of  our  text 
see  Jalkut,  2  Kings  ix.  (;;  232)  ;  Menorath  Ha-Maor,  §  216  ;  Kad  Ha- 
Kemacli,  s.v.  hix.  Tur,  Eben  Ha- Ezer,  65,  quotes  the  Midrash,  as  though 
the  text  were  "  bridegroom  and  bride,"  and  not  merely  "  bridegroom." 

1  See  infra,  p.  309. 

2  See  T.B.  Pesachim,  117a,  and  cf.  infra,  p.  332. 

'  The  bodies  of  drowned  men  are  liable  to  be  thrown  ashore  ;  they 
would  lie  exposed  and  remain  unburied.  God,  however,  had  mercy 
on  the  doomed  Egyptians  and  bade  the  sea  cast  up  the  drowned, 
whereupon  the  earth  was  constrained  to  receive  the  dead,  and  thus 
they  were  buried.  The  idea  containid  in  this  Midrash  is  the  belief  of 
the  Jew  in  the  dignity  of  man,  created  in  the  image  of  God. 

*  See  Rabbinic   Philosophy  and   Ethics,   p.   169,   and   cf.  infra,  pp. 

334  f- 


LOVING  SERVICE  TO  MOURNERS     117 

Whence  do  we  learn  (the  duty  of)  showing  loving- 
kindness  to  mourners  ?  From  the  men  of  Jabesh-Gilead. 
For  when  Saul  and  his  sons  were  slain,  the  men  of  Jabesh 
Gilead  said  :  Are  we  not  bound  to  show  loving-kindness 
to  the  man  who  delivered  us  from  the  disgrace  of  the  sons 
of  Ammon  ?  ^  All  their  mighty  men  arose  and  went  all 
night  to  the  walls  of  Beth-Shan,^  and  they  took  the  body 
of  Saul  and  the  bodies  of  his  sons  from  the  walls  of  Beth- 
Shan,  as  it  is  said,  "  All  the  valiant  men  arose,  and  took 
away  the  body  of  Saul  "  (1  Chron.  x.  12). 

The  mourners  are  comforted  with  bread  and  wine,^  as 
it  is  said,  "  Give  strong  drink  unto  him  that  is  ready  to 
perish,  and  wine  unto  the  bitter  in  soul "  (Prov.  xxxi.  6).* 

The  men  of  Jabesh-Gilead  showed  (loving-kindness  ^)  to 
Saul  and  his  sons.^  (God  said,)  I  will  also  give  you  and  your 
sons  your  reward  in  the  future ;  for  when  the  Holy  One,  blessed 
be  He,  in  the  future  will  gather  Israel  from  the  four  corners 
of  the  world,  the  first  whom  He  will  gather,  will  be  the 
half-tribe  of  Manasseh,'  as  it  is  said,  "  Gilead  is  mine,  and 

*  Cf.  I  Sam.  xi.  and  see  Pseudo-Rashi  on  i  Chron.  x.  12.  Gilead 
was  nigh  to  Benjamin,  Saul's  tribe  ;  see  Num.  Rab.  xiv.  i. 

2  i.e.  they  came  to  Beth- Shan  at  night.  Beth- Shan  is  three 
hours'  journey  from  Jabesh-Gilead.  The  first  editions  omit  the  next 
clause,  and  continue  :  "  as  it  is  said." 

3  See  Semachoth  xii.  The  subject  has  been  dealt  with  by  Perles 
in  his  Leichenfeierlichkeiten  im  Nachbiblischen  Judentum.  See  J.E. 
V.  529  f .  and  ibid.  ix.  loi  f. 

*  The  first  editions  omit  the  first  half  of  the  verse.  See  T.B,  'Erubin, 
65a:  "wine  was  only  created  in  order  to  comfort  the  mourners." 
"  Bread  "  is  mentioned  in  Jer.  xvi.  7,  Ezek.  xxiv.  17,  22.  and  Hos. 
ix.  4,  in  connection  with  mourning. 

^  The  MS.  omits  "  loving-kindness."  It  occurs  in  the  first  editions. 
Saul  had  rescued  the  men  of  Jabesh-Gilead  from  the  attack  of  the 
children  of  Ammon  (see  also  Josh.  ii.  12  for  the  term  "  dealing  kindly  "). 
The  context  refers  to  2  Sam.  ii.  5.  Loving-kindness  is  that  extra 
service  of  love  which  is  more  than  one  is  in  duty  bound  to  do  to  one's 
fellow.  The  latter  sums  up  one's  obligation  to  any  and  every  human 
being,  namely,  to  deal  justly  and  truly  with  all  men,  and  not  to  hurt 
anyone.  Loving  service  goes  beyond  this.  See  Jewish  Sources  of 
the  Sermon  on  the  Mount,  pp.  97,  104  f. 

«  The  first  editions  and  Jalknt  Makhiri,  Pss.,  p.  r54b.  add:  "by 
fasting,  weeping,  and  lamentation, *  as  it  is  said  :  '  And  they  fasted  * 
seven  days  '  (i  Sam.  xxxi.  13).  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  said  to 
them  :   In  the  future." 

'  In  the  land  of  Gilead  ;  see  Siphre,  Deut.  §  355. 

1  The  mourning  consisted  of  the  three  phases  enumerated.  See 
2  Sam.  i.  II,  12  and  Esth.  iv.  1-3. 

*  Fasting  was  not  the  usual  custom.  The  rule  to  fast  is  limited  now 
to  the  anniversary  of  the  day  of  death  of  one's  father  or  mother, 


118  RABBI  ELIEZER 

Manasseh  is  mine  "  (Ps.  Ix.  7).  Afterwards  (will  He 
gather  in)  Ephraim,^  as  it  is  said,  "  Ephraim  is  the  defence 
of  mine  head  "  {ibid.).  Afterwards  Judah  (will  be  gathered 
in),  as  it  is  said,  "  Judah  is  my  sceptre  "  {ibid.). 

"  Gilead  is  mine,"  refers  to  Ahab,  king  of  Israel,  who 
died  in  Ramoth-Gilead  ;  -  "  and  Manasseh  is  mine,"  is  to 
be  taken  literally  ;  "  Ephraim  is  the  defence  of  mine  head," 
refers  to  Jeroboam  ;  ^  "  Judah  ||  is  my  sceptre,"  points  to 
Ahithophel ;  '  "  Moab  is  my  washpot "  {ibid.  8),  means 
Gehazi ;  ■'  "upon  Edom  will  I  cast  my  shoe"  {ibid.), 
refers  to  Doeg  ;  ^  "  Philistia,  shout  thou  because  of  me  " 
{ibid.).  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  said  :  '  It  is  for  Me 
to  search  for  merit  on  their  behalf,**  and  to  make  them 
friendly  towards  one  another.^ 

Rabbi  Phineas  said :  Thirty  years  ^'^  after  Saul  and  his 
sons  had  been  killed,  a  famine  lasting  three  years  arose  in  the 
days  of  David,  year  after  year,^^  as  it  is  said,  "  And  there 
was  a  famine  in  the  days  of  David  three  years,  year  after 
year  "  (2  Sam.  xxi.  1).  Why  was  it  year  after  year  ?  In  the 
first  year  all  Israel  went  up  to  (celebrate  the  great)  festivals. 
David  said  to  them  :  Go  and  look  if  perchance  there  be 
among  you  some  who  worship  idols,  for  because  of  the  sin  of 
idolatry  rain  is  withheld,  as  it  is  said,  "  Take  heed  to  your- 
selves, lest  your  heart  be  deceived, ^^  and  ye  turn  aside,  and 

'  See  infra,  p.  141.  The  children  of  Joseph  will  be  the  first  to  be 
redeemed  in  the  future,  says  the  Abkath  Rochel,  ii.  We  are  now  in  the 
field  of  Messianic  Eschatology. 

^  See  I  Kings  xxii.  29  fi. 

*  He  was  an  Ephraimite  ;  see  i  Kings  xi.  26.  The  first  editions 
add  :    "  the  son  of  Nebat." 

'  He  was  of  the  tribe  of  Judah  ;  see  2  Sam.  xvii.  15  for  the  story 
of  Ahithophel. 

•'  Gehazi  inherited  the  leprosy  of  Naaman  ;  the  "  washpot  "  receives 
the  dirt  of  the  one  who  washes  therein.  On  Gehazi  see  J.E.  v.  580 
and  582,  and  see  Num.  Rab.  xiv.  i. 

«"The  first  editions  add  :  "  the  Edomite." 

'  The  first  editions  add  :  "  to  them." 

*  The  reading  of  the  Amsterdam  edition  is  :  "  It  is  for  Me  to  search 
for  their  merit." 

*  See  T.J.  Synhedrin  x.  2,  29b  and  Num.  Rab.,  loc.  cit. 

'°  Jalkut  to  2  Sam.  xxi.  ^  154  reads  like  our  MS.,  "After  thirty 
years";  see  Rashi  on  T.B.  jebamoth,  79a.  The  first  editions  read: 
"  In  the  year  after  Saul  and  his  sons  had  been  killed." 

^^  See  T.J.  Kiddushin,  iv.  i,  '15b,  c.  which  is  the  source  of  our  text; 
see  also  T.J.  Taanith,  iii.  3,  o^c,  and  Num.  Rab.  viii.  1,  and  Midrash 
Samuel  xxviii.  3  ;  cf.  T.B.  jebamoth,  ySb. 

'*  The  MS.  and  the  first  editions  end  the  quotation  here. 


LOVING  SERVICE  TO  MOURNERS     119 

serve  other  gods,  and  worship  them  "  (Dent.  xi.  16).  What 
is  written  after  this  ?  "  And  the  anger  of  the  Lord  will  be 
kindled  against  you,  and  he  will  shut  up  the  heaven,  that 
there  be  no  rain  "  {ibid.  17).^  They  went  forth  and  in- 
vestigated, but  did  not  find  (any  idolatry). 

In  the  second  year  ^  all  Israel  went  up  (to  celebrate)  the 
festivals.  David  said  to  them :  Go  forth  and  see  if  there  be 
among  you  people  who  lead  immoral  lives,  because  OAving  to 
the  sin  of  immorality  the  heavens  ^  are  closed,  as  it  is  said, 
"  And  thou  hast  polluted  the  land  \vith  thy  whoredoms  "  * 
(Jer.  iii.  2).  What  is  written  after  this  in  this  context  ? 
"  Therefore  the  showers  have  been  withholden,  and  there 
hath  been  no  latter  rain  "  {ibid.  3).  They  investigated,  but 
they  did  not  find  (any  immoral  people). 

In  the  third  |!  year  all  Israel  went  up  (to  celebrate)  the 
festivals.  David  said  to  them :  Go  forth  and  see  if  there 
be  among  you  people  who  shed  blood,  because  on  account  of 
the  sin  of  those  who  murder  ^  the  rain  is  withheld,  as  it  is 
said,  "So  ye  shall  not  pollute  the  land  ^  wherein  ye  are  ; 
for  blood,  it  polluteth  the  land  "  (Num.  xxxv.  33).  They 
went  forth  and  investigated,  but  thej'^  did  not  find  (any 
murderer).  David  said  to  them :  Henceforth  the  matter 
only  depends  upon  me. 

David  arose  and  prayed  before  the  Holy  One,  blessed 
be  He.  And  He  answered  him :  It  is  for  Saul ; '  was  not 
Saul  one  who  was  anointed  with  the  oil  of  consecration  ? 
and  was  it  not  Saul  in  whose  days  there  was  no  idolatry  in 
Israel  ?  and  was  it  not  Saul  who  secured  his  portion  ^  with 

^  The  first  editions  omit  from  "  What  is  written  "  to  the  end  of  the 
quotation. 

2  Of  the  famine. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  the  rain  is  withheld." 

*  The  first  editions  continue  :  "  and  with  thy  wickedness." 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  the  shedding  of  blood."  Other  reasons 
for  the  famine  are  suggested  in  T.B.  Jebamoth,  loc.  cit.  ;  Jalkut,  Num. 
§  771  ;  Midrash  Samuel,  in  loc.  ;  and  cf.  T.J.  Kiddushin,  loc.  cit. 

*  The  MS.  and  the  first  editions  end  the  quotation  here ;  the  MS. 
adds  "  etc."     Cf.  Isa.  xxiv.  5. 

'  See  Num.  Rab.,  loc.  cit.,  and  Jalkut,  2  Samuel  (§  154).  The  first 
editions  read  :  "  David  said,  Sovereign  of  the  World  !  I  am  not  Saul, 
for  in  my  days  idolatry  has  not  been  done  in  Israel,  and  I  am  not 
Saul  who  was  anointed  with  the  oil  of  consecration,  and  I  am  not 
Saul  who  quarrelled  with  Samuel  the  prophet."  This  agrees  with  MS. 
Gaster. 

*  See  infra,  p.  246,  and  cf.  T.B.  Berakhoth,  12b,  and  Kaphtor  Va- 
Pherach  vii.  (ed.  Edelmann),  p.  21a. 


120  RABBI  ELIEZER 

Samuel  the  prophet  ?     Yet  ye  are  in  tlie  land  (of  Israel) 
and  he  is  (buried)  outside  the  land  (of  Israel). 

David   forthwith   arose   and   gathered   together   all   the 
elders  of  Israel  and  the  nobles,  and  they  crossed  the  Jordan. 
They  came  to  Jabesh-Gilead  and  they  found  the  bones  of 
Saul  and  Jonathan  his  son.     No  worm  ^  had  been  able  to 
touch  -    them,  as  it  is  said,  "  He  keepeth  all    his   bones, ^ 
not  one  of  them  is  broken  "  (Ps.  xxxiv.  20).     They  took 
the  bones  of  Saul  and  Jonathan  his  son,  and  placed  them  in  a 
coffin,  and  they  crossed  the  Jordan,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  they 
buried  the  bones  of  Saul  and  Jonathan  his  son  .  .  .  and 
they  performed  '  all  that  the  king  commanded  "  (2  Sam.  xxi. 
14).     Th(>  king  commanded  that  they  should  bring  the  coffin 
of  Saul  in  all  the  borders  of  each  tribe.     And  it  came  to  pass 
that  the  tribe  |1  wherein  they  brought  the  coffin  of  Saul,  the 
people  (there)  with  their  wives  and  their  sons  and  their 
daughters   came    forth    and    displayed    loving-kindness    to 
Saul  and  to  his  sons,   so  that  all  Israel   should   discharge 
their    obligation    of   showing    loving-kindness.      And    thus 
(did   they  do)  until  it  came   to  the  border  of  his  posses- 
sion to  the  border  of  Jerusalem,^  in  the  land  of  Benjamin  '^ 
in  Jerusalem,   as  it  is   said,   "  And  they  buried  the  bones 
of  Saul    and  Jonathan   his   son    in   the    country    of   Ben- 
jamin "  (ibid.),'^  in  the  vicinity  of  Jerusalem.      When  the 
Holy   One,    blessed    be    He,    saw   that   all    Israel   had   dis- 
played   loving-kindness   (to  him  ^),    He  was   forthwith  full 
of  compassion,  and  He  sent  rain  upon  the   land,   as   it    is 
said,  "  And  after  that   God    was  intreated   for  the  land  " 
(ibid.). 

*  Worms  destroy  bones  as  well  as  flesh.  Luria  prefers  to  read  napn, 
"  decay,"  and  not  "  worm." 

*  Lit.  "  to  rule  over  them." 

*  In  spite  of  the  prolonged  transportation,  the  bones  were  not 
broken. 

*  The  printed  text  and  MS.  Gaster  add,  "  to  them  "  ;  this  is  not  in 
the  Bible  text. 

*  Luria  reads:  "  the  border  of  his  inheritance,  to  the  land  of  Ben- 
jamin"; see  Num.  Rab.,  loc.  cit.  The  first  editions  read:  "until  it 
came  to  the  border  of  Israel  and  to  the  land  of  Benjamin,  as  it  is 
said,  '  And  they  buried  him  in  the  border  of  his  inheritance  '  " 
(Josh.  xxiv.  30). 

*  The  text  in  the  printed  editions  differs  here  from  our  reading. 
'The   quotation  continues:    "In  Zela,   in  the   sepulchre   of   Kish 

his  father  "  (2  Sam,  xxi.  14). 
«  Saul. 


LOVING  SERVICE  TO  MOURNERS     121 

Rabbi   Nathaniel    said:     Three   hundred   years ^    before 
the  birth  of  Josiah,  was  his  name  mentioned,^  as  it  is  said, 
"  Behold,  a  child  shall  be  born  unto  the  house  of  David, 
Josiah  by  name  "  (1  Kings  xiii.  2) ;    "  And  he  was  eight 
years  old  when  he  began  to  reign"  (2  Kings  xxii.  1).     What 
is  the  disposition  of  a  lad  of  eight  years  of  age  ?  ^      He 
despised  *  the  idols  and  broke  in   pieces  the  pillars,  and 
smashed  the    images  ^  and    cut   down   the  groves.^      His 
merit  was  great '  before  the  ^    Throne  of  Glory.     Because 
of  the  evil  which  Israel  did  in  secret  ^  the  righteous  one  i° 
was  gathered  (to  his  fathers),  as  it  is  said,  "  For  the  righteous 
is  taken  away  because  of  the  evil  "  (Isa.  Ivii.  1).^^  ||  All  ^- 
Judah  gathered  together  also  with  Jeremiah  the  prophet 
to  show  loving-kindness  to  Josiah,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Jere- 
miah lamented  for  Josiah,  ^^  and   all   the  singing  men  and 
the  singing  zvomen  spake  of  Josiah  "  (2  Chron.  xxxv.  25). 
Rabbi  Meir  said:  "The  singing  men"  refer  to  the  Levites, 
who  stood  upon  the  platform^"*  singing;  " and  the  singing 
women"  refer  to  their  wives.     Rabbi  Simeon  said:  These 
terms  do  not  refer  merely  to  the  Levites  and  their  wives  ; 
but  to  the  skilled  women,  as  it  is  said,  "  Thus  saith  the  Lord 

^  Between  the  accession  of  Jeroboam  and  Josiah  there  elapsed 
320  years.  Josiah  was  eight  years  old  when  he  ascended  the  throne, 
so  that  312  years  elapsed  from  the  accession  of  Jeroboam  to  the 
birth  of    Josiah.      In  round  numbers  this  is  300    years,    see  infra, 

P-  2  33- 

2  See  infra,  p.  233. 

3  This  refers  to  2  Chron.  xxxiv.  3  ;  see  Targum  on  this  text  and 
also  Pseudo-Rashi  thereto. 

*  This  is  based  on  Isa.  vii.  16. 
^  See  2  Chron.  xxxiv.  4,  7. 

^  See  2  Kings  xxiii.  14. 

'  Lit.  shining  or  illustrious.  See  T.B.  Mo'ed  Katan,  25b,  where 
Amos  viii.  8  is  applied  to  Josiah. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  before  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He, 
and  the  Throne  of  Glory." 

'  Idolatry  was  again  rife  in  the  homes  of  the  Hebrew  people  ;  see 
Lam.  Rab.  i.  (53)  and  T.B.  Ta'anith,  22b. 
1"  Josiah. 

11  This  quotation  is  missing  in  the  printed  editions.  The  R.V. 
renders  somewhat  differently. 

12  The  first  editions  read  :  "  All  the  men  of  Judah  and  Jeru- 
salem." 

^^  The  MS.  and  the  first  editions  end  the  quotation  here,  the  printed 
texts  add  "  etc."  The  context  justifies  the  insertion  of  the  entire 
verse. 

1*  The  first  editions  read :  "  their  platform."  On  the  meaning  of 
"  Dukhan  "  see  Levy,  N.H.W.B.  i.  382a. 


122  RABBI  ELIEZER 

of  hosts,^  Consider  yc,  and  call  for  the  mourninfi:  women, ^ 
that  they  may  come;  and  send  for  tlu-  cunning  women, 
that  they  may  come  :  and  let  them  make  haste,  and  take 
up  a  wailing  for  us"  (Jer.  ix.  17,  18).  Hence  the  wise  men 
instituted  (the  rule)  that  this  should  be  done^  to  all  the 
wise  men  of  Israel  and  to  their  great  "*  men,  as  it  is  said, 
"  And  they  made  them  an  ordinance  in  Israel "  (2  Chron. 
XXXV \  25). 

Solomon  saw   that   the   observance  ■'  of  loving-kindness 
was  great  before  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He.     When  he 
built  the  Temple  he  erected  two  gates,  one  for  the  bride- 
grooms, and  the  other  for  the  mourners  and  the  excom- 
municated.    On    Sabbaths    the    Israelites    went    and    sat 
between  those  two  gates ;  and  they  knew  that  anyone  who 
entered  through  the  gate  of  the  bridegrooms  •>  was  a  bride- 
groom, and  they  said  to  him,  May  He  who  dwells  in  this 
house  cause  thee  to  rejoice  v\ith  sons  and  daughters.     If 
one  entered  through  the  gate  of  the  mourners  with  his  upper 
lip  covered,  then  they  knew  that  he  was  a  mourner,  and 
they  would  say  to  him.  May  He  who  dwells  |]  in  this  house 
comfort  thee.    If  one  entered  through  the  gate  of  the  mourners 
without "  having  his  upper  lip  covered,  then  they  knew  that 
he  was  excommunicated,  and  they  would  say  to  him,  May 
He   who   dwells    in    this   house «    put    into    thy   heart  (the 
desire)  to  listen  to^  the   words  of  thy  associates,  and  may 
He  put  into  the  hearts  of  thy  associates  that  they  may  draw 
thee  near  (to  themselves),  so  that  all  Israel  may  discharge 
their  duty  by  rendering  the  service  of  loving-kindness. 

1  The  MS.  reads  "  the  Lord."  The  first  editions  read  according 
to  the  Massoretic  text. 

2  The  MS.  ends  verse  17  here  and  continues  verse  18.  The  first 
editions  end  the  quotation  at  the  words,  "  that  they  may  come." 

3  The  first  editions  read  :  "  Thus  all  Lsrael  took  upon  themselves 
to  show  loving-kindness." 

*  This  agrees  with  Luria's  emendation. 

^  The  first  editions  read  :  "  the  attribute." 

*  See  Sopherim  xix.  12  (ed.  Miiller,  pp.  278  f.)  for  historical  material. 
On  the  "gates"  see  Middoth  ii.  2,  and  Tamid,  27a,  and  Kaphtor 
Va-Pherach  vi.  p.  i6b.  Dr.  Biichler  has  written  on  the  subject  of  the 
gates  of  the  Temple;  see  J.Q.Ii.  x.  678  and  xi.  pp.  46  ff. 

^  The  1st  ed.  omits  the  negative. 

*  The  first  editions  read:  "comfort  thee."  Nachmanides,  in  his 
Torath  Ha- A  dam  (ed.  Venice),  p.  7,  omits  these  words. 

»  The  first  editions  omit  "  the  words  of."  Nachmanides,  op.  cit., 
agrees  with  our  MS. 


LOVING  SERVICE  TO  MOURNERS     123 

When  the  Temple  was  destroyed,  the  sages  ^  instituted 
(the  rule)  that  the  bridegrooms  and  mourners  should  go 
to  the  synagogues  and  to  the  houses  of  study.  The  men 
of  the  place  see  the  bridegroom  and  rejoice  with  him  ;  and 
they  see  the  mourner  and  sit  with  him  upon  the  earth,  so 
that  2  all  the  Israelites  may  discharge  their  duty  in  the 
service  of  loving-kindness.  With  reference  to  them  he^ 
says :  Blessed  art  Thoii/  who  giveth  a  good  reward  to  those 
who  show  loving-kindness.^ 

1  Nachmanides  [ibid.)  reads:  "the  sages";  see  Semachoth  vi. 
and  Middoth  (ii.  12).  Sopherim,  loc.  cit..  quotes  this  rule  in  the  name  of 
R.  Ehezer  ben  HjTkanos,  clearly  showing  that  the  compiler  of  Sopherim 
used  our  book  and  regarded  it  as  the  work  of  R.  Eliezer  b.  Hyrkanos. 
The  rule  is  a  Palestinian  custom  ;  see  Briill,  Jahrbucher,  i.  p.  30. 

2  Nachmanides  [ihid.)  omits  "  and  they  sit,"  and  reads :  "  all  the 
Israelites." 

3  See  for  a  similar  expression,  supra,  p.  73.  It  might  be  that  "  he  " 
refers  to  the  one  who  receives  the  service  of  loving-kindness.  Perhaps 
it  merely  refers  to  any  Israelite  who  has  to  say  the  benediction.  Or, 
we  might  render  :   "it  savs." 

*  The  first  editions  add  :  "  O  Lord." 

6  See  T.B.  Ketliuboth,  8b.  The  form  of  the  benediction  has  its 
parallel  in  the  Daily  Morning  Service ;  see  Singer,  p.  7. 


CHAPTER    XVIIIi 

THE  CREATION  ON  THE  EVE  OF  THE  SABBATH  [21  A.  i.] 

Ten  things  were  created  (on  the  eve  of  the  Sabbath)  in 
the  t^vihght  (namely) :  -  the  mouth  of  the  earth  ;  ^  the 
mouth  of  the  well ;  ^  the  mouth  of  the  ass  ;  ^  the  rainbow  ;  ' 
the  Manna  ;  "  the  Shamir  ;  *  the  shape  of  the  alphabet  ;  ^ 
the  \^Titing  ^°  and  the  tables  (of  the  law) ;  ^^  and  the  ram  of 

^  In  the  printed  text  and  MS.  Gaster  this  is  ch.  xix. 
V    -  The  words  in  brackets  are  missing  in  the  MS.  but  they  occur  in  the 
first  editions  and  in  MS.  Gaster. 

■'  See  Num.  xvi.  32.  For  the  subject-matter  of  this  paragraph  see 
Aboth  V.  9,  with  the  excellent  obserx'ations  of  Tavlor  in  his  2nd  edition 
of  Aboth,  pp.  S3  ff.  Our  text  agrees  to  a  large  extent  with  this  Mishnah, 
but  differs  from  the  version  in  T.B.  Pesachim,  54a  ;  Siphr§,  Deut.  §  ^55, 
Pal.  Targum,  Num.  xxii.  28,  Mekhilta,  p.  51a,  and  supra,  p.  14.  Eight 
things  enumerated  in  our  context  were  said  (supra,  p.  14,  note  i)  to 
have  been  created  on  the  second  day.  This  statement  is  wanting  in  our 
MS. ;  it  was  inserted  for  the  first  time  in  the  second  edition  of  P.R.E. 
For  the  ten  things  see  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  pp.  24  f.  See 
also  Lekach  Tob,  Gen.  ii.  3.  p.  9a. 

*  In  T.B.  Pesachim  and  Siphre,  loc.  cit.,  the  "  well"  only  is  men- 
tioned. The  "  nwiith  of  the  well"  is  mentioned  in  our  text  and  in 
Aboth  V.  9  ;  this  may  refer  to  the  well  of  Hagar  or  Jacob,  or  the 
reference  might  be  to  Num.  xxi.  16.     See  infra,  pp.  268,  323. 

*  See  Num.  xxii.  28. 

*  See  Gen.  ix.  13  and  J.E.  x.  312. 

'  See  Ex.  xvi.  15,  and  Pal.  Targ.  to  Ex.  xvi.  4,  15 ;  and  cf.  J .E.  viii. 
293.  The  Oxford  MS.  and  MS.  Gaster  and  the  first  editions  add  :  "  the 
Rod."     See  infra,  pp.  312  f.,  and  cf.  Ex.  iv.  17. 

^  See  I  Kings  vi.  7  for  the  information  that  no  tool  was  used  in  the 
Temple.  How  then  were  the  stones  cut  ?  The  legend  says,  "By  the 
worm  called  Shamir";  see  T.B.  Gittin,  68a.  On  the  Shamir  see  J.E. 
xi.  229  f.  and  T.J.  Sotah  ix.  13,  24b,  and  T.B.  Sotah  .^csb.  For  the 
references  to  the  "  Ten  Marvels  "  created  on  the  eve  of  the  first  Friday, 
see  Siphre,  Deut.,  loc.  cit. 

*  See  supra,  p.  14,  note  6. 

"  Interesting  material  on  the  Hebrew  alphabet  is  contained  in  the 
Othijoth  de  R. 'Akiba. 

"  On  the  "  tables  of  the  Law  "  in  Rabbinical  literature  see  J.E.  xi. 
662  fi.  The  "tables"  are  not  mentioned  supra,  p.  14.  note  i;  see, 
however,  p.  15. 

"»4 


CREATION  ON  EVE  OF  SABBATH     125 

Abraham.^  (Some  sages  say :  the  destroying  spirits  ^ 
also,  and  the  sepulchre  of  Moses,^  and  the  ram  of  Isaac ; 
and  other  sages  say  :   the  tongs  also.*) 

At  the  seventh  hour  (of  the  day-"  on  Friday*'),  the  first 
man  entered  the  garden  of  Eden,  and  the  ministering  ||  angels 
were  praising  before  him,'  and  dancing  before  him,  and 
escorting  him  ^  into  the  garden  of  Eden  ;  and  at  twilight 
at  the  eve  of  Sabbath,^  he  was  driven  forth,  and  he  went 
out.  The  ministering  angels  were  crying  aloud  concern- 
ing him,  saying  to  him  :  "  Man  ^"  in  glory  tarrieth  not  over- 
night,*^  when  he  is  like  the  beasts  that  pass  away  "  ^-  (Ps. 
xlix.  12). 

"  Like  a  beast  that  passes  away  "  is  not  written  here, 
but  "like  the  beasts  that  pass  away,"  (so)  were  they  both.^^ 
The  Sabbath  day  arrived  and  became  an  advocate  ^*  for  the 
first  man,  and  it  spake  before  Him  :  Sovereign  of  all  worlds  ! 

^  See  infra,  pp.  2286.  The  Oxford  MS.  and  MS.  Gaster  omit  this. 
The  next  section  in  brackets  is  wanting  in  our  MS.  ;  it  occurs  in  the 
Oxford  MS.  (O.A.  167),  MS.  Gaster,  and  in  almost  the  same  reading 
in  the  first  editions. 

*  See  supra,  p.  i  4,  note  8  ;  and  see  Gen.  Rab.  vii.  4 ;  and  cf.  J.E. 
iv.  514  ff. 

3  See  Dent,  xxxiv.  6. 

*  See  Taylor,  Aboth,  p.  86,  note  22,  and  Hoffmann,  Mishnajoth, 
p.  352,  note  37. 

*  i.e.  I  o'clock  p.m. ;  see  Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  xcii.  3,  p.  202a.  This 
contradicts  the  statement  in  Chapter  XI. ;  see  supra,  p.  78. 

^  "  Of  the  day  on  Friday  "  is  missing  in  our  MS.,  but  it  occurs  in 
the  2nd  ed.,  and  in  the  MS.  Gaster.  This  was  the  day  of  his  creation. 
The  texi  is  lit.  "  eve  of  the  Sabbath." 

'  See  supra,  p.  89  ;  and  cf.  Slav.  Enoch  xxxi.,  where  Adam  per- 
ceives "  the  angels  singing  the  song  of  triumph."  Cf.  Koran,  ed. 
Rodwell,  igii,  p.  341. 

*  So  also  in  Jubilees  iii.  9. 

'  Friday  afternoon  between  sunset  and  night  ;  see  also  Slav.  Enoch 
xxxii.  2,  which  implies  that  the  expulsion  of  Adam  was  followed  by  the 
Sabbath.     See  supra,  p.  78. 

10  The  Hebrew  word  is  also  "  Adam." 

^1  For  he  did  not  tarry  overnight  in  his  glory  in  Paradise ;  see  T.B. 
Synhedrin  3Sb. 

^■^  i.e.  when  they  were  driven  forth  out  of  Paradise  ;  see  infra, 
p.  143.  This  Psalm  (xlix.)  is  applied  to  Adam  by  our  book  and  by 
many  Midrashim,  see  Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  xcii.  3,  p.  202b. 

1*  The  point  here  is  the  change  from  the  singular  to  the  plural :  "  they 
were  like  "  ;  see  Gen.  Rab.  xxi.  7.  They  {i.e.  Adam  and  Eve)  became 
like  the  beasts  when  they  were  expelled  from  Eden  ;  they  had  to  die 
like  the  beasts.  Perhaps  the  meaning  of  the  Midrash  would  be  better 
understood  by  translating  verse  12  of  Ps.  xlix.  thus:  "Adam  did 
not  tarry  overnight  in  glory,  he  was  to  be  likened  to  the  beasts ;  yea, 
they  (Adam  and  Eve)  were  to  be  (thus)  compared." 

^*  See  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  p.  74.     Cf.  infra,  pp.  143  f. 


126  RABBI  ELIEZER 

No  murderer  ^  has  been  slain  in  the  world  during  the  six 
days  of  creation,  and  wilt  Thou  commence  (to  do  this)  with 
me  ?  2  Is  this  its  sanctity,  and  is  this  its  blessing?  as  it 
is  said,  "  And  God  blessed  the  seventh  day,  and  hallowed 
it "  (Gen.  ii.  3).  By  the  merit  of  the  Sabbath  day  Adam 
was  saved  from  the  judgment  of  Gehinnom.^  When  Adam 
perceived  the  power  of  the  Sabbath,  he  said  :  Not  for  nought 
did  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  bless  and  hallow  ^  the 
Sabbath  day.  He  began  to  observe  (the  Sabbath)  ^  and  to 
utter  a  psalm  for  the  Sabbath  day,  and  he  said  :  "  A  psalm, 
a  song  for  the  Sabbath  day"  (Ps.  xcii.  1).®  Rabbi  Simeon^ 
said :  The  first  man  said  this  psalm,  and  it  was  forgotten 
throughout  all  the  generations  until  IMoses  ^  came  and 
renewed  it  ||  according  to  his  name,^  "  A  psalm,  a  song  for 
the  Sabbath  day  "  (ibid.),  for  the  day  which  is  entirely  Sabbath 
and  rest  in  the  life  of  eternity.^" 

"  It  is  good  to  confess  ^^  to  the  Lord"  {ibid.).  The  first 
man  said:  Let  all  the  generations  learn  from  me,'-  that 
whosoever  sings  and  utters  psalms  to  the  name  of  the  Most 
High,  and  confesses  his  transgressions  in  the  court  of  justice  ^^ 
and  abandons  (them),  will  be  delivered  from  the  judgment 

^Perhaps  the  text  should   read:  "No  man  has  been  slain."      In 
Shocher  Tob,  loc.  cit.,  the  reading  is  :  "  No  man  has  been  punished." 
-  On  the  Sabbath. 

*  See  T.B.  Sabbath,  ii8a.  No  mourning  is  permitted  on  the 
Sabbath,  for  the  dead  are  not  in  the  power  of  Gehenna  on  that 
day.     For  parallel  Christian  legends  see  Wisdom,  ed.  Deaue,  p.  i6j. 

*  By  showing  Divine  love  and  mercy  to  Adam,  the  sanctity  and  the 
blessing  of  the  Sabbath  were  realized  by  him. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :   "  to  sing." 

*  According  to  Shocher  Tob,  loc.  cit.,  Adam  wished  to  sing  hymns  to 
the  Sabbath  day  :  but  the  latter  declined  the  honour,  and  told  Adam  to 
join  in  singing  praises  to  God. 

'  The  first  editions  read  :   "  Ishmael." 

®  See  Gen.  P„;il:,.  yv.ii.  13,  and  Kimchi,  Preface  to  Commentary  on 
Psalms. 

*  The  first  editions  omit :  "  accorJi'^g  ^^  his  name."  See  T.B.  Baba 
Bathra,  14b,  for  the  Mosaic  Psalms. 

">  This  is  missing  in  Shocher  Tob,  ic?-  "^^  ^"^^  Jalkut,  Ps.  xcii.  S  S43. 
It  probably  owes  its  place  in  our  text  \-°  ^  marginal  gloss  by  some 
scribe  of  our  book,  being  based  on  the  Mish."^^  Tamid  (end).  See  Senior 
Sachs'  remarks  on  this  passage  in  Ha-Teckty^'  ^-  P-  ^°  (notes). 

"  R.V.  "  to  give  thanks." 

^■^  Sec  infra,  p.  147.  The  n^  xt  clause  J^ccurs  in  our  MS.  and  in  the 
Oxford  MS.  only.  ^ 

"The  MS.  uses  here  an  abbreviatioK  """  (Bbd).  It  does  not 
occur  in  any  of  the  printed  texts.  Thci^^f°'^'^  ^^-  leads :  "at  the 
judgment.' 


CREATION  ON  EVE  OF  SABBATH     127 

of  Gehinnom,^  as  it  is  said,  "  It  is  good  to  confess  to  the 
Lord  "  (ibid.). 

"  To  declare  thy  loving-kindness  in  the  morning  "  {ibid. 
2).  Adam  said :  (This  refers  to)  all  who  enter  this  world  ^ 
which  is  like  unto  the  night ;  ^  and  to  all  who  come  into  the 
world  to  come,  which  is  like  unto  the  morning.^  They 
shall  declare  the  faithfulness  and  love  of  the  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  which  He  has  shown  to  me,^  (for  He  has) 
delivered  me  from  the  judgment  of  Gehinnom,  as  it  is  said, 
"  To  declare  thy  loving-kindness  in  the  morning,  and  thy 
faithfulness  every  night  "  (ibid.). 

"  Upon  a  ten-stringed  instrument  and  upon  the  psaltery  " 
(ibid.  3).  All  testimonies  reliable  to  Israel  are  (celebrated) 
with  ten  (males).  The  harp  upon  which  David  played  had 
ten  strings.^  The  testimony  for  the  dead  is  through  ten 
(males).'  The  testimony  for  the  (public)  benediction  of 
(God's)  Name  is  through  ten  (males).^  The  testimony  of 
the  covenant  of  circumcision  is  through  ten  (males).^  The 
testimony  for  Chalizah  ^°  is  through  ten '  (males),^^  as   it 

^  Cf.  Prov.  xxviii.  13.     See  also  Wisdom,  x.  i,  2. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  the  world  to  come  which  is  like  unto 
the  morning.  '  And  thy  faithfulness  every  nighf-  '  (Ps.  xcii.  2)  (refers) 
to  all  who  come  into  this  world,  which  is  like  unto  the  night." 

^  In  Aboth  de  R.  Nathan  («)  i.  p.  4a  this  is  derived  from  Isa.  xxi.  11  : 
"  Watchman,  what  of  the  night  ?  " 

*  Cf.  the  term  "  Dayspring  "  applied  to  the  Christian  Messiah;  see 
Hellenism  and  Christianity,  p.  119.  Aboth  de  R.  Nathan,  loc.  cit., 
derives  the  lesson  of  our  Haggadah  from  Lam.  iii.  23. 

*  In  this  world  by  prolonging  my  life. 

*  Luria  thinks  the  reading  should  be  "  Nimin  "  and  not  "  Nebalim  "  ; 
see  Targum,  in  loc,  and  cf.  infra,  p.  229. 

'  To  enable  the  b^Jiediction  for  the  mourners  to  be  recited,  ten  adult 
males  are  required  to  form  a  quorum,  see  T.B.  Kethuboth,  8b,  p.nd 
Sophcrimx.  8,  xix.  12.  See  T.B.  Megillah,  23b;  Nachmanides,  Torath 
Ha-Adam,  pp.  40  ff.,  and  Shochcr  Tob,  loc.  cit.,  p.  203b,  note  61,  and 
Joreh  Di'ah,  361.  On  the  Minyan  (or  ten  adult  males)  see  J.E.  viii.  603, 
and  Elbogcn,  Der  JiXdische  Gottesdienst  in  seiner  geschichtlichen 
Enfwicklung,  p.  493. 

^  This  refers  to  the  "  Bar  khu  "  ;  see  Singer,  pp.  37,  96. 

^  See  Tur,  Joreh  Di'ah,  265,  quoting  Zemach  Gaon,  who  holds  that  if 
the  rite  can  be  performed  in  the  presence  of  ten  males  it  should  be  done, 
but  it  may  be  done  even  if  ten  be  not  present.  See  also  Shocher  Tob, 
Ps.  xcii.  7,  p.  203b.  note  62  ;  and  Jalkut  to  Ps.  xcii.  §  843.  Our  "text 
is  referred  to  by  Maharil  in  his  Laws  on  the  rite  of  Circumcision ;  see 
also  Piske  Rikanati,  593. 

1°  The  ceremony  of  untying  and  taking  off  the  shoe  of  a  brother-in- 
law  by  the  childless  sister-in-law  who  has  become  a  widow,  see  Deut. 
XXV.  5-11,  and  cf.  T.B.  Jebamoth,  loia,  and  Eben  Ha-'Ezer,  §  109,  13, 
and  Shocher  Tob,  loc.  cit.,  p.  204a,  note  64. 

^^  The  first  editions  add  here  :    "  The  testimony  for  the  benediction 


128  RABBI  ELIEZER 

is  said,  "  And  he  ^  took  ten  men  of  the  elders  of  the  city  " 
(Ruth  iv.  2).2 

The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  said :  I  desire  of  Israel 
the  meditation  of  their  mouths  like  ^  the  psaltery  and  an 
instrument  of  ten  strings,^  as  it  is  said,  "  With  ^  the  medita- 
tion of  II  the  harp  "  (Ps.  xeii.  3). 

"  For  thou,  O  Lord,  hast  made  me  glad  through  thy 
work"  {ibid.  4).  Adam  said  :  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He, 
had  made  me  glad  and  brought  me  into  the  garden  of  Eden, 
and  showed  me  the  place  of  the  abode  of  the  righteous  in  the 
garden  of  Eden,^  and  He  showed  me  the  four  kingdoms,^ 
their  rule  and  their  destruction ;  ^  and  He  showed  me  David,^ 
the  son  of  Jesse,  and  his  dominion  in  the  future  that  is  to 
come.^"  I  took  from  my  years  seventy  years  ^^  and  added 
them  to  his  days,^^  as  it  is  said,  "  Thou  wilt  add  days  to  the 

of  marriage  is  through  ten  (males)."  See  T.B.  Kethuboth,  8b,  for  the 
custom. 

1  The  MS.  and  the  first  editions  read  "  Boaz,"  which  is  not  in  accord- 
ance with  the  Hebrew  text. 

^  See  Shocher  Tob,  loc.  cit.,  for  the  entire  passage  ;  and  cf.  T.B. 
Kethuboth,  7a. 

■''  The  printed  text  reads  "  with,"  Luria  suggests  "  like "  ;  see 
Jalkut,  Ps.,  loc.  cit.,  and  Shocher  Tob,  in  loc,  p.  204a. 

*  The  first  editions  read :   "  psaltery  and  harp." 

*  "  With  "  {'"7]})  is  probably  to  be  explained  according  to  the  Midrash 
as  though  it  meant  "  it  is  for  Me  "  ;  i.e.  My  lot  is  to  hear  their  psalms. 

'  Slav.  Enoch  viii.  i  fi.-ix.  i  describes  the  heavenly  garden  of 
Eden  :  "  This  place  is  prepared  for  the  righteous."     See  Introduction. 

'  Luria  adds  in  his  text :  "  namely,  Babylon,  Media,  Macedonia,  and 
Syria."     The  last  name  should  probably  be  Edom  {i.e.  Rome). 

*  The  first  editions  read :  "  ruUng  and  destroying."  The  Shocher 
Tob  {in  loc),  p.  204b,  agreeing  with  our  MS.,  reads  :  "  And  He  led  me 
into  the  garden  of  Eden  and  showed  me  the  place  of  the  abode  of  the 
righteous,  and  He  showed  me  the  four  kingdoms."  The  printed  editions 
omit  the  passage  referring  to  the  abode  of  the  righteous. 

•  i.e.  the  Messiah. 

1°  The  Messianic  kingdom.  This  is  to  be  followed  by  the  "  Future 
World."'  The  two  periods,  in  contradistinction  to  the  present  age,  are 
often  spoken  of  as  "  the  future  that  is  to  come." 

"  This  Haggadic  fancy,  which  occurs  in  Jubilees  iv.  30,  was,  known  to 
Justin  Martyr,  Dial.  c.  Tryph.  Ixx.xi. :  "  For  according  to  the  days  of  the 
tree  of  life  .  .  .  we  believe  a  thousand  years  to  be  figuratively  ex- 
pressed. For  as  it  was  said  to  Adam,  '  In  the  day  that  he  should  eat 
of  the  tree,  he  should  surely  die  '  (Gen.  ii.  17),  so  we  know  he  did  not 
hve  a  thousand  years.  We  believe  also  this  expression,  '  The  day  of 
the  Lord  is  a  thousand  years '  (Ps.  xc.  4 ;  2  Pet.  iii.  8)  relates  to  this." 
See  also  Epistle  of  Barnabas  xv.  The  origin  of  the  legend  is  to  be 
traced  to  the  verse  quoted  (Ps.  Ixi.  6)  and  the  psalmist's  interpretation 
of  man's  life  which  is  said  to  consist  of  seventy  years;  see  Ps.  xc.  10  ; 
see  also  Gen.  Rab.  xix.  8,  and  Num.  Rab.  xiv.  12. 

'-  i.e.  David's  life,  which  lasted  seventy  years. 


CREATION  ON  EVE  OF  SABBATH  129 

days  of  the  king ;  ^  his  years  shall  be  as  many  generations  " 
{ibid.  Ixi.  6).  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  said  to  him : 
Thou  wilt  add  days  to  the  days  of  (the  king  Messiah) ;  I  also 
will  add  to  his  years  in  the  future  which  is  to  come,  as  though 
they  were  many  generations,  as  it  is  said,  "  His  years  shall 
be  as  many  generations  "  (ibid.).^  I  have  given  to  God 
praise,  and  song  (lauding)  His  works,  as  it  is  said,  "  I  will 
sing  of  the  works  of  thy  hands  "  (ibid.  xcii.  4). 

"  How  great  are  thy  works,  O  Lord  !  "  {ibid.  5).  Adam 
began  to  glorify  and  to  praise  the  Name  of  the  Most  High, 
as  it  is  said,  "  How  great  are  thy  works,  O  Lord  !  "  {ibid.) 
but  Thy  thoughts  are  very  deep,^  like  the  great  deep  ■* 
exceedingly  (deep),  as  it  is  said,  "  Thy  thoughts  are  very 
deep"  {ibid.).  "A  brutish  man  knoweth  not"  {ibid.  6). 
Every  man  of  Israel  ^  who  is  brutish  (in  knowledge)  and  has 
not  learnt  understanding,  let  the  wise  men  of  Israel  teach 
him  the  ways  of  the  Torah,^  as  it  is  said,  "  Consider,  ye 
brutish  among  the  people  "  {ibid.  xciv.  8).'  But  a  man  who 
is  an  expert  among  the  nations  of  the  world  ^  is  still  foolish. 
Why  ?  For  he  knoweth  not  the  words  of  the  Torah,  as  it  is 
said,  "  Neither  doth  a  fool  ||  understand  this"^  {ibid.  xcii.  6). 

"  When  the  wicked  spring  up  as  the  grass  "  {ibid.  7). 
True  1"  (it  is)  that  Thou,  O  Lord,  beholdest  the  wicked,  that 
they  are  as  numerous  ^^  as  the  grass  to  cover  the  face  of  all 
the  earth,^^  and  all  the  worshippers  of  idols  flourish,^^  (Xhou 

1  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here  ;  the  first  editions  continue  the 
verse. 

2  This  entire  sentence  is  missing  in  the  printed  texts. 

^  The  first  editions  read  :  "  to  the  depth  of  Thy  thoughts  (is  similar 
to)  the  deep  (which  is)  exceedingly  deep." 

*  The  deep  (Tehom)  was  held  to  be  unsearchable.  See  Jobxxxviii. 
i6:  "Hast  thou  walked  in  the  recesses  of  the  deep?"  Cf.  T.B. 
Pesachim,  54b. 

^  The  first  editions  read  here  :  "  A  man  who  is  brutish  among 
Israel." 

*  The  first  editions  read :  "  teach  him  understanding." 

*  This  is  Israel ;  see  Jalkut,  Ps.  §  S43. 

*  The  first  edition  reads  :  "  Expert  in  faith."  The  Venice  edition  has 
the  same  reading  as  our  MS.  Paul  held  the  wisdom  of  the  world  to  be 
foolishness  be  for'  God  ;  see  i  Cor.  iii.  19. 

*  "This"  {?6tk)  is  interpreted  to  mean  the  Torah;  seeT.B.'Abodah 
Zarah,  2b. 

'"  The  first  editions  read  :   "  At  the  time  when  Thou  seest." 

11  The  ist  ed.  reads  :   "  who  are  seen." 
^^  Cf.  Isa.  xxvii.  6. 

12  The   ist  ed.   omits  from  this  word  till  "  And  he  did  not  say 
Hallelujah." 


130  RABBI  ELIEZER 

knowest)  that  they  and  their  works  are  an  evil  iniquity  ^ 
for  the  days  of  the  Messiah.^  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He, 
has  only  multiplied  them  in  order  to  destroy  them  from  this 
world  3  and  from  the  world  to  come,  as  it  is  said,  "  To  have 
them  destroyed  for  ever  and  ever.  And  thou,  O  Lord,  art  on 
high  for  evermore  "  {ibid.  7,  8).  David  saw  that  the  wicked 
increased  like  grass,  (so  as)  to  cover  the  face  of  all  the  earth, 
and  that  all  the  worshippers  of  idols  flourished,  and  that 
they  and  their  works  were  iniquity,  and  he  did  not  say  "  Hal- 
lelujah "  ("praise  ye  the  Lord")  until  he  perceived  that 
in  the  future  they  would  be  destroyed  froni  *  this  world 
and  from  the  world  to  come  ;  and  he  said  "  Hallelujah,"  as  it 
is  said,  "  Sinners  shall  be  consumed  out  of  the  earth,^  and 
the  wicked  shall  be  no  more.  Bless  the  Lord,  O  my  soul. 
Praise  ye  the  Lord  "  {ibid.  civ.  35).^  (Then  will  He  be) 
King  exalted '  in  the  heights  and  in  the  depths,  as  it  is 
said,  "  And  thou,  O  Lord,  art  on  high  for  evermore  "  {ibid. 
xcii.  8). 

"  For,  lo,  thine  enemies,  O  Lord "  {ibid.  9) ;  Israel 
said :  Sovereign  of  all  worlds  !  Thou  hast  placed  all  our 
enemies  over  us  ^  (to  afflict  us  with)  a  heavy  yoke  on  our 
backs,  but  we  know  that  they  are  doomed  to  destruc- 
tion, as  it  is  said,  "  O  Lord,  for,  lo,  thine  enemies  shall 
perish  "  ^  {ibid.).  And  all  ||  idolaters,  for  they  and  their 
works  are  iniquity,  shallj  be  scattered  like  chaff  ^^  before 
the  wind.^^ 

1  The  reading  of  Shocher  Tob  {in  loc.)  is  :  "  an  iniquity  hidden." 

2  The  Venice  edition  adds  :  "  And  the  wicked,  who  are  as  numerous 
as  grass." 

3  In  the  days  of  the  Messiah.  According  to  the  Christian  doctrine 
of  election,  very  many  of  the  sons  of  men  will  be  doomed  to  enter 
Hell  and  to  remain  there  for  all  eternity.  See  Matt.  vii.  13,  xxiii.  33. 
and  Mark  ix.  48. 

■•  The  printed  texts  omit  from  "  from  this  world  "  to  "  Hallelujah." 

*  The  printed  texts  omit  the  rest  of  the  verse. 

«  See  T.B.  Bcrakhoth,  loa.  Note  the  interpretation  given  by  Beruria, 
the  wife  of  Rabbi  Meir :  "  Let  sins  be  consumed  out  of  the  earth,  and 
then  there  will  be  no  more  wicked  people."  The  first  edition  omits  the 
next  sentence  in  our  text.  The  Venice  edition  reads  :  "  Then  the  Holy 
One,  blessed  be  He,  (will  be)  King,  exalted." 

'  MS.  reads  "  Marom,"  exalted  ;  the  Venice  edition  reads  "  Masor," 
which  is  an  error.     See  Jalkut  on  Ps.  xcii.  8,  §  843. 

*  In  Egypt  and  Babylon. 

*  See  infra,  p.  383. 
10  Cf.  Dan.  ii.  35- 

"  The  first  editions  add  :  "  As  it  is  said, '  All  the  workers  of  iniquity 
shall  be  scattered  '  "  (Ps.  xcii.  9). 


CREATION  ON  EVE  OF  SABBATH  131 

"  But  my  horn  hast  thou  exalted  like  that  of  the  reem  "  ^ 
{ibid.  10).  Just  as  the  horns  of  the  reem  ^  are  taller  than 
those  of  all  beasts  and  animals,^  and  it  gores  to  its  right 
and  to  its  left,  likewise  (is  it  with)  Menachem,  son  of  'Ammiel, 
son  of  Joseph/  his  horns  are  taller  than  those  of  all  kings,^ 
and  he  will  gore  in  the  future  towards  the  four  corners  of 
the  heavens,  and  concerning  him  Moses  said  this  verse, 
"  His  firstling  bullock,  majesty  is  his,  and  his  horns  are  the 
horns  of  the  reem  :  with  them  he  shall  gore  ®  the  peoples 
all  of  them,  even  the  ends  of  the  earth  "  (Deut.  xxxiii.  17). 
All '  the  kings  will  rise  up  against  him  to  slay  him,  as  it 
is  said,  "  The  kings  of  the  earth  set  themselves,  and  the 
rulers  (take  counsel  together)  "  (Ps.  ii.  2).  And  Israel 
who  (will  be)  in  the  Land  (of  Palestine)  (will  experience) 
great  trouble,^  but  in  their  troubles  they  (will  be)  like  a 
green  olive,^  as  it  is  said,  "  I  am  anointed  with  fresh  oil  " 
{ibid.  xcii.  10).io 

1  Or  "  wild-ox."  On  the  re6m  see  Delitzsch,  Babel  and  Bible  (E.T.), 
p.  164,  where  the  reem  is  shown  in  a  beautiful  illustration. 

2  Lit.  "  this  reem." 

^  See  Shocher  Tob,  p.  204a.  The  Venice  edition  reads:  "of  all 
animals."     This  is  wanting  in  the  ist  ed. 

*  "  Son  of  Joseph  "  probably  means  "  of  the  tribe  of  Joseph."  The 
reference  to  the  reem  is  suggested  by  the  Blessing  of  the  tribe  in 
Deut.  xxxiii.  17.  According  to  the  Zohar  (Num.  p.  173b),  Messiah 
ben  David  is  Menachem ;  this  is  also  the  view  of  the  Book  of  Zerubbabel 
(ed.  JeUinck,  B.H.M.  i.  59).  Cf.  Abkath  Rochel  ii.  ;  T.B.  Synhedrin, 
98b;  J.E.  viii.  511  f.;  and  R.iL.J.  Lxviii.  pp.  135.  150.  'Ammiel  ap- 
pears to  be  another  form  of  "  Emanuel." 

*  The  Venice  edition  reads:  "  all  animals."  The  ist  ed.  omits  the 
name  of  "  Menachem,  son  of  'Ammiel,  son  of  Joseph,"  and  reads  instead : 
"  the  son  of  David." 

'  The  MS.  ends  quotation  here,  adding  "  etc.  "  The  printed  texts 
conclude  the  quotation  with  "  re6m." 

^  This  paragraph  occurs  in  the  first  editions,  but  in  the  Venice 
edition  it  is  inserted  after  the  following  passage,  which  is  wanting  in  our 
MS.  and  in  the  ist  ed.  :  "  With  him  are  the  ten  thousands  of  Ephraim, 
and  the  thousands  of  Manasseh,^  as  it  is  said,  '  And  they  are  the 
ten  thousands  of  Ephraim,  and  they  are  the  thousands  of  Manasseh  '  " 
(Deut.  xxxiii.  17). 

*  See  Pesikta  Zutarta,  Balak,  p.  129b. 

*  The  MS.  adds :  "  I  am  afflicted  "  ;  it  is  missing  in  the  printed  texts. 

lo  See  Shocher  Tob,  in  loc.  The  Midrash  interprets  "  I  am  an- 
ointed "  as  though  it  were  connected  with  the  root  "  Balah,"  "  to 
afflict,"  cf.  I  Chron.  xvii.  9,  and  not  from  "  Balal."  In  the  time  of 
trouble  Israel  trusts  in  God  and  shall  be  like  a  green  olive  tree  full  of 
sap ;  cf .  Ps.  lii.  8 ;  T.B.  Berakhoth,  35a,  and  Jalkut,  Ps.  §  845.     Perhaps 

^  These  tribes  are  to  come  with  the  Messiah  ben  Joseph  to  oppose 
Gog  and  Magog ;  see  supra,  pp.  ii7f.,  and  Abkath  Rochel  ii. 


132  RABBI  ELIEZER 

"Mine  eyes  have  looked  on  mine  enemies"  {ibid.  11). 
The  Israelites  in  the  Land  (of  Israel  i)  behold  the  downfall 
of  their  enemies,  as  it  is  said,  "  Mine  eyes  have  looked 
on  mine  enemies"  (ibid.).  And^  such  who  in  the  future 
will  come  against  them  (Israel),  their  ears  shall  hear  of  their 
destruction,  as  it  is  said,  "  INIine  ears  have  heard  con- 
cerning the  evil-doers  that  rise  up  against  me  "  {ibid.). 

"  The  righteous  shall  flourish  like  the  palm  tree  "  {ibid. 
12).    Just  as  this  palm  tree  is  beautiful  in  all  its  appearance," 
and  all  its  fruits  are  sweet  and  good,*  likewise  the  son  of 
David ^  is  beautiful  in  his  appearance"  and  in  his  glory,  and 
all  his  deeds  ||  are  good  and  sweet  before  the  Holy  One,  blessed 
be  He,  as  it  is  said,  "  The  righteous  shall  flourish  like  the 
palm  tree  :    he  shall  grow  like  a  cedar  in  Lebanon  "  {ibid.). 
Just  as  this  cedar  has  very  many  roots  beneath  the  earth, 
and  even    if  the  four  winds  '    of  the  world  came^  against 
it,  they  could  not  move  it   from    its  place,»  as   it   is  said, 
"  He  shah  grow  like  a  cedar  in  Lebanon.     They  that  are 
planted  in  the  house  of  the  Lord  "  {ibid.  12,  13).     In  the 
future  when  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  will  gather  Israel 
from  the  four  corners  of  the  world,i"  just  like  this  gardener 
who  transplants  ^^  his  fir  trees  from  one  garden-bed  to  another 
garden-bed,  likewise  in  the  future  will  the  Holy  One,  blessed 

our  text  should  be  rendered :  "  But  their  trouble,  being  like  a  green 
olive  tree,  made  one  distressed  "  ;  or:  "But  (in)  their  trouble  am  I 
anointed  as  with  (the  oil  of)  a  green  olive  tree." 

1  After  the  great  trouble  and  misfortunes  endured  by  Israel  the 
Messianic  redemption  will  take  place,  and  the  enemies  will  be  finally 
judged.     See  Jalkut,  loc.  cit. 

2  This  paragraph  does  not  occur  in  the  printed  editions. 

*  On  the  palm  tree  see  Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  xcii.  ii.  with  notes  Sy  fT. 

*  See  T.B.  Kethuboth,  lob.  The  palm  branch  forms  a  striking 
element  in  the  public  entry  into  Jerusalem  by  the  Founder  of 
Christianity  ;  see  John  xii.  13. 

■>  This  is  the  Messiah. 

«  See  Ps.  xxi.  5  ;   and  cf.  Shocher  Tob  on  Ps.  xcu.  11. 
'  i.e.  the  winds  from  all  four  quarters  of  the  world.     Cf.  Matt.  vii. 
24,  25,  and  Wisdom,  iv.  4. 

*  The  first  editions  add  :  "to  blow." 

*  The  ist  ed.  agrees  here  with  our  MS.  The  Venice  edition 
adds:  "  Likewise  (will  it  be)  with  the  son  of  David,  whose  might  and 
deeds  are  manifold  before  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He.  Even  if  all 
the  nations  come  against  him  they  will  not  move  him  from  his  place."  * 

10  So  Isaiah  (xi.  12)  prophesies. 
"  To  improve  them. 

1  It  will  be  otherwise  with  the  Messiah  ben  Joseph,  who  will  be 
slain  in  the  conflict  with  Gog  and  Magog;  see  Ab^ath  Rochel,  loc.  cit. 


CREATION  ON  EVE  OF  SABBATH     133 

be  He,  gather  them  ^  from  an  impure  land  and  (plant  them) 
in  a  pure  land,-  as  it  is  said,  "  They  that  are  planted  in  the 
house  of  the  Lord  "  (ibid.).  Like  this  grass,  they  shall 
blossom  and  sprout  forth  in  the  Temple,  as  it  is  said,  "  In 
the  courts  of  our  God  they  shall  flourish  "  (ibid.). 

"  They  shall  still  bring  forth  fruit  in  old  age  "  {ibid.  14). 
Just  as  this  ^  old  age  is  glory  and  honour  to  old  men,^  so 
shall  they  be  in  glory  and  honour^  before  the  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  as  it  is  said,  "  They  shall  be  full  of  sap  and 
green  "^  (ibid.).  These  are  the  mighty  heroes  by  reason  of 
their  good  deeds,  as  it  is  said,  "  They  shall  be  full  of  sap 
and  green,  to  declare  that  the  Lord  is  upright "  (ibid.  14,  15). 
Why  all  these  (statements)  ?  '  To  declare,  and  to  proclaim 
clearly  the  works  of  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  for  He  is 
righteous  and  upright,  and  that  there  is  no  unrighteousness 
(in  Him),  as  it  is  said,^  "  And  there  is  no  unrighteousness 
in  him  "  {ibid,  15).» 

*  "  An  unclean  land"  is  expressed  by  "outside  the  Land"  (of 
Palestine)  in  the  Amsterdam  ed.  Any  land  outside  the  "  Holy  "  Land 
is  held  to  be  unclean  in  the  sense  that  the  Biblical  Laws  of  purity  are 
not  observed  therein,  such  laws  being  only  intended  for  Palestine  ;  see 
Lev.  xviii.  25. 

2  See  supri.  p.  84.  Just  as  Jews  consider  the  soil  of  Palestine 
to  be  "  terra  sancta,"  so  the  English  Church  has  a  preference  for 
the  water  of  the  river  Jordan  in  administering  the  rite  of  baptism  ;  this, 
at  least,  was  the  case  at  the  baptism  of  the  late  King  Edward  vii. 

3  Luria  omits  the  word  "  this." 

*  See  Prov.  xx.  29. 

*  Cf.  Jalkut,  loc.  cit. 

*  The  next  words  until  "  To  declare  "  are  missing  in  the  first 
editions. 

'As  to  the  prosperity  of  the  wicked.  The  Venice  edition  reads: 
"  To  declare,  to  praise,"  etc. 

*  The  first  editions  add  :    "  He  is  my  rock." 

*  On  God's  justice  see  Siphre,  Deut.  §  307. 


CHAPTER    XIXi 

THE    SABBATH    [22b.   ii.J 

The  School  of  Shammai  said :  The  heavens  ^  were  created 
first,  and  the  earth  afterwards,  as  it  is  said,^  "  In  the  beginning 
God  created  the  heavens  and  the  earth"  (Gen.  i.  1).  The 
School  of  Hillel  said :  The  earth  was  created  first,  and  the 
heavens  afterwards,  as  it  is  said,  "Of  old  hast  thou  laid  the 
foundation  of  the  earth  ;  and  the  heavens  are  the  work  of 
thy  hands "  (Ps.  cii.  25).*  The  School  of  Shammai  said : 
The  heavens  were  created  first,  and  the  earth  afterwards, 
as  it  is  said,^  "  These  are  the  generations  of  the  heavens 
and  of  the  earth  "  (Gen.  ii.  4).  The  School  of  Hillel  said : 
The  earth  was  created  first,  and  the  heavens  afterwards, 
as  it  is  said,  "  In  the  day  that  the  Lord  God  made  earth  and 
heaven  "  {ibid.).  The  School  of  Shammai  said  :  The  heavens 
were  created  first,  because  it  is  said,  "  And  the  heavens  and 
the   earth  were  finished  "   {ibid.  1).     The  School  of  Hillel 

^  This  is  ch.  xviii.  in  the  printed  editions. 

*  The  history'  of  the  creation  of  man  is  associated  by  the  Rabbis 
with  the  fundamental  law  of  Jewish  ethics,  the  rule  of  loving-kindness. 
To  quote  their  dictum,  "  The  Torah  begins  and  ends  with  the  service 
of  loving-kindness"  (T.B.  Sotah,  14a).  The  preceding  chapters  xvi. 
and  xvii.  dealt  with  the  service  of  loving-kindness,  and  the  ston.'  of 
the  Creation  is  now  resumed. 

*  The  controversy  was  evoked  by  the  precedence  given  to  heaven 
or  earth  in  the  texts  of  Scripture  quoted  by  the  different  teachers ;  see 
Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  pp.  6  f. 

«  See  T.B.  Chagigah.  12a  ;  T.J.  Chagigah  ii.  i,  77c,  d  ;  Gen.  Rab.  i. 
15  ;  Lev.  Rab.  xxxvi.  i  ;  Midrash  on  Samuel  v.  (where  the  School  of 
Shammai  is  represented  as  expressing  the  opinions  which  are  else- 
where attributed  to  the  School  of  Hillel)  ;  and  cf.  Sepher  Ha-Bahir,  §  17, 
and  Bachcr,  T.  i.  14. 

*  The  first  editions  quote  here  Isa.  xlviii.  13  :  "  Yea,  mine  hand  hath 
laid  the  foundation  of  the  earth."  The  earth  is  mentioned  first  in  this 
verse,  and  therefore  the  opinion  of  the  School  of  Hillel  is  thereby 
substantiated.  The  "School  of  Hillel"  is  the  correct  reading,  as  in 
our  MS.  The  following  passage  until  "  Yea,  mine  hand  "  is  omitted 
in  the  printed  texts. 

134 


THE  SABBATH  135 

said  :  The  earth  was  created  first,  and  the  heavens  afterwards, 
as  it  is  said,  "  Yea,  mine  hand  hath  laid  the  foundation  of 
the  earth,  and  my  right  hand  hath  spread  out  the  heavens  " 
(Isa.  xlviii.  13).  The  School  of  Shammai  said  :  The  heavens 
were  created  first,  and  the  earth  afterwards,  because  it  is 
said,  "  Thus  saith  the  Lord,  The  heaven  is  my  throne,  and 
the  earth  is  my  footstool  "  {ibid.  Ixvi.  1).  Contention  arose 
between  them  {i.e.  the  Schools^)  on  this  question,  until  the 
Holy  Spirit  ^  rested  between  them,  and  they  both  agreed 
that  both  (heavens  and  earth)  were  created  in  one  hour  and 
at  one  moment.^ 

What  did  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  do  ?  He  put  forth 
His  right  hand  and  stretched  forth  the  heavens,  and  He 
put  forth  His  left  hand  and  founded  the  earth,  as  it  is  said, 
"  Yea,  mine  hand  \\  hath  laid  the  foundation  of  the  earth, 
and  my  right  hand  hath  spread  out  the  heavens:  ^  when  I  called 
unto  them,  they  stood  up  together  "  {ibid,  xlviii.  13).  Both 
of  them  were  created  simultaneously,  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
the  heavens  and  the  earth  were  finished,  and  all  their  host " 
(Gen.  ii.  1).^  And,  indeed,  were  the  heavens  and  the  earth 
completed  (so  as  not  to  require  God's  providence)  for  their 
continued  existence  and  maintenance  ?  Has  it  not  been 
written  concerning  them,  "  Thus  saith  the  Lord,  The  heaven  is 
my  throne,  and  the  earth  is  my  footstool"  (Isa.  Ixvi.  1)?^ 
But  they  were  finished  with  reference  to  the  original  deed 
(of  creation)  and  with  reference  to  the  work  (of  being  created) 
and  being  called  into  existence.  Therefore  it  is  said,  "  And 
the  heavens  and  the  earth  were  finished  "  (Gen.  ii.  1). 

Israel  spake  before  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He :  Sovereign 
of  the  worlds !  Thou  didst  complete  the  heavens  and  the 
earth  with  reference  to  being  made,  created,  and  called  into 
existence ; '    let   not   Thy   mercy   and   loving-kindness    be 

1  Lit.  them. 

^  The  first  editions  read  "  Shekhinah." 

*  The  Zohar,  Gen.  17b,  has  this  idea;  cf.  ibid.  29b.  The  basis  for 
this  third  view  is  afiforded  by  the  text  Isa.  xlviii.  13  :  "  When  I  called 
unto  them,  they  stood  up  together."  The  Targum  renders  this  text 
thus  :  "  Yea,  with  my  word  I  completed  the  earth,  and  with  my  power 
I  expanded  the  heavens ;  I  called  to  them,  they  stood  together." 

*  The  MS.  and  the  printed  texts  end  the  quotation  here. 

*  SeeMekhilta,  p.  la. 

*  The  first  editions  do  not  quote  this  verse,  but "  Do  not  I  fill  heaven 
and  earth  ?  "  (Jer.  xxiii.  24)  instead. 

'  The  first  editions  add  :   "  in  the  six  days  of  Creation," 


136  RABBI  ELIEZER 

\vithheld,^  for  if  Thou  withholdcst  Thy  mercy  and  loving- 
kindness  we  are  unable  to  exist,-  because  the  world  rests 
upon  Thy  mercy  and  loving-kindness,^  as  it  is  said,  "  For 
the  mountains  shall  depart,'  and  the  hills  be  removed;  but 
my  kindness  shall  not  depart  from  thee  .  .  .  saith  the 
Lord  that  hath  mercy  on  thee"  (Isa.  liv.  10);'^  and  it  says 
(elsewhere),  "  Remember,  O  Lord,  thy  tender  mercies  and 
thy  loving-kindnesses  ;  for  they  have  been  ever  of  old  " 
(Ps.  XXV.'  6).« 

"  And  on  the  seventh  day  God  finished '  his  work " 
(Gen.  ii.  2).  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  created  seven 
dedications,^  six  of  them  He  dedicated,  and  one  is  reserved 
for  the  (future)  generations.  He  created  the  first  day 
and  finished  all  His  work  and  dedicated  it,^  as  it  is  said, 
"  And  it  was  evening,  and  it  was  morning,  one  day " 
{ibid.  i.  5).     He  created  the  second  day  and  finished  all  His 

*  "  From  us  "  should  probably  be  added  to  the  text ;  cf.  Ps.  xl.  ii. 

-  Man  sins,  and  therefore  needs  God's  grace  and  mercy.  This  idea 
is  well  expressed  by  the  teaching  of  4  Ezra  vii.  135-1.^7.  The  Bible 
text,  "Remember,  O  Lord,  thy  tender  mercies  and  thy  loving-kindnesses, 
for  they  have  been  ever  of  old  "  (Ps.  xxv.  6),  is  a  parallel  to  our  passage  ; 
cf.  Targum  of  this  verse,  which  renders  the  last  words,  "  for  they  have 
been  from  eternity."  Cf.  Gen.  Rab.  xxii.  i,  Jalkut,  Ps.  §  702,  and 
Shocher  Tob  to  Ps.  xxv.  8,  p.  107a,  where  the  question  is  discussed. 
How  would  mankind  have  arisen  if  God  had  dealt  with  Adam  with 
strict  justice  ?  The  grace  of  God  was  granted  to  Adam  so  as  to  enable 
mankind  to  arise  and  flourish  on  earth  before  the  doom  of  death  over- 
took him.  There  may  be  an  attempt  here  to  counteract  the  un-Jewish 
doctrines  of  the  Pauline  school,  which  taught  that,  owing  to  Adam's 
sin,  God's  grace  was  withdrawn,  and  only  through  the  advent  of  a 
Second  Adam  (or  Christ)  could  this  Divine  grace  be  restored  to  the 
world.  The  theologians  who  suggest  that  Judaism  has  something  to 
learn  from  the  Pauline  doctrine  of  grace  must  be  unaware  of  the  Jewish 
teaching  on  this  theme. 

3  This  idea  has  already  been  mentioned  in  our  book.  See  supra, 
pp.  7^1,  84,  106. 

*  The  quotation  ends  here  in  the  first  editions,  which  add  "  etc.  " ; 
in  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  with  the  words,  "  be  removed." 

*  God's  love  and  mercy  cannot  cease,  they  are  eternal  attributes. 

*  This  quotation  is  wanting  in  the  printed  texts  ;  it  concludes  in 
the  MS.  with  the  words.  "  loving-kindnesses."  The  point  in  the 
quotation  lies  in  the  words  "  ever  of  old,"  which  might  be  rendered 
"  eternal  "  or  "  from  everlasting." 

'  "  His  work "  is  not  in  the  MS.,  but  is  covered  by  "  etc." 
of  the  printed  editions.  See  Pesikta  Rabbathi,  p.  iSjb;  Jalkut, 
Gen.  §  16. 

*  The  six  days  of  Creation  were  complete,  and  each  day's  work  had 
its  dedication.  This  did  not  apply  to  the  seventh  day ;  see  T.B. 
Sabbath,  lib;  T.B.  Berakhoth,  58b.  The  Sabbath  will  only  receive 
its  completion  in  the  future  world  ;  see  T.B.  Rosh  Ha-Shanah,  31a. 

*  The  reading  has  its  parallel  in  Menorath  Ha-Maor,  §  159  (end). 


THE  SABBATH  137 

work  and  dedicated  it,  as  it  is  said,  |]  "  And  it  was  evening, 
and  it  was  morning,  a  second  day  "  (ibid^  8) ;  and  so  through 
the  six  days  of  creation.  He  created  the  seventh  day,  (but) 
not  for  work,  because  it  is  not  said  in  connection  therewith, 
"  And  it  was  evening  and  it  was  morning."  Why  ?  For  it  is 
reserved  for  the  generations  (to  come),  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
there  shall  be  one  day  which  is  known  unto  the  Lord ;  not 
day,  and  not  night  "  (Zech.  xiv.  7).^ 

A  parable :  To  what  is  this  matter  to  be  compared  ?  To 
a  man  who  had  precious  utensils,-  And  he  did  not  desire 
to  give  them  as  an  inheritance  except  to  his  son ;  ^  likewise 
with  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He.  The  day  of  blessing  and 
holiness  ^  which  was  before  Him,  He  did  not  desire  to  give 
it  as  an  inheritance  except  to  Israel.^  Know  that  it  is  so ! 
Come  and  see  !  for  when  the  Israelites  went  forth  from 
Egypt, ^  whilst  yet  the  Torah  had  not  been  given  to  them. 
He  gave  them  the  Sabbath  as  an  inheritance.  Israel  kept 
two  Sabbaths '  whilst  as  yet  the  Torah  had  not  been  given 
to  them,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  thou  madest  known  unto  them 
thy  holy  Sabbath  "  ^  (Neh.  ix.  14).  And  afterwards  He 
gave  them  the  Torah,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  commandedst 
them  commandments,  and  statutes,  and  Torah  by  the  hand 
of  Moses,  thy  servant  "  (ibid.).^ 

The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  observed  and  sanctified  the 

'  This  is  the  Sabbath  day,  concerning  which  "  day  and 
night "  are  not  mentioned  in  the  Creation  story.  See  infra, 
p.  14.:;. 

2  Cf.  Aboth  iii.  2^  with  reference  to  the  Torah. 

'  Cf.  Mai.  iii.  17.  The  first  editions  add  :  "  who  serves  him."  God 
and  His  children  are  referred  to  by  the  parable.  Every  nation  is  a  child 
of  God,  Israel  is  the  son  who  serves  Him.  See  infra,  p.  319,  and 
Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  xcii.  p.  201b,  where  this  Haggadah  is  used,  and  as 
a  parallel  see  Jubilees  ii.  20. 

*  In  Menorath  Ha-Maor,  loc.  cit.,  "blessing  and  holiness"  occur 
instead  of  "  rest  and  holiness,"  of  the  first  editions,  based  on  the  words 
of  the  Scripture,  "  He  blessed  and  hallowed  "  (ct.  Ex.  xx.  11). 

»  Cf.  Jubilees  ii.  18  f. 

*  According  to  the  Midrash  (cf.  Book  ol  Jashar  Ixx.  47),  the 
Sabbath  had  been  given  to  Israel  in  Egypt,  but  not  by  God.  See  T.B. 
Kiddushin,  41b. 

'  See  Tosaphoth  in  T.B.  Sabbath,  87b,  catchword  "  Just  as." 

*  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here,  in  the  first  editions  it  is  con- 
tinued without  any  interruption. 

'  This  text  mentions  the  Sabbath  before  the  "  Commandments, 
statutes,  and  Torah."  The  Sabbath  law  is  mentioned  in  Exodus 
xvi.  23,  in  connection  with  the  Manna  prior  to  the  revelation  at 
Sinai. 


138  RABBI  ELIEZER 

Sabbath, 1  and  Israel  is  obliged  ^  only  to  observe  and  sanctify 
the  Sabbath.  Know  that  it  is  so  !  Come  and  see  !  for 
when  He  gave  them  the  ^lanna,  He  gave  it  to  them  in  the 
wilderness  during  forty  years  on  the  six  days  of  creation,^ 
but  on  the  Sabbath  lie  did  not  give  (it)  ||  to  them.  Wilt  thou 
say  that  He  did  not  have  power  enough  to  give  it  to  them 
every  day  ?  *  But  (the  fact  was)  the  Sabbath  was  before 
Him  ;  therefore  He  gave  to  them  bread  for  two  days  on 
the  Friday,  as  it  is  said,  "  See,  for  that  the  Lord  hath 
given  you  the  Sabbath,''  therefore  he  giveth  you  on  the 
sixth  day  the  bread  of  two  days  "  (Ex.  xvi.  29).  When 
the  people  ®  saw^  that  Sabbath  (was  observed)  before  Him, 
they  also  rested,  as  it  is  said,  "  So  the  people  rested  on  the 
seventh  day  "  {ibid.  30). 

"  And  God  blessed  the  seventh  day,"  and  hallowed  it  " 
(Gen.  ii.  3).  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  blessed  and  hallowed 
the  Sabbath  day,  and  Israel  is  bound  only  to  keep  and  to 
hallow  the  Sabbath  day.^  Hence  they^  said:  Whosoever  says 
the  benediction  and  sanctification  over  the  ^vine  on  the  eves 
of  Sabbath,^"  his  days^^  will  be  increased  in  this  world,  and  ^^ 
in  the  world  to  come,  as  it  is  said,  "  For  by  me  thy  days  shall 
be  multiplied"  (Prov.  ix.  11)  in  this  world  ;  "  and  the  years 
of  thy  life  shall  be  increased  "  (ibid.)  in  the  world  to  come. 

"  Ye  shall  keep  the  Sabbath,^^  for  it  is  holy  unto  you  " 

'  See  Jubilees  ii.  i8.' 

'  See  Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  xcii.  p.  201b. 

'  Sunday  to  Friday,  the  days  of  work. 

*  See  Menorath  Ha-Maor,  loc.  cit.,  which  reads,  "Lest  thou  shouldst 
say  that  He  had  no  power  to  give.  He  continued  to  give  it  (after  the 
Sabbath)."     Another  reading  is  given  in  Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  xcii.,  loc.  cit. 

*  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here,  but  "  etc.  "  is  added  ;  in  the 
first  editions  the  verse  is  continued. 

*  The  first  editions  read  "  Israel." 

'  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here,  but  "  etc."  is  added  ;  the 
first  editions  continue  the  quotation  as  in  our  version. 

*  See  Gen.  Rab.  xi.  2,  and  Mekhilta,  p.  50b;  and  see  supra,  p.  137, 
and  infra,  p.  141. 

•  The  Sages. 

1"  Friday  evenings.     See  Jubilees  ii.  21. 

•1  The  first  editions  add  :   "  and  years." 

'2  Variant  readings  are  given  in  Menorath  Ha-Maor,  loc.  cit.,  and 
Rokeach,  52.  The  first  editions  add  here:  "And  years  of  life  will  be  given 
to  him."  As  we  shall  see,  the  phraseology  of  this  reading  is  borrowed 
from  Prov.  ix.  11,  according  to  the  interpretation  given  in  T.B.  Synhe- 
drin,  38a,  and  Lev.  Rab.  xi.  i. 

"  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here,  but  the  first  editions  continue 
the  verse. 


THE  SABBATH  139 

(Ex.  xxxi.  14).  What  is  the  keeping  of  the  Sabbath  ? 
Neither  to  do  any  work  thereon,^  nor  to  kindle  fire  thereon, 
neither  to  take  forth  nor  to  bring  in  beyond  the  Techum 
(hmit)  2  of  the  Sabbath  even  one  foot,^  nor  to  fetch  in  his 
hand  something  *  which  is  not  his  food  nor  the  food  for  his 
cattle.^  This  is  the  keeping  of  the  Sabbath,^  as  it  is  said, 
"  Wherefore  the  children  of  Israel  shall  keep  the  Sabbath  " 
{ibid.  16). 

"  It'  is  a  sign  between  me  and  the  children  of  Israel  ^ 
for  ever  "  {ibid.  17).  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  said  : 
This  (Sabbath)  have  I  given  to  Israel  ^  as  a  sign  between  Me  || 
and  them  ;  for  in  the  six  days  of  creation  I  fashioned  all 
the  world,  and  on  the  Sabbath  I  rested,  therefore  have  I 
given  to  Israel  the  six  days  of  work,  and  on  the  Sabbath,  a 
day^°  (for)  blessing  and  sanctification,^i  for  Me  and  for 
them ;  therefore  it  is  said,  "  Between  me  and  the  children 
of  Israel  it  is  a  sign  for  ever  "  {ibid.).^^ 

^  The  first  editions  reverse  the  order  of  the  clauses,  "  Not  to  kindle 
fire  thereon,  nor  to  do  any  work  thereon."  The  order  in  our  MS.  is  based 
on  the  sequence  of  the  texts  dealing  with  the  Sabbath  commandments 
in  Ex.  xxxi.  14.  To  kindle  fire  is  prohibited  in  Ex.  xxxv.  3,  and  in  the 
previous  verse  the  prohibition  to  work  is  set  forth  ;  see  Luria's  com- 
mentary, in  loc,  where  the  reading  of  our  MS.  had  been  anticipated. 

^  The  2000  spaces  or  ells  from  the  town,  called  a  Sabbath-journey ; 
see  Acts  i.  12,  Jubilees  1.  8,  and  Zadokite  Documents  xiii.  7.  See 
Tosephta  Sotah  v.  13,  p.  303.  for  a  discussion  as  to  whether  the  Techum 
principle  is  contained  in  the  Torah,  and  cf.  J .E.  x.  592. 

'  See  T.B. 'Erubin,  52b. 

*  Anything  not  permitted  to  be  used  on  the  Sabbath  is  called 
"  Mukzeh." 

^  The  first  editions  read  after  the  word  "  something  "  :  "  and 
carry  it  four  spaces  in  a  public  thoroughfare,  and  to  bring  it  from  one 
allotment  to  another."  See  J.E.  x.  582  on  the  "  four  ells  "  or  spaces. 
"  Reshuth,"  territory,  domain,  allotment,  one's  area  or  court.  See 
Baba  Kamma  iii.  i  for  the  different  terms  in  connection  with  Reshuth ; 
see  also  T.B.  Sabbath,  6a,  and  cf.  Jubilees  ii.  29  and  1.  8,  Zadokite 
Documents  xiii.  16.  The  first  editions  omit  the  words :  "  which  is  not 
his  food,  nor  the  food  for  his  cattle." 

*  Trafiicking  on  the  Sabbath  was  a  cause  of  reproach  on  the  part 
of  Jeremiah  (xvii.  20  tf.)  and  Nehemiah  (xiii.  ijff-)-  ^^^  ^^^^  °^  ^^^^ 
sentence  is  wanting  in  the  first  editions. 

'  The  Sabbath. 

'  The  quotation  is  concluded  here  in  the  MS. ;  the  first  editions  con- 
tinue as  in  our  version. 

'  "  It  is  a  sign  "  is  added  here  by  Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  xcii.,  loc.  cit. 

^^  The  first  editions  read  :  "  and  the  seventh  day  (for)  blessing,"  etc. 

^^  The  first  editions  add  :  "  and  rest."  Scripture  speaks  of  God 
blessing  and  sanctifying  the  seventh  day  (Gen.  ii.  3),  and  resting  on 
the  Sabbath  (Ex.  xx.  11),  "Wherefore  the  Lord  blessed  the  Sabbath 
day  and  hallowed  it  "  {ihid.).     See  supra,  p.  137,  note  4. 

12  The  first  editions  omit :   "  it  is  a  sign  for  ever." 


140  RABBI  ELIEZER 

The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  created  seven  ^  firmaments, 
and  He  selected  from  them  all  'Araboth  -  only  for  the  place 
of  the  throne  of  glory  of  His  kingdom,  as  it  is  said,  "  Cast 
up  a  highway  for  him  that  rideth  on  the  'Araboth,'*  with 
Jah,  his  name  "  (Ps.  Ixviii.  4).  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He, 
created  seven  lands,^  and  He  chose  from  all  of  them  the 
land  of  Israel  only,  as  it  is  said,  "  A  land  .  .  .  the  eyes 
of  the  Lord  thy  God  are  always  upon  it,  from  the  beginning 
of  the  year  even  unto  the  end  of  the  year  "  (Deut.  xi.  12). -^ 
Another  verse  says,  "  I  said,  I  shall  not  see  the  Lord,  even 
the  Lord  in  the  land  of  the  living"  (Isa.  xxxviii.  ll).*'  The 
Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  created  seven  deserts,  and  of 
them  all  He  chose  the  desert  of  Sinai  ^  only  to  give  therein 
the  Torah,  as  it  is  said,  "  The  mountain  which  God  hath 
desired  for  his  abode  "  (Ps.  Ixviii.  16). 

The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  created  seven  seas,^  and  of 

'  The  Sephcr  Jezira'i  iv.  emphasizes  the  superior  nature  of  the 
seventh  kind  of  the  various  works  of  Creation  ;  see  also  Lev.  Rab.  xxix. 
II  ;  Num.  Rab.  iii.  8;    Jalkut,  Psalms  (Ps.  cxxxix.),  §  888. 

2  See  T.B.  Chagigah,  12b.  'Araboth  is  the  seventh  heaven.  See  also 
Hekhaloth  iv.  and  also  Maimonides,  Guide,  i.  70,  who  quotes  our  t  xt. 
The  New  Testament  speaks  of  the  "  third  heaven  "  (2  Cor.  xii.  2). 
See  the  Apocalype  of  I'eter  on  this  theme.  On  the  seven  heavens 
see  Slavonic  Enoch,  pp.  xxx  ff. 

^  R.V.  has  "  deserts."  The  quotation  ends  here  in  our  MS.,  the 
printed  texts  continue  the  same. 

*  They  are  enumerated  in  Lev.  Rab.,  Iol.  tit.,  cf.  Aboth  de  R. 
Nathan  (a)  xxxvii.  p.  5,sb  (n.  10)  ;  see  also  Midrash,  Proverbs  viii.,  where 
ten  lands  are  mentioned.  Israel  passed  through  seven  lands  after  leaving 
Egypt  to  enter  the  Holy  Land.  The  lands  are  :  Edom,  Amnion,  Moab, 
Midian,  the  land  of  the  Amorites,  Bashan,  and  the  Holy  Land, 
which  is  the  seventh  land.  See  also  Siphre,  Deut.  §  .1  •,  and  infra, 
p.  167. 

*  See  also  Mai.  iii.  12,  and  for  the  reading  of  the  text  see  Kaphtor 
Va-Pherach  x.  The  latter  part  of  the  quotation  is  wanting  in  the 
first  editions.  The  first  editions  add  the  following:  "The  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  created  seven  mountains, ^  and  he  chose  only  Mount  Sinai 
from  all  of  them,  as  it  is  said,  '  Why  look  ye  askance,  ye  high  moun- 
tains, at  the  mountain^  which  God  hath  desired  for  his  abode}  '"  (Ps. 
Ixviii.  16). 

'  This  quotation  is  missing  in  the  printed  texts  of  our  book. 

^  The  first  editions  read  "  Kadesh."  The  order  of  the  paragraphs 
here  in  the  MS.  does  not  agree  with  that  of  the  printed  editions.  In 
Jalkut,  Ps.  Ixviii.  §  -q(>,  the  wilderness  of  Sinai  is  the  "chosen  "  one  ; 
this  is  another  name  of  the  wilderness  of  Kadesh.  See  T.B.  Sabbath,  89a. 

*  See  T.B.  Baba  Bathra,  74b,  and  Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  xxiv.  6,  p. 
103a,  notes  23  and  24,  which  refer  to  the  seven  seas  in  Palestine. 

1  See  T.B.  Megillah,  29a,  and  infra,  p.  318.  See  also  Eth.  Enoch 
xxxii.  I. 

*  This  is  interpreted  as  Sinai ;  see  Shocher  Tob,  in  he.  p.  i5yb. 


THE  SABBATH  141 

them  all  He  chose  the  Sea  of  Kinnereth  ^  only,  and  gave 
it  as  an  inheritance  to  the  tribe  of  Naphtali,^  as  it  is  said, 
"  O  Naphtali,  satisfied  with  favour,^  and  full  with  the  blessing 
of  the  Lord :  ^  possess  thou  the  sea  and  the  south  "  (Deut. 
xxxiii.  23).  What  is  the  "  blessing  of  the  Lord  "  ?  (It 
means)  that  He  blessed  him  and  gave  him  as  an  inheritance 
the  sea  and  the  south,  as  it  is  said,  "  Possess  thou  the  sea  and 
the  south  "  (ibid.).^ 

The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  created  seven  aeons,  ||  and 
of  them  all  He  chose  the  seventh  aeon  ^  only ;  the  six  aeons  are 
for  the  going  in  and  coming  out  (of  God's  creatures)  for 
war  and  peace.  The  seventh  aeon  is  entirely  Sabbath  and 
rest  in  the  life  everlasting."  Seven  lamps  were  made  for  the 
sanctuary,  and  the  lamp  of  Sabbath  was  illuminating  opposite 
the  other  six  (lamps),  as  it  is  said,  "  In  front  of  the  lamp- 
stand  the  seven  lamps  shall  give  light "  (Num.  viii.  2).^  The 
Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  created  seven  days,  and  of  them 
all  He  chose  the  seventh  day  only,  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
God  blessed  the  seventh  day,  and  hallowed  it  "  (Gen.  ii.  3).^ 

Everyone  ^°  who  keeps  the  Sabbath,  happy  is  he  in  this 
world  and  happy  will  he  be  in  the  world  to  come,^^  as  it 
is  said,  "  Happy  is  the  man  that  doeth  this,  and  the  son  of 
man  that  holdeth  fast  by  it :  who  keepeth  the  Sabbath  from 

*  i.e.  the  Lake  or  Sea  of  Gennesareth. 

^  The  pre-eminence  of  Naphtali  was  due  to  the  fact  that  the  east 
side  of  his  territory  touched  the  Sea  of  Gennesareth  and  the  west  side 
was  on  the  Mediterranean. 

^  i.e.  God's  favour;  see  Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  Ixviii.  p.  iGob. 

*  The  quotation  ends  here  in  our  MS.,  in  the  first  editions  the  verse 
is  continued. 

^  This  sentence  is  not  in  the  printed  editions. 

*  The  aeon  was  a  period  of  looo  years.  On  the  Millennium  see 
Slav.  Enoch  xxxii.  2-xxxiii.  2,  where  the  eighth  day  is  the  day 
of  rest. 

'  See  supra,  p.  126,  note  10,  and  cf.  Tanna  de  be  Ehjahu  Rab.  ii. 
p.  6,  and  Jalkut,  Ps.  cxxxix.  S;  888. 

*  This  sentence  is  not  in  the  printed  editions. 

*  The  printed  editions  add  here  :  "  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He, 
created  seven  years,  and  of  them  all  He  chose  the  year  of  release  only. 
The  year  of  release  is  every  seventh  year."  See  Jalkut,  Ps.  cxxxix.  §  888, 
and  Lev.  Rab.,  loc.  cit. 

'"  According  to  T.B.  Sabbath,  11 8b,  even  idolaters  will  be  forgiven  ; 
see  infra,  p.  i|6.  The  first  editions  read:  "Everyone  who  keeps 
the  Sabbath  in  this  world,  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  will  forgive 
all  his  sins." 

*^  Cf.  Jubilees  ii.  2.  8 :  "  Everj'one  who  observes  it  and  keeps 
Sabbath  thereon  from  all  his  work  will  be  holy  and  blessed  throughout 
all  days." 


142  RABBI  ELIEZER 

profaning  it "  (Isa,  Ivi.  2).  Do  not  read  "  (He  who  keepeth 
the  Sabbath)/row  profaning^  it,"  but  read  "  He  who  keepeth 
the  Sabbath  is  pardoned  "  -  concerning  all  his  transgression.^ 

*  Mechallelo  (from  profaning  it). 

^  Machnl  Id  (it  is  forgiven  him).  This  is  a  play  on  the  word  of  the 
text  of  Isa.  Ivi.  2.     See  Tanna  de  be  Elijahu  Rab.  xxvi.  p.  1  ^}. 

^  The  printed  texts  read  :  "to  teach  (us)  that  all  his  transgressions 
are  forgiven  him."  The  section  on  the  Sabbath  in  Jubilees  ii.  17  ff. 
and  1.  6  ff.  should  be  compared  with  the  regulations  as  to  the  Sabbath 
in  our  book.  There  are  some  striking  resemblances  as  well  as  con- 
siderable points  of  dissimilarity.  Jubilees  (ii.  23,  24)  connects  the 
Sabbath  with  Jacob.  Our  book  refers  this  institution  to  Adam ;  see 
previous  chapter,  and  In  trod  net  ion.  _ 


CHAPTER   XX 

adam's  penitence  [24a.  i.] 

"  So  he  drove  out  the  man  "  (Gen.  iii.  24).  Driving  out 
{i.e.)  and  he  went  forth  outside  the  garden  of  Eden  (and 
he  abode)  ^  on  Mount  Moriah,  for  the  gate  of  the  garden  of 
Eden  is  nigh  unto  Mount  Moriah.^  Thence  He  took  him 
and  thither  He  made  him  return  to  the  place  whence  he 
was  taken,  as  it  is  said,  "  To  till  the  ground  from  whence 
he  was  taken  "  {ibid.  23).^ 

Rabbi  Jehudah  said  :  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He, 
kept  the  Sabbath  *  first  in  the  heavenly  regions,  and  Adam 
kept  the  ||  Sabbath  first  in  the  lower  regions.  The  Sabbath 
day  protected  him  from  all  evil,  and  comforted^  him  on 

^  The  MS.  does  not  read  :  "  and  he  abode."  This  is  the  reading  of 
the  first  editions.  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  34  (end),  adds  :  "outside  the  garden  of 
Eden."  The  new  abode  of  Adam  was  near  the  garden  of  Eden.  The 
Midrash  appears  to  understand,  Gen.  iii.  24,  thus :  "  So  he  drove  out 
the  man  and  he  dwelt  at  the  east  of  the  garden  of  Eden."  This  Haggadic 
interpretation  already  appears  in  the  LXX. 

2  See  T.B.  'Erubin,  19a.  Beth-Shan  is  described  as  the  door  to 
Palestine;  see  J.Q.R.  v.  p.  14S,  where  Origen's  Midrash  about  the 
garden  of  Eden  being  the  centre  of  the  world  is  quoted.  As  to  where 
the  garden  of  Eden  was  believed  to  be,  see  Delitzsch,  Wo  lag  das 
Paradies,  pp.  45  ff. 

*  Instead  of  this  quotation  the  first  editions  cite  Gen.  ii.  15  :  "  And 
the  Lord  God  took  the  man,"  and  then  they  add  :  "  From  what  place 
did  He  take  him  ?  From  the  place  of  the  Temple,  as  it  is  said  :  '  To 
till  the  ground  from  whence  he  was  taken  '  "  (Gen.  iii.  23). ^ 

*  "  In  the  heavens  "  is  also  added  by  Shocher  Tob,  p.  203a,  but 
it  is  wanting  in  the  first  editions  of  our  book;  see  supra,  pp.  125  f. 
The  idea  of  Sabbath  being  observed  in  heaven  occurs  in  Jubilees  ii. 
18  ;  see  previous  chapter  in  our  book,  p.  138. 

*  See  supra,  pp.  125  f. 

^  Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  xcii.  p.  203a,  reads :  "  From  the  place  of  the 
Sanctuary  and  thence  He  restored  him  to  the  place  whence  he 
was  taken,  as  it  is  said,  '  To  till  the  ground  from  whence  he 
was  taken  ' "  (Gen.  iii.  23).  j  See  also  Pal.  Targ.  Gen.  ii.  7,  and 
supra,  p.  84. 

»43 


144  RABBI  ELIEZER 

account  of  all  the  doubts  of  his  heart,  as  it  is  said,  "  In  the 
multitude  of  my  doubts  within  me,  thy  comforts  delight  my 
soul  "  (Ps.  xciv.  19). 

Rabbi  Joshua  ben  Korchah  said :  From  the  tree  under 
which  they  hid  themselves,^  they  took  leaves  and  sewed 
(them),  as  it  is  said,  "  And  they  sewed  fif?  leaves  together,^ 
and  made  themselves  aprons"  (Gen.  iii.  7).  Rabbi  Eliezer 
said  :  From  the  skin  ^  which  the  serpent  sloughed  off,  the 
Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  took  *  and  made  coats  of  glory  ^ 
for  Adam  and  his  wife,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  Lord  God 
made  for  Adam  and  for  his  wife  coats  of  skin,  and  clothed 
them  "  {ibid.  21). 

At  twilight  on  Saturday  ^  (evening),  Adam  was  ^  medi- 
tating in  his  heart  and  saying  :  ^  Perhaps  the  serpent,  which 
deceived  me,  will  come  in  the  evening,^  and  he  will  bruise 
me  in  the  heel.  A  pillar  of  fire  was  sent  to  him  to  give 
illumination  about  him  and  to  guard  him  from  all  evil.^" 
Adam  saw  the  pillar  of  fire  and  rejoiced  in  his  heart,^^  and 
he  put  forth  his  hands  ^^  to  the  light  of  the  fire,  and  said  : 
Blessed  art  Thou,  O  Lord  our  God,  King  of  the  universe, 
who  creates  the  flames  of  fire.^^     And  when  he  removed 

'  See  the  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  (ed.  Malan)  i.  xxxvi. 

*  The  MSS.  and  the  first  editions  conclude  the  quotation  here. 

*  So  also  according  to  Pal.  Targ.  Gen.  iii.  21  ;  and  cf.  supra,  p.  09. 

*  The  first  editions  omit  "  took." 

*  In  the  Torah  scroll  of  Rabbi  Meir  the  reading  was  "  coats  of  light  "  ; 
see  Gen.  Rab.  xx.  12  and  Epstein  in  Monatsschrift.  18S4.  pp.  Ji43  fif. 
Cf.  supra,  p.  98,  for  the  skin  of  nail,  as  the  covering  of  glory  of  the 
first  man. 

^  Luria  holds  that  this  section  is  out  of  place.  It  should  be  inserted 
in  the  previous  chapter  at  the  point  where  the  Blessing  of  the  Sabbath 
occurs.  See  T.J.  Berakhoth  viii.  (>,  12b,  on  the  day  of  36  hours, 
during  which  the  light  of  tlie  first  Sabbath  lasted  ;  and  cf .  Shocher  Tob, 
p.  202b. 

'  The  first  editions  read  :  "  sitting  and  meditating." 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  Woe  is  me,  perhaps  the  serpent  which 
deceived  me  on  the  eve  of  the  Sabbath  will  come  and  bruise  me  in  the 
heel." 

"  Oxford  MS.  (e.  76)  reads  :  "  deceived  me  on  the  eve  (before)  the 
termination  of  the  Sabbath  "  will  come. 

^°  See  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  (ed.  Malan)  i.  xxix.,  and  T.B. '  Abodah 
Zarah,  8a. 

11  The  first  editions  add  :  "  and  he  said  :  Now  I  know  that  the 
Omnipresent  is  with  me." 

>«  Oxford  MS.  (e.  16)  reads  :  "  hand." 

*' See  Singer,  p.  216  ;  and  see  T.B.  Berakhoth,  52b  ;  T.B.  Pesachim, 
53b;  T.J.  Berakhoth  viii.  7.  12c;  Gen.  Rab.  xii.  i-;  and  cf.  Shocher 
Tob.  p.  203a. 


ADAM'S  PENITENCE  145 

his  hands  *  from  the  Hght  of  the  fire,^  he  said :  Now  I  know 
that  the  holy  day  has  been  separated  from  the  work  day 
here  below  (on  earth),  for  fire  may  not  be  kindled  on  the 
Sabbath  day ;  and  in  that  hour  he  said  :  Blessed  art  Thou, 
O  Lord  our  God,  King  of  the  universe,  who  divides  ||  the 
holy  from  the  profane,^  the  light  from  the  darkness. 

Rabbi  Mana  said  :  How  must  *  a  man  say  the  Hab- 
dalah  blessing  ?  (He  does  this)  over  the  cup  of  wine, 
with  the  light  of  fire,^  and  he  says  :  Blessed  art  Thou,  O 
Lord  our  God,  King  of  the  universe,  who  creates  the  various 
flames  of  fire ;  and  when  he  removes  his  hand  from  the  fire 
(flame)  he  says  :  Blessed  art  Thou,  O  Lord,  who  divides 
the  holy  from  the  profane. 

If  he  have  no  wine  he  puts  forth  his  hands  ^  towards  the 
light  of  the  lamp  and  looks  at  his  nails,'  which  are  whiter 
than  his  body,  and  he  says  :  Blessed  art  Thou,  O  Lord  our 
God,  King  of  the  universe,  who  creates  various  flames  of  fire ; 
and  when  he  has  removed  his  hands  ^  from  the  fire,  he  says  : 

1  Oxford  MS.  (e.  i6)  reads:  "  hand." 

2  Oxford  MS.  (e.  i6)  and  the  first  editions  read  :  "  from  the  fire  "  ; 
has  our  MS.  an  incorrect  reading  here  ? 

*  See  supra,  pp.  ij6,  138;  and  cf.  Sepher  Ha-Manhig,  Hilkhoth 
Shabbath,  §  67.     The  next  words  are  not  in  the  first  editions. 

^  Lit.  "is  he  obhged."  Siddur  Rab  'Amram,  59b,  reads:  "How- 
is  a  man  obUged  (to  perform  Habdalah)  with  the  cup  of  wine  ?  He 
brings  his  hand  near  to  the  light  of  the  fire."  See  also  Ravia,  ed. 
Aptowitzer,  p.  131,  and  Or  Zarua,  ii.  2^6.,  §  93.  Both  hands  are  to  be 
stretched  forth  to  the  light  according  to  our  author  and  the  authorities 
quoted  (see  Sha'are  Teshubah,  §  102,  and  Shibbole  Ha-Leket  (52b), 
§  130).  See  Siddur  R.  'Amram,  59a,  for  the  expression  to  "  look  at  the 
palms";  cf .  Ha-Manhig,  §  65,  p.  34a.  This  was  the  custom  of  R.  Natronai. 
The  Mishnah  Berakhoth  viii.  6  deals  with  the  necessity  of  enjoying  the 
light  in  order  to  say  the  blessing  over  same  ;  see  T.B.  Berakhoth,  53b. 
According  to  our  book  the  custom  of  looking  at  the  nails  is  only  to 
be  observed  when  there  is  no  wine.  The  Pirke  de  R.  Eliezer  seems  to 
have  the  same  custom  here  and  in  reference  to  rinsing  the  cup  mentioned 
infra,  p.  146,  note  7,  as  obtained  in  Sura,  and  these  customs  were  known 
to  R.  Natronai. 

^  The  light  will  enable  him  to  see  the  wine  in  the  cup,  and  then 
he  need  not  look  at  his  nails,  nor  put  forth  his  hands  to  the  light ; 
for  he  has  already  derived  some  benefit  from  the  light.  If  he  have 
no  wine,  he  looks  at  his  nails.  On  the  customs  of  the  Habdalah 
see  T.B.  Berakhoth,  33b  and  52b,  and  T.B.  Sabbath,  150b,  and  J.E.  vi. 
pp.  118  ff. 

*  This  is  according  to  the  reading  in  our  MS.  The  plural  occurs 
also  in  Oxford  MS.  (e.  76)  and  the  second  edition. 

'  See  Sepher  Ha-Orah,  i.  pp.  57  f.,  notes  13  and  14,  and  Machzor 
Vitry,  117  f. 

*  The  2nd  ed.  reads :  "  hand."  This  section  is  wanting  in  the 
ist  ed. 

10 


146  RABBI  ELIEZER 

Blessed  art  Thou,  O  Lord,  who  divides  the  holy  from  the 
profane. 

If  he  be  on  a  journey,^  he  puts  forth  his  hand  -  to  the 
light  of  the  stars,  which  are  also  fire,^  and  says  :  Blessed 
art  Thou,  O  Lord  our  God,  King  of  the  universe,  who  creates 
the  various  flames  of  fire.  If  the  heavens  be  darkened,* 
he  lifts  up  a  stone  outside,^  and  says  :  ^  Blessed  art  Thou, 
O  Lord  our  God,  who  creates  the  various  flames  of  fire." 

Rabbi  Zadok  said  :  Whosoever  does  not  make  Habdalah  ^ 
at  the  termination  of  Sabbaths,  or  does  not  listen  to  those 
who  perform  the  ceremony  of  Habdalah,  will  never  see  a 
sign  '^  of  blessing.^"  Everyone  who  makes  Habdalah  at 
the  termination  of  Sabbaths,  or  whosoever  hears  those  who 
perform  the  Habdalah,  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  calls 

*  The  first  editions  read  :   "  If  he  have  no  fire." 
-  Oxford  MS.  (e.  76)  reads  :   "  hands." 

*  The  first  editions  add  :  "  and  he  looks  at  his  nails  which  are 
whiter  than  his  body." 

*  Oxford  MS.  (e.  76)  reads  :   "  darkened  with  clouds." 

*  Oxford  MS.  (e.  7b)  and  the  first  editions  read  :  "  from  the  earth," 
and  he  obtains  a  spark  by  striking  the  two  stones  together. 

*  See  Friedlander,  The  Jewish  Religion,  pp.  254,  340,  and  343,  for 
the  rules  of  the  rite.  The  ist  ed.  reads  :  "  and  he  performs  the 
Habdalah."  This  is  also  the  reading  of  the  Venice  edition,  which 
adds  :  "  and  he  says  :  Blessed  (is  He)  who  separates  the  holy  from 
the  profane." 

'  The  ritual  here  set  forth  is  not  on  all  fours  with  the  rules 
prescribed  by  the  Shulchan 'Arukh.  Spices  are  not  mentioned  at  all. 
We  should  not  say  the  benediction  over  the  light  when  the  light  of 
the  stars  is  the  only  light  available  ;  see  T.B.  Berakhoth,  52b,  and  Tur, 
Orach  Chayyim,  296  and  297.  The  following  section  occurs  in  the 
MS.  Ga--tcr  and  in  the  2nd  cd.  :  "  Rabbi  Eliezer  said :  After  a 
man  has  drunk  the  (contents)  of  the  cup  of  Habdalah,  it  is  a  religious 
privilege  and  duty  to  put  a  little  water  in  the  cup  (of  wine  used  at  the 
Habdalah),  and  to  drink  in  order  to  show  that  the  precepts  are  beloved,^ 
and  what  remains  of  the  water  in  the  cup  should  be  put  over  his  eyes. 
Why  ?  Because  the  Wise  Men  have  said  :  The  (observance  of  the) 
'remnants'  left  over  in  connection  with  a  religious  act  keeps  back 
punishments." 

*  The  Oxford  MS.  (e.  76)  and  the  first  editions  add  :  "over  wine." 

'  See  supra,  p.  13S.  On  the  Habdalah  see  Elbogen,  op.  cit.  pp. 
120,  532. 

1°  SeeT.B.'Erubin,  65a,  T.B.  Shebu'oth,  i8b,  and  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  34, 
and  cf.  Siddnr  Rab  'Amram,  §  40,  p.  60a,  b.  A  variant  reading  is  to  be 
found  in  Tur,  Orach  Chayyim,  299. 


^  A  similar  custom  still  obtains  in  the  Church  of  England.  After 
the  rite  of  Communion  has  been  done,  the  officiating  minister  pours 
water  into  the  chalice,  and  then  drinks  the  water  to  prevent  the  waste 
of  any  drops  of  the  consecrated  wine.  The  custom  mentioned  by  our 
text  is  referred  to  by  the  Geonim ;  see  Siddur  Rab  Amram,  pp. 
59a  ff.,  on  the  Habdalah. 


ADAM'S  PENITENCE  147 

him  holy  to  be  His  holy  treasure,  and  delivers  him 
from  the  affliction  of  the  peoples,  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
ye  shall  be  holy  unto  me  :  for  I  the  Lord  am  holy  "  (Lev. 
XX.  26).i  II 

On  the  first  day  of  the  week  ^  he  ^  went  into  the  waters 
of  the  upper  Gihon  ^  until  the  waters  reached  up  to  his 
neck,  and  he  fasted  seven  weeks  of  days,^  until  his  body 
became  like  a  species  of  seaweed.*'  Adam  said  before  the 
Holy  One,  blessed  be  He :  Sovereign  of  all  worlds  !  Remove, 
I  pray  Thee,  my  sins  from  me  and  accept  my  repentance, 
and  all  the  generations  will  learn  that  repentance  is  a 
reality.'  What  did  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  do  ? 
He  put  forth  His  right  hand,^  and  accepted  his  repentance,^ 
and  took  away  from  him  his  sin,  as  it  is  said,  "  I  acknow- 
ledge my  sin  unto  thee,  and  mine  iniquity  have  I  not  hid  :  i" 
I  said,  I  will  confess  my  transgressions  unto  the  Lord  ;  and 
thou  forgavest  the  iniquity  of  my  sin,  Selah  "  (Ps.  xxxii.  5). 
Selah^i  in  this  world  and  Selah  in  the  world  to  come. 
Adam  returned  i-  and  meditated  in  his  heart,  and  said  :   I 

1  In  the  first  editions  the  latter  part  of  this  paragraph  reads  : 
"  Everyone  who  listens  to  those  who  perform  the  Habdalah  or  whoso- 
ever makes  the  Habdalah  over  the  wine,  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He, 
acquires  him  as  a  treasure,  as  it  is  said  :  '  I  have  separated  you  from 
the  peoples,  that  ye  should  be  mine  '  "  (Lev.  xx.  26).  The  Venice 
edition  adds  :  "  And  ye  shall  be  a  peculiar  treasure  unto  me  "  (Ex. 
xix.  5).  This  last  reading  agrees  with  Oxford  MS.  (e.  76),  which  omits 
the  quotation  from  Lev.  (xx.  26). 

-  Sunday.  On  the  incident  see  Israel  Levi's  article  in  R£.J .  xviii. 
pp.  86  ff.,  where  it  is  suggested  that  our  author  has  used  the  Arabic, 
Ethiopic,  or  the  Latin  version  of  the  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  xxxii. - 
xxxiv. 

'  The  first  editions  read  :   "  Adam."     See  Introduction,  p.  xlvii. 

*  i.e.  the  pool  of  Siloam ;  cf .  2  Chron.  xxxii.  30.  See  Coptic 
Apocrypha,  p.  245,  and  cf.  Ginzberg,  Die  Haggada,  etc.,  p.  52. 

*  i.e.  forty-nine  days.  According  to  T.B.  'Krubin,  i8b,  Adam  fasted 
130  years  ;  see  also  ?ohar.  Gen.  55a,  and  T.B. 'Abodah  Zarah,  8a. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  like  a  sieve."  Our  MS.  agrees  here  with 
the  Oxford  MS.  (e.  76)  ;  see  Jalkut,  Gen.,  loc.  cit. 

'  The  first  editions  add  :  "  and  that  Thou  dost  accept  the  repentance 
of  the  penitent." 

^  This  expression  is  peculiar  to  our  book ;  it  occurs  several  times, 
cf.  the  legend  in  the  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve,  in  A.  and  P.  ii. 
P-  135- 

*  On  Adam's  repentance  see  Tertullian,  Against  Marcion,  ii.  25. 

1"  The  quotation  ends  here  in  the  MSS.  and  in  the  first  editions. 

"  The  last  word  of  the  previous  verse  is  Selah,  and  the  verse  quoted 
concludes  with  Selah.  The  word  is  used  in  the  sense  of  "  so  be  it," 
or  perhaps  it  suggests  "  pardon  "  (Selach). 

12  The  Oxford  MSS.  and  the  printed  texts  read  :  "  sat." 


148  RABBI  ELIEZER 

know  that  death  will  remove  me  ^  (to)  "  the  house  appointed 
for  all  living  "  (Job  xxx.  23).  Adam  said  :  Whilst  I  am  yet 
alive  -'  I  will  ^  build  for  myself  a  mausoleum  to  rest  therein.^ 
He  planned  ^  and  built  for  himself  a  mausoleum  to  rest 
therein  beyond^  Mount  Moriah.  Adam  said:  If  in  the 
case  of  the  tables  (of  stone),  just  because  in  the  future  they 
will  be  written  by  the  finger  (of  God),  the  waters  of  the 
Jordan  are  destined  to  flee  before  them  ;  '  how  much  more 
so  will  this  be  the  case  with  my  body  which  His  two  hands  ^ 
kneaded,  and  because  He  breathed  into  my  nostrils  the 
breath  of  the  spirit  of  His  mouth  ?  After  my  death  they 
will  come  and  take  my  bones,  and  they  will  make  them  into 
an  image  for  idolatry  ;  ^  but  verily  I  will  put  ||  my  coffin 
deep  down  beneath  the  cave  and  within  the  cave.^^  There- 
fore it  is  called  the  Cave  of  Machpelah,  which  is  a  double 
cave.i^  There  Adam  was  put  and  his  help-meet,^^  Abraham 
and  his  help-meet,  Isaac  and  his  help-meet,  Jacob  and  his 
help-meet.      Therefore    it    is    called    "  the    city    of   four " 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "he  said  :  For  I  have  said,  '  thou  wilt 
bring  me  to  death  and  to  the  house,'  etc."  The  text  of  Job  xxx.  23 
reads  :  "  For  I  know  thou  wilt  bring,"  etc.  The  Oxford  MS.  (e.  76) 
reads  :  "  I  know  that  thou  wit  bring  me  to  death,"  etc. 

^  The  first  editions  read  :  "  yet  in  the  world." 

^  See  the  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  (ed.  Malan)  11.  ix.  for  the  death 
and  burial  of  Adam. 

*  The  first  editions  add  here  :  "  beyond  Mount  Moriah." 

^  The  first  editions  read  :  "  He  dug  out  "  ;  so  also  in  Oxford  MSS. 
"  Luria  reads  :  "  he  went  beyond  Mount  Moriah  and  dug,"  etc. ;  see 
Zohar,  Gen.  57b,  and  infra,  p.  275. 
'  In  the  days  of  Joshua. 

*  See  supra,  pp.  76  f.  ;  and  of.  T.B.  Ketliuboth,  5a,  and  Aboth 
de  R.  Nathan  («)  i.  p.  4b.  This  legend  was  known  lo  the  Church 
Fathers;  sec  Theophilus,  I'o  Autolycus,  ii.  18. 

'  Here  Adam  seems  to  exercise  prophetic  powers.  This  agrees  with 
the  legend  in  the  Recognitions  of  Clement,  i.  47.  Is  our  author  attacking 
the  worship  of  relics  ? 

1°  Owing  to  the  power  inherent  in  his  divinely  shaped  and  fashioned 
body,  the  waters  of  the  Flood  would  have  no  power  to  destroy  his 
remains  ;  see  T.B.  Baba  Bathra,  58a,  Gen.  Rab.  xxviii.  ;i.  The  Book  of 
Jashar  iii.  14  refers  to  the  burial  of  Adam  in  the  "  cave."  In  the  Book 
of  Jubilees  viii.  19  the  Garden  of  Eden  is  facing  Mount  Zion,  i.e.  Mount 
Moriah.  The  three  things,  according  to  Jubilees  vii.  20,  which  brought 
the  Flood  were,  "  fornication,  uncleanness,  and  all  iniquity."  Cf. 
T.B.  Synhedrin,  74a,  for  the  three  cardinal  sins,  idolatry,  immorality, 
and  murder.  For  a  parallel  text  with  slight  variations  see  Midrash 
Haggadol,  c.  122. 

'1  See  T.B. 'Erubin,  53a,  and  Jalkut.  Gen.,  loc.  cit.  The  legend  of 
the  double  cave  was  known  to  Jerome ;  sec  Rahmcr,  op.  cit.  p.  36. 

*'  On  the  order  of  the  burials  see  T.J.  Ta'anith  iv.  2,  68a;  ?ohar. 
Num.  164a. 


ADAM'S  PENITENCE  149 

(Kirjath  Arba') ;  for  four  pairs  (were  buried  there),^  and 
concerning  them  the  verse  says,  "  He  entereth  into  peace  ; 
they  rest  in  their  beds,^  each  one  that  walketh  in  his  up- 
rightness "  (Isa.  Ivii.  2).^ 

*  These  words  in  brackets  occur  in  the  Oxford  MS.  (e.  76).  Hip- 
polytns  {A.N.C.L.  vi.  p.  491)  mentions  eight  people  buried  in  the  cave. 
This  is  another  form  of  the  legend  of  the  "  four  pairs  "  mentioned  in 
our  text. 

2  In  the  MS.  and  the  Midrash  Haggadol,  loc.  cit.,  the  quotation  ends 
here  ;  in  the  first  editions  it  is  continued. 

^  See  T.B.  Kethuboth,  104a.  In  the  first  editions  instead  of  help- 
meet the  names  are  given,  namely,  Eve,  Sarah,  Rebecca,  and  Leah. 


CHAPTER    XXI 

CAIN   AND    ABEL   [25a.  i.] 

"  But  ^  of  the  fruit  of  the  tree  which  is  in  the  midst  of  the 
garden  "  (Gen.  iii.  3).  It  was  taught  in  a  Baraitha,^  Rabbi 
Ze'era  said  :  "  Of  the  fruit  of  the  tree  "—here  "  tree  "  only 
means  man,  who  is  compared  to  the  tree,  as  it  is  said,  "  For 
man  is  the  tree  of  the  field  "  (Deut.  xx.  19).  "  Which  is  in 
the  midst  of  the  garden  " — "  in  the  midst  of  the  garden  " 
is  here  merely  an  euphemism.^  "  \Miich  is  in  the  midst  of 
the  garden  "—for  "  garden  "  means  here  merely  woman, 
who  is  compared  to  a  garden,  as  it  is  said,  "  A  garden  shut 
up  is  my  sister,  a  bride  "  (Cant.  iv.  12).  Just  as  with  this 
garden  whatever  is  sown  therein,  it  produces  and  brings 
forth,  so  (with)  this  woman,  what  seed  she  receives,  she 
conceives  and  bears  ^  through  sexual  intercourse. 

(Sammael)  riding  on  the  serpent  came  to  her,  and  she 
conceived ;  ^  afterwards  Adam  came  to  her,  and  she  conceived 

1  The  first  editions  begin  the  chapter  with  the  expression  :  "  It  is 
written."     Our  MS.  agrees  with  the  Oxford  M>S.  here. 

*  "  A  tannaite  tradition  not  incorporated  in  the  Mishnah,"  ?ee  J .E. 
ii.  513.  The  use  of  the  term  'jn  (it  was  taught  in  a  Baraitha) 
in  connection  with  a  statement  by  Rabbi  Zt'era  (4th  cent.  c.E.)  is 
incongruous. 

*  The  first  editions  read  here  :  "  Just  as  '  in  the  middle  of  the  body ' 
(has  its  imphcation,  Ukewise),  '  in  the  midst  of  the  garden'  refers  to 
that  which  is  in  the  middle  of  the  woman,  because  '  garden  '  means 
woman,"  etc. 

*  The  first  editions  read  "from  her  husband."  This  allegorical 
interpretation  of  the  Paradise  narrative  is  exceptionally  bold.  The 
Zohar,  Gen.  35b,  offers  a  parallel,  having  used  our  book  as  its  original ; 
see  also  Nachmanides,  Torath  Ha-Adam,  102b.  The  texts  (Isa.  Ixi. 
3,  Ix.  21,  and  xvii.  ii)  quoted  by  the  Zohar  in  loc.  cit.  afford  the 
scriptural  basis  for  the  interpretation  in  question. 

^  The  first  editions  add  "  Cain."  See  Jalkut,  Gfn.  fj  29  and  j  3.5,  and 
Zohar,  loc.  cit.,  for  the  reading  :  "  Satan  riding  on  the  serpent."  See  Pal. 
Targ.  Gen.  iv.  i,  which  has  used  our  author.  This  Haggadah  occurs  also 
in  the  Church  Father  Ephraim  (in  Gen.  vol.  i.  p.  35) ;  he  says  that  the 

150 


CAIN  AND  ABEL  151 

Abel,^  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Adam  knew  Eve  his  wife  "  (Gen. 
iv.  1).  What  is  the  meaning  of  "  knew  "  ?  (He  knew) 
that  she  had  conceived. ^  And  she  saw  his  ^  likeness  that 
it  was  not  of  the  earthly  beings,  but  of  the  heavenly  beings, 
and  she  prophesied  ^  ||  and  said  :  "  I  have  gotten  a  man  with 
the  Lord  "  {ihid.).^ 

serpent  was  made  to  crawl  on  its  belly  "for  having  increased  the  pangs  of 
child-bearing,  through  the  seduction  of  Eve  "  ;  set-  also  SLivonic  Enoch 
xxxi.  6.  The  legend  was  most  probably  known  to  Paul,  who  refers  to 
the  "  serpent  "  as  having  "  b  ?guiled  Eve  in  his  craftiness  "  ;  see  2  Cor. 
xi.  2.  3,  and  cf.  i  Tim.  ii.  14,  15;  and  Protevangelium  of  James,  13 
(A.N.C.L.  xvi.  p.  8),  and  cf.  4  Mace,  xviii.  8. 

^  This  agrees  witli  Luria's  emendation,  based  on  the  Jalkut,  Gen. 
§  35,  and  Zohar,  loc.  cit.  ;  see  supra,  p.  yS. 

2  Some  of  the  Haggadic  details  of  this  chapter  appear  in  Josephus, 
Ant.  i.  1.4.     For  the  reading  of  the  text  here  see  Jalkut,  loc.  cit. 

^  Cain's.  The  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  iv.  i,  reads:  "  And  Adam  knew 
Eve  his  wife,  who  was  pregnant  by  the  angel  Sammael,  and  she  con- 
ceived and  bare  Cain  ;  and  he  was  like  the  heavenly  beings,  and  not 
like  the  earthly  beings,  and  she  said,  I  have  acquired  a  man,  the  angel 
of  the  Lord."  Cf.  infra,  pp.  158  f.,  and  see  Zohar,  in  loc,  and  Jalkut, 
Gen.  §  35.  See  also  Vita  Adae  et  Evai  xxi.  3,  in  A.  and  P.  ii. 
p.  138. 

*  The  Jalkut,  loc.  cit.,  reads:  "  she  understood." 

*  The  Oxford  MS.  (e.  76)  and  the  first  editions  insert  here  the  follow- 
ing :  "  Rabbi  Ishmael  said :  From  Seth  ^  arose  and  were  descended  all 
the  generations  of  the  righteous,  and  from  Cain  arose  and  were  descended 
all  the  generations  of  the  wicked,  who  rebelled  and  sinned  against 
Heaven,  and  said.  We  do  not  need  the  drops  of  Thy  rains,  as  it  is 
said,  '  Yet  they  said  unto  God,  Depart  from  us  '  "  (Job  xxi.  14).- 

1  Read  Mesheth,  "  from  Seth,"  instead  of  Meshom,  "  thence."  See 
next  chapter  for  a  repetition  of  this  section.  The  Midrashic  interpreta- 
tion seems  to  have  been  known  to  Philo,  who  speaks  of  Cain  as  the  type 
"of  folly  and  impiety"  [De  Cherub,  xx.).  See  Heb.  xi.  4;  i  John  iii. 
12  ;  Jude  1 1 .  On  the  Cainites  see  Epiphanius,  adv.  HcBr.  i.  3.  38,  i.  7.  5  ; 
and  irenaeus,  adv.  Heer.  i.  xxxi.  1.  In  Ecclus.  xlix.  16,  Seth  is  compared 
with  Shem  as  "  glorified  among  men."  Josephus,  Ant.  i.  2.  i  ff., 
described  Abel  as  "  a  lover  of  righteousness  "  .  .  .  "  but  Cain  was 
not  only  very  wicked  .  .  .  and  it  came  to  pass  that  the  posterity  of 
Cain  became  exceeding  wicked.  .  .  .  Seth  became  a  virtuous  man,  and 
as  he  was  himself  of  an  excellent  character  so  did  he  leave  behind  him 
(children;  who  imitated  his  virtues.  All  these  proved  to  be  of  good  dis- 
positions." Cain  is  "  a  son  of  wrath,"  according  to  the  Apoc.  Mosis  3. 
See  also  the  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  (ed.  Alalan)  i.  Ixxix.  and  the  Book 
of  Jubilees  iv.  11  ft.,  xix.  24,  on  this  subject.  The  Gnostics  taught  that 
"  Cain  derived  his  being  from  the  Power  above,"  says  Irenaeus,  adv. 
Hcsr.,  loc.  cit.  According  to  the  Gnostics,  Eve  had  several  sons, 
who  were  declared  to  be  angels;  see  Irenaeus,  op.  cit.  i.  xxx.  7.  On 
Sammael  or  Michael,  as  the  name  of  the  serpent,  see  Irenaeus,  loc.  cit.  9. 
There  are  several  points  of  contact  in  this  chapter,  as  well  as  in  the 
preceding  chapter,  with  the  doctrines  of  the  Gnostics  as  set  forth  in  the 
writings  of  Irenaeus.     See  also  Griinbaum,  op.  cit.  pp.  73  if. 

^  The  Book  of  Job  was  frequently  used  by  the  Haggadists  in  their 
Midrashim  on  the  Book  of  Genesis. 


152  RABBI  ELIEZER 

Rabbi  Miasha  ^  said :  Cain  was  born,  and  his  wife,-  his 
twin-sister,3  with  him.^  Rabbi  Simeon^  said  to  him:  Has 
it  not  already  been  said,  "  And  if  a  man  shall  take  his 
sister,  his  father's  daughter,  or  his  mother's  daughter,  and 
see  her  nakedness,  and  she  see  his  nakedness ;  it  is  a  shameful 
thing  "  ?  '^  (Lev.  xx.  17).  From  these  words  know  that 
there  were  no  other  women  whom  they  could  marry,  and 
these  were  permitted  to  them,  as  it  is  said,  "  For  I  have 
said.  The  world  shall  be  built  up  by  love  "  '  (Ps.  Ixxxix.  2). 
With  love  was  the  world  built  up  before  the  Torah  had  been 
given. ^  Rabbi  Joseph  ^  said  :  Cain  and  Abel  were  twins,^" 
as  it  is  said,  "  And  she  conceived,  and  bare  (with)  Cain  " 
(Gen.  iv.  1).  At  that  hour  she  had  an  additional  capacity 
for  child-bearing  (as  it  is  said),  "  And  she  continued  to  bear 
his  brother  Abel  "  {ibid.  2).ii 

>  Oxford  MS.  (e.  76)  reads  "  Meir  "  (2nd  cent.  c.e.).  Miasha  lived 
in  the  4th  cent.  c.e. 

*  "  His  wife  "  does  not  occur  in  the  first  editions. 

^  According  to  the  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  (cd.  Malan)  i.  Ixxiv., 
Luluwa  was  the  twin-sister  of  Cain;  see  Schatzhohle,  p.  34,  and  also  the 
Book  of  Jashar  i.  12.  Oiher  references  are  given  by  Ginzberg,  op.  cit. 
pp.  60  f . 

*  The  Oxford  MS.  (e.  76)  and  the  printed  editions  add  :  "  Abel  was 
bom,  and  with  him  his  twin-sister."  Her  name  was  Aklima  (Book  of 
Adam  and  Eve  (ed,  ?vlalan)  i.  Ixxv).  The  first  edition  differs  slightly 
in  the  order  of  the  words  here. 

^  According  to  the  first  editions  the  name  is  "  Ishmael,"  who  hved 
c.  90-135  C.E.,  and  was  a  contemporary  of  R.  'Akiba,  the  teacher  of 
R.  Meir.     R.  Simeon  (?  son  of  Jochai)  was  also  a  disciple  of  R.  'Akiba. 

*  ^D^,  love,  permissible  or  shameful  ;  see  Jalkut,  Ps.  Ixxxix.  §  839. 
Our  MS.  does  not  give  the  last  few  words  of  the  quotation.  In  the 
first  editions  the  quotation  ends  with  the  words  :  "  his  father's  daughter." 
In  the  Oxford  MS.  (e.  76)  the  quotation  ends  with  the  words  :  "  mother's 
daughter." 

'  The  R.V.  renders  the  passage  :  "  Mere}'  shall  be  built  up  for  ever." 

*  R.  Ishmael  seems  to  imply  that,  prior  to  the  giving  of  the  Law 
(Torah),  the  world's  law  was  based  on  the  impulses  of  nature  and  there- 
fore immoral.  See  the  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  (cd.  Malan)  11.  vii.,  as  to 
the  marriage  of  Adam's  son  Seth.  Epiphanius,  op.  cit.  xxxix.  5,  refers 
to  this  subject. 

*  The  Oxford  MS.  (e.  76)  agrees  with  our  MS.,  but  the  first  editions 
read  "  Jose  " — R.  Jos4i  bar  Chalaphta  was  a  pupil  of  R.  "Akiba. 

»o  See  T.B.  Synhedrin.  38b ;  Aboth  d.  R.  Nathan  {a)  i.  ;  Gen.  Rab. 
xxii.  2.  According  to  the  Book  of  Jashar,  loc.  cit.,  "  Eve  bore  two  sons 
and  three  daughters."  According  to  this  book  the  union  of  Adam  and 
Eve  was  consummated  after  the  expulsion  from  Paradise  ;  see  also 
Jalkut,  Gen.  §  15  and  §  35,  and  T.B.  Jebamoth,  62a.  Josephus  says: 
"  Adam  and  Eve  had  two  sons  .  .  .  they  had  also  daughters  "  {Ant. 
i.  2.  i). 

"  Our  MS.  agrees  with  Oxford  MS.  (e.  76),  and  partially  with  the 
Oxford  MS.  (OA.  167).     The  first  editions  read:    "At  that  hour  she 


CAIN  AND  ABEL  153 

Now  Cain  was  a  man  who  loved  the  ground  in  order  to 
sow  seed  ;  and  Abel  was  a  man  who  loved  to  tend  the  sheep  ; 
the  one  gave  of  his  produce  as  food  for  the  other,  and  the 
latter  gave  of  his  produce  as  food  for  his  (brother).  The 
evening  of  the  festival  of  Passover  ^  arrived.  Adam  called 
his  sons  and  said  to  them  :  In  this  (night)  in  the  future 
Israel  will  bring  Paschal  offerings,  bring  ye  also  (offerings) 
before  your  Creator. 

(Cain)  brought  the  remnants  of  his  meal  of  roasted  grain, 
(and)  the  seed  of  flax,^  and  Abel  brought  of  the  firstlings  of 
his  sheep,  and  of  their  fat,  he-lambs,  which  had  not  been 
shorn  of  their  wool.^     The  offering  of  |1  Cain  was  precluded,* 

was  debarred  from  bearing,"  as  it  is  said,  "  And  she  ceased  to  bear." 
Here  "  Asaph  "  =  to  cease.  Our  text  agrees  with  Pal.  Targ.  Gen.  iv.  2  . 
See  Gen.  Rab.  xxii.  3,  and  cf.  the  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  (ed.  Malan) 
I,  Ixxv. 

^  Our  book  lays  stress  on  the  Passover  in  contradistinction  to 
Jubilees,  which  exalts  Pentecost  and  Tabernacles.  Luria  argues  that 
as  there  was  a  tradition  that  the  world  was  created  on  the  ist  of  Nisan, 
Adam  was  therefore  created  on  the  6th,  and  "  at  the  end  of  days  "  (Gen. 
iv.  3)  means  one  week,  and  these  numbers  equal  thirteen,  and  after  this 
day  is  the  14th,  which  is  the  eve  of  Passover.  The  offering  was  brought 
on  the  14th,  and  eaten  that  day  at  even,  which  is  the  beginning  of  the 
15th.  On  the  other  hand,  according  to  our  book,  supra,  p.  52,  the 
creation  began  on  the  25th  of  Ellul,  and  Adam  was  fashioned  on  the 
1st  of  Tishri ;  "  at  the  end  of  days  "  would  be  interpreted  as  the  change 
in  the  seasons  from  autumn  to  spring,  when  the  first-fruits  would  be 
brought.  Cf.  infra,  p.  236.  Our  text  is  reproduced  by  Pal.  Targ. 
Gen.  iv.  3,  and  Midrash  Agadah  (ed.  Bubcr),  Gen.  p.  10,  and  see  ibid. 
note  6. 

According  to  Dr.  Biichler  {J.Q.R.  v.  442),  in  the  first  year  of  the 
triennial  cycle  of  reading  the  Torah,  a  Palestinian  custom,  on  the  first 
day  of  Passover,  Gen.  iii.  22-iv.  26  was  read.  Now,  the  story  of 
the  offering  of  Cain  and  Abel  occurs  in  Gen.  iv.  3  ff.,  and  would  fall 
in  the  Passover  week.  This  explains  our  text,  "  the  night  of  the 
festival  of  Passover  arrived."  See  J.E.  xii.  p.  256a,  line  6  ;  Gen.  iii., 
which  is  quoted  there,  should  probably  be  Gen.  iv. 

Chrysostomus  (about  175  c.E.)  declared  that  it  was  customary  to 
begin  reading  from  Genesis  during  Lent,  i.e.  Nisan.  This  shows  that 
the  Early  Church  followed  the  old  Jewish  custom  of  commencing  the 
reading  of  the  Torah  in  Nisan,  the  beginning  of  the  Jewish  ecclesi- 
astical new  year ;  see  J.E.  ibid.  p.  257b.  For  a  parallel  reading,  with 
slight  variants,  see  Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  106  f. 

2  In  Tanchuma,  Bereshith,  §  ix.,  we  read:  "Some  sages  say.  The 
remnants  of  his  meal;  other  sages  say,  The  seed  of  flax."  See  'Arukh 
(ed.  Kohut)  iv.  p.  229b;  and  cf.  Zohar,  Lev.  87a,  where  flax  is  men- 
tioned as  the  offering  of  Cain. 

3  The  offering  was  the  first-fruit  of  the  animal  and  the  first  shearing 
of  the  wool. 

*  This  is  also  the  reading  of  Oxford  MS.  (e.  76).  The  Oxford  MS. 
(O.A.  167)  and  the  first  editions  read  "  was  abhorred  "  ;  cf.  Prov. 
xxviii.  g. 


154  RABBI  ELIEZER 

and  the  offering  of  Abel  was  acceptable,  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
the  Lord  had  respect  unto  Abel  and  to  his  offering  "  {ibid.  4). 

Rabbi  Joshua  ben  Korchah  said :  The  Holy  One,  blessed 
be  He,  said  :  Heaven  forbid  !  Never  let  the  offerings  ^  of 
Cain  and  Abel  be  mixed  up  (with  one  another),  even  in  the 
weaving  of  a  garment,  as  it  is  said,  "  Thou  shalt  not  wear 
a  mingled  stuff,  wool  and  linen  together  "  (Deut.  xxii.  11). 
And  even  if  it  be  combined  ^  let  it  not  come  upon  thee,  as 
it  is  said.  "  Neither  shall  there  come  upon  thee  a  garment 
of  two  kinds  of  stuff  mingled  together  "  (Lev.  xix.  19). 

Rabbi  Zadok  said :  A  great  hatred  ^  entered  Cain's  heart 
against  his  brother  Abel,  because  his  offering  had  been 
accepted.'*  Not  only  (on  this  account),  but  also  because 
Abel's  twin-sister  was  the  most  beautiful  of  women,  and  he 
desired  her  in  his  heart.  Moreover  he  said  :  I  will  slay 
Abel  my  brother,  and  I  will  take  his  twin-sister  ^  from  him, 
as  it  is  said,  "  And  it  came  to  pass  when  they  were  in  the 
field  "  (Gen.  iv.  8). 

"  In  the  field  "  means  woman,  who  is  compared  to  a 
field.^     He  took  the  stone  and  embedded  it  in  the  forehead  ''' 

*  Wool  from  Abel's  sheep  and  flax  from  Cain's  ofiEering.  The  two 
combined  would  come  under  the  prohibition  of  Sha'atnez  fcl.  D  lu.  xxii. 
II).  Perhaps  the  prohibition  of  Kilayim  (Lev^  xix.  19)  is  also  intended. 
This  reference  to  Adam  in  connection  with  Sha'atnez  is  probably  in- 
tentional, and  is  our  author's  imitation  of  Jubilees,  which  also  connects 
various  laws  v.ith  the  Patriarchs.  See  Tanchuma,  B  reshith,  loc.  cit., 
for  a  variant  reading,  and  cf.  'Arukh,  loc.  cit.,  s.v.  Kilayim,  and  see 
Maimonides,  Guide,  iii.  37,  and  J .E.  xi.  212  f. 

*  The  ist  ed.  reads  "  embroidered."  This  agrees  with  the  Oxford 
MSS.     The  2nd  ed.  reads  "  decomposed." 

'The  Book  of  Jashar  i.  i()  says:  "And  Cain  was  jealous  of  his 
brother  on  this  account."  Josephus,  Ant.,  loc.  cit.,  also  agrees  with 
this  view.  The  first  editions  read  :  "  Envy  and  a  great  hatred."  The 
Oxford  MS.  (e.  76)  reads:  "  Envy  and  hatred."  Test.  XII  Pat.,  Benj. 
vii.  5  :  "  Because  forever  those  who  are  like  unto  Cain  in  envy  and 
hatred  of  brethren,  shall  be  punished  with  the  same  judgment." 

^  This  agrees  with  Jubilees  iv.  2;  see  also  Irenseus,  adv.  Hcsr.  iv. 
3  (^.A^C.L.  V.  p.  433). 

*  In  Jubilees  iv.  1  the  wife  of  Cain  is  'Avan,  who  was  born  after 
Abel.     S-'o  Biok  of  .^(Uim  and  Five  (t-d.  Malan)  i.  Ixxviii. 

*  The  Oxford  MS.  (e.  76)  adds  :  "  as  it  is  said  :  '  But  if  a  man  find 
the  damsel  that  is  betrothed  in  the  field  '  "  (Deut.  xxii.  25).  The  first 
editions  read  :  "  as  it  is  said  :  '  For  man  is  the  tree  of  the  field  '  "  (Deut. 
XX.  19).  Man  is  the  tree,  woman  is  the  field.  This  fine  figure  has  a 
parallel  in  Euripides,  Ort-stes,  ';52ff.  Compare  our  expression, 
"  Mother  Earth." 

'  The  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  (ed.  Malan)  i.  Ixxix.  states  :  "  And  Cain 
.  .  .  took  a  large  stone  and  smote  his  brother  with  it  upon  his  head."  See 
Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  iv.  X,  which  reproduces  our  text:  "  he  embedded  a 


CAIN  AND  ABEL  155 

of  Abel,  and  slew  him,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Cain  rose  up 
against  Abel  his  brother,  and  slew  him  "  (ibid.). 

Rabbi  Jochanan  said  :  Cain  did  not  know  that  the 
secrets  are  revealed  before  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He.^ 
He  took  the  corpse  of  his  brother  Abel  and  hid  it  in  the 
field.2  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  said  to  him  :  "  Where 
is  Abel  thy  brother  ?  "  {ibid.  9).  He  replied  to  Him : 
Sovereign  of  the  world  !  A  keeper  of  vineyard  and  field 
hast  Thou  made  me.''  A  keeper  of  my  brother  Thou  hast 
not  made  me ;  as  it  is  said,  "  Am  I  my  brother's  keeper  ?  " 
(ibid.).  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  said  to  him  :  ||  "  Hast 
thou  killed,  and  also  taken  possession  ?  "  *  (1  Kings  xxi.  19). 
"  The  voice  of  thy  brother's  blood  crieth  unto  me  from  the 
ground  "  (Gen.  iv.  10).  When  Cain  heard  this  word  ^  he  was 
confused.  And  He  cursed  him,  that  he  became  ^  a  wanderer 
on  the  earth  because  of  the  shedding  of  the  blood,'  and 
because  of  the  evil  death. 

Cain  spake  before  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He  :  Sovereign 
of  all  the  worlds  !  "  My  sin  is  too  great  to  be  borne " 
{ibid.  13),  for   it   has  no  atonement.*     This  utterance  was 

stone  in  his  forehead  and  slew  him."  The  Book  of  Jashar  i.  2^  speaks 
of  "  the  iron  part  of  the  ploughing  instrument  with  which  he  suddenly 
smote  his  brother."     See  also  Book  of  the  B^e,  p.  26. 

^  Jubilees  (iv.  6)  states,  in  connection  with  Cain's  crime,  that  "  we 

'announce  when  we  come  before  the  Lord  our  God,  all  the  sin  which  is 

committed  in  heaven  and  on  earth,  and  in  light  and  in  darkness,  and 

everywhere.     The  ist  eds.,  Oxford  MS.  (e.  76)  and  Gaster  MS.  add  : 

"  What  did  he  do  ?  " 

^  The  Oxford  MS.  (e.  76)  reads  :  "  he  dug  in  the  earth  and  hid  (or 
buried)  it."  The  first  editions  have  almost  the  same  reading.  Accord- 
ing to  our  book  there  was  apparently  no  actual  burial  by  Cain,  this 
was  done  bv  Adam  and  Eve  ;  see  infra  in  this  chapter.  See  Tanchuma, 
loc.  cit.,  and  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  38.  Our  Midrash  was  known  to  Jerome, 
Ep.  ad  Dam.  125.  See  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  (ed.  Malan),  loc.  cit. 
According  to  the  Book  of  Jashar,  loc.  cit.,  "  Cain  rose  up  and  dug  a  hole 
in  the  field,  wherein  he  put  the  body  of  his  brother,  and  he  turned  the 
dust  over  him."  Ginzberg,  op.  cit.  p.  66,  note  2,  deals  with  this 
theme ;  see  also  Griinbaum,  op.  cit.  pp.  83  f . 

^  Abel's  flocks  would  not  be  in  the  fields  or  vineyards  of  Cain,  and 
therefore,  in  the  ordinary  course  of  events,  he  would  not  have  known 
the  whereabouts  of  his  brother. 

*  "  Hast  thou  taken  possession"  of  thy  brother?  (i.e.  his  wife  and 
his  flock).     The  later  editions  read  :  "I  have  also  heard." 

"  See  T.B.  Synhedrin,  37a,  b. 

^  The  first  editions  read  :   "  that  he  should  be." 

'  Almost  a  literal  quotation  from  Jubilees  iv.  4,  surely  this  must  be 
something  more  than  a  mere  coincidence. 

"  Luria  suggests  that  the  last  words  might  be  read  as  a  question : 
"  Is  there  no  atonement  for  it  ?  " 


156  KABBI  ELIEZER 

reckoned  to  him  as  repentance,^  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Cain 
said  unto  the  Lord,  My  sin  is  too  great  to  be  borne  "  (ibid.) ; 
further,  Cain  said  before  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He  :  Now 
will  a  certain  righteous  one  ^  arise  on  the  earth  and 
mention  Thy  great  Name  against  me  and  slay  me.^  What 
did  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  do  ?  He  took  one  letter 
from  the  twenty-two  letters,"*  and  put  (it)  upon  Cain's  arm  ^ 
that  he  should  not  be  killed,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  Lord 
appointed  a  sign  for  Cain  "  {ibid.  15).  The  dog  ^  which  was 
guarding  Abel's  flock  also  guarded  ^  his  corpse  '^  from  all 
the  beasts  of  the  field  and  all  the  fowl  of  the  heavens.^ 
Adam  and  his  helpmate  were  sitting  and  weeping  and 
mourning  ^°  for  him,  and  they  did  not  know  what  to  do  (with 
Abel),  for  they  were  unaccustomed  to  burial.  A  raven  ^^ 
(came),  one  of  its  fellow  birds  was  dead  (at  its  side).  (The 
raven)  said :  I  will  teach  this  man  what  to  do.  It  took  its 
fellow  and  dug  in  the  earth,  hid  it  and  buried  it  before 
them.  Adam  said  :  Like  this  raven  will  I  act.  He  took  ||  the 
corpse  of  Abel  and  dug  in  the  earth  and  buried  it.  The 
Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  gave  a  good  reward  to  the  ravens 
in  this  world.  What  reward  did  He  give  them  ?  When 
they  bear  their  young  and  see  that  they  are  white  ^^  they 
fly  from  them,  thinking  that  they  are  the  offspring  of  a 
serpent,  and  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  gives  them  their 
sustenance  ^^  without  lack,  as  it  is  said,  "  Who  provideth 

1  Cf.  T.B.  Synhedrin,  loib,  and  Lev.  Rab.  x.  5. 

2  See  Jalkut,  Gen.,  loc.  cit.,  and  Jalkut  Makhiri,  Ps.  cxlvii.  ])p-  143a,  b. 
^  By  mentioning  God's  name,  see  J.Q.R.  v.  p.  409,  and  cf.  infra, 

*  The  first  editions  add  :  "  which  are  in  the  Torah  and  wrote  (it)." 
See  Zohar,  Gen.  36b.  Most  of  this  chapter  has  close  parallels  in  the 
Zohar.     See  also  Pal.  Targum,  in  loc. 

^  In  Pal.  Targum.  in  loc,  "Upon  the  face  of  Cain"  is  the  reading. 
The  sign  of  the  Tephillin  is  placed  on  the  forehead  and  on  the  left  arm. 
See  also  Ezek.  ix.  4,  6,  and  Othijoth  de  R.  'Akiba,  ch.  i.  Cf.  Rashi  on 
Gen.  iv.  15,  and  Midrash  Agadah,  Gen.  p.  12. 

*  See  Job  XXX.  i.    A  parallel  text  occurs  in  Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  irGf. 
"  This  contradicts  the  earlier  stor>'  of  Abel  being  buried  by  Cain. 

**  Jubilees  iv.  7  says  :  "  Adam  and  his  wife  mourned  for  Abel." 

^  See  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  (od.  Malan)  11.  i. 

*"  For  the  phraseology  see  Neh.  i.  4.  The  legend  occurs  also  in  the 
Koran,  Sura  w 

"  Tanchuma,  loc.  cit.,  reads :  "  Two  clean  birds  "  ;  cf.  Gen.  Rab.  xxii. 
8.     See  Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  116. 

1-  See  Jalkut  to  Job.  J?  925 ;  cf .  T.B.  Kethuboth,  49b. 

*'  See  Tanchuma,  'Ekeb,  §  li.  In  the  first  editions  the  quotation 
from  Job  is  not  given. 


CAIN  AND  ABEL  157 

for  the  raven  his  food,  when  his  young  ones  cry  unto  God, 
and  wander  for  lack  of  meat  "  (Job  xxxviii.  41).  Moreover, 
that  rain  should  be  given  ^  upon  the  earth  (for  their  sakes), 
and  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  answers  them,  as  it  is 
said,  "  He  giveth  to  the  beast  his  food,  and  to  the  young 
ravens  which  cry  "  (Ps.  cxlvii.  9).^ 

1  The  first  editions  read  :  "  they  cry  that  rain  should  be  given." 
-  The  previous  verse  of  the  Psalm  speaks  of  rain.     See  also  Jalkut 
Makhiri,  in  loc,  p.   143b.     The  Midrash  Haggadol,  c.   117,  gives  this 
verse  as  Ps.  cxliv.  9.     This  is  a  printer's  error  for  Ps.  cxlvii.  9.     It  adds 
Job  xxxviii.  41. 


CHAPTER    XXII 

THE    FALL   OF   THE    ANGELS  [26a.  i.] 

"  And  *  Adam  lived  an  hundred  and  thirty  years,  and  he 
begat  in  his  own  Hkeness  after  his  image  "  (Gen.  v,  3). 
Hcnee  thou  mayest  learn  that  Cain  was  not  of  Adam's 
seed,"  nor  after  his  likeness,  nor  after  his  image.^  (Adam 
did  not  beget  in  his  own  image)  '*  until  Seth  was  born,  who 
was  ^  after  his  father  Adam's  likeness  and  image,*^  as  it  is  said, 
"And  he  begat  in  his  own  likeness,  after  his  image  "  (ibid.). 
Rabbi  Simeon  '  said  :  From  Seth  arose  and  were  de- 
scended ^    all    the    generations    of   the    righteous.''      From 

1  The  first  editions  read  :   "  It  is  written  :   '  And  Adam,'  "  etc. 

-See  supra,  pp.  150+.,  for  tlie  statement  that  Cain  was  the  off- 
spring of  Eve  and  Sammael.  The  Scripture  text  seems  to  have  afforded 
ground  lor  the  distinction  which  the  Rabbi.s  and  otliers  drew  between 
Cain  and  Seth :  "  And  Adam  knew  Eve  his  wife,  and  she  conceived  and 
bare  Cain,  and  she  said,  I  have  acquired  a  man  (child)  from  the  Lord  " 
(Gen.  iv.  i).  Concerning  Abel  the  Bible  states,  "  And  she  continued 
to  bare  his  brother  Abel"  (ibid.  2),  without  adding  any  further 
qualification  as  in  the  case  of  Cain.  With  reference  to  Seth  the  text 
says,  "  And  Adam  lived  an  hundred  and  thirty  years,  and  he  begat  in 
his  own  likeness  after  his  image,  and  he  called  his  name  Seth  "  (ibid.  v.  3). 
The  fifth  chapter  of  Genesis  begins  afresh  the  history  of  Adam's  off- 
spring, but  omits  all  reference  to  Cain,  who.se  descendants  are  men- 
tioned in  ch.  iv.  The  Pal.  Targum  to  Gen.  v.  3  adds  :  "  but  before 
Eve  had  borne  Cain,  who  was  not  like  to  him  "  (i.e.  Adam). 

^  The  words  "  likeness  and  image  "  are  not  mentioned  in  the  story 
of  Cain's  birth.  The  first  editions  add  :  "  neither  did  his  deeds  resemble 
those  of  Abel  his  brother."  Cain  inherited  the  nature  of  Sammael, 
the  angel  of  Death,  and  became  a  murderer. 

*  The  words  in  brackets  are  not  in  the  text. 

*  The  first  editions  add  :   "  of  his  seed." 

*  The  first  editions  add  :  "  and  his  deeds  were  similar  to  those  of  Abel 
his  brother." 

'  The  first  editions  read  :  "  Ishmael."  Our  MS.  agrees  with  the 
Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  117,  and  the  O.xford  MS.  (O.A.  167).  Dr.  Biichler 
observes:  "Also  in  the  text  of  the  Talmud  Ishmael  and  Simeon  are 
very  irequently  interchanged." 

*  The  first  editions  add  :   "  all  the  creatures." 

'  See  i-upya,  p.  151,  note  5 ,  for  this  paragraph.  There  is  probably  .some 
confusion  in  the  texts  here.     "  The  generations  of  the  righteous"  are 

xs8 


THE  FALL  OF  THE  ANGELS      159 

Cain  arose  and  were  descended  all  the  generations  of 
the  wicked,  who  rebel  ^  and  sin,  who  rebelled  against 
their  Rock,^  and  they  said :  We  do  not  need  the 
drops  of  Thy  rain,^  neither  to  walk  in  Thy  ways,  as  it 
is  said.  "  Yet  they  said  unto  God,  Depart  from  us " 
(Job  xxi.  14). 

Rabbi  Meir  said  :  ||  The  generations  of  Cain  went  about 
stark  naked,^  men  and  women,  just  like  the  beasts,'^  and 
they  defiled  themselves  with  all  kinds  of  immorality, 
a  man  with  his  mother  or  his  daughter,  or  the  wife  of 
his  brother,^  or  the  wife  of  his  neighbour,  in  public  ^ 
and  in  the  streets,  with  evil  inclination  which  is  in  the 
thought   of  their   heart,®   as   it   is    said,    "  And   the  Lord 

the  offspring  of  Seth  mentioned  in  Gen.  v.  ;  and  "  the  generations  of 
the  wicked  "  are  the  offspring  of  Cain  enumerated  in  Gen.  iv.  See 
Zohar,  Gen.  35b,  and  Gen.  Rab.  xxiii.  i.  Pal.  Targum  to  Gen.,  loc.  cit., 
adds  :  "  And  Cain  was  cast  out ;  neither  is  his  seed  enumerated  in  the 
'  Book  of  the  generations  of  Adam.'  " 

1  The  expression  is  based  on  Ezek.  xx.  38. 

^  Cf .  infra,  p.  341.  The  expression  is  often  used  to  denote 
God  as  Creator.  The  first  editions  read  :  "  The  Omnipresent."  The 
Oxford  MS.  (O.A.  167)  and  the  Midrash  Haggadol,  loc.  cit.,  read  : 
"  their  Creator." 

3  Cf.  Job  xxiv.  13.  The  Midrash  apphes  this  chapter  of  Job  to  the 
generation  of  the  Flood.     See  Gjh.  Rab.  xx::i.  2. 

*  Pal.  Targum  on  Gen.  vi.  2  says :  "  And  the  sons  of  the  great  saw 
that  the  daughters  of  men  were  beautiful  .  .  .  walking  with  naked 
flesh  "  ;  cf.  Job  xxiv.  10,  and  Griinbaum,  op.  cit.  pp.  75  ff- 

*  See  Jubilees  iii.  30,  31  and  cf.  ibid.  vii.  16,  for  a  strong  protest 
against  nudity.  See  also  Jalkut,  Deut.  §  945  ;  and  cf .  Briill,  Trachten 
der  Juden,  pp.  4  ff.  The  fact  that  our  book  protests  so  strongly  against 
the  immodest  vogue  which  probably  obtained  at  the  period  and  in  the 

.place  where  the  author  lived  might  point  to  the  "  origin  "  of  our  book, 
if  we  could  only  locate  the  fact  referred  to.  One  is  apt  to  think  of  the 
vagaries  of  certain  classes  of  recluses  who  belonged  to  the  Christian 
Church  and  led  solitary  lives  in  the  deserts  of  Egypc.  Thus,  in  the 
Paradise  of  the  Holy  Fathers  (ed.  Budge,  vol.  i.  p.  242),  we  read  of  the 
Abba  Bessarion,  who  "  wandered  hither  and  thither  like  one  possessed  ; 
in  the  season  of  frost  he  went  naked."  In  the  Jalkut  quoted  above, 
the  passage  states  (on  the  text,  Deut.  xxxii.  21,  "  They  have  moved  me 
to  jealousy  with  that  which  is  not  God")  :  "  this  refers  to  those  who 
come  from  Barbary  (or  Mauretania)  who  walk  naked  in  the  street  "  See 
also  Siphre,  Deut.  §  320.  Have  we  an  echo  of  the  warnings  against 
incest  referred  to  in  Jubilees  xxxiii.  10  ff.?  and  cf.  ibid.  xli.  25-26. 
See  also  Schatzhohlc,  pp.  1 4  f . 

*  For  Ribbinic  references  to  the  subject  see  T.B.  Synhedrin,  58a; 
and  cf.  T.B.  Jebamoth,  63b.  See  also  T.J.  Jebamoth  xi.  i.  iid,  Gen. 
Rab.  xviii.  5,  and  Siphra,  Kedoshim  x.  11. 

'  See  Zohar,  Gen.  6ob.  The  first  editions  omit  :  "  or  the  wife  of  his 
neighbour  "  ;  they  read  :  "in  secret  and  in  pubhc  with  evil  inclina- 
tion," etc. 

«  Cf.  Gen.  vi.  5. 


160  RABBI  ELIEZER 

saw  that  the  wickedness  of  man  was  great  ^  in  the  earth  " 
(Gen.  vi.  5). 

Rabbi  said  :  The  angels  who  fell  "^  from  their  holy 
place  in  heaven  saw  the  daughters  of  the  generations  of 
Cain  ^  walking  about  naked,  with  their  eyes  painted  ^ 
like  harlots,  and  they  went  astray  after  them,^  and  took 
wives  from  amongst  them,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  sons 
of  Elohim "  saw  the  daughters  of  men  that  they  were 
fair ;  and  they  took  them  wives  of  all  that  they  chose  " ' 
{ibid.  2). 

Rabbi  Joshua  ®  said  :  The  angels  arc  flaming  fire,  as  it 
is  said,  "  His  servants  are  a  flaming  fire  "  (Ps.  civ.  4),  and 
fire  came  with  the  coition  of  flesh  and  blood,  but  did  not 
burn  the  body ;  ^  but  when  they  fell  from  heaven,  from  their 
holy  place,  their  strength  and  stature  (became)  like  that 
of  the  sons  of  men,  and  their  frame  was  (made  of)  clods  of 
dust,  as  it  is  said,  "  My  flesh  is  clothed  with  worms  and 
clods  of  dust  "  (Job  vii.  5). 

Rabbi   Zadok  said  :   From   them  were  born  the  giants 

*  The  quotation  ends  here.  The  first  editions  continue  as  in  our 
version.  "Rabbi"  mentioned  in  the  next  paragraph  is  R.  Jehudah, 
the  Prince. 

-These  "fallen  angels"  were  called  Nephilim  (the  fallen  ones). 
"Giants"  is  the  usual  rendering  of  this  term.  On  the  angels,  cf. 
supra,  pp.  46,  99;  and  infra,  pp.  i93f.  These  angels  who  fell  from 
heaven  are  not  mentioned  by  name  in  our  book,  but  they  are  named 
Shemchazai  and  Uzziel  in  Pal.  Targum  to  Gen.  vi.  4,  and  also  in  the 
Azazel  Midrash  in  Jellinek's  B.H.M.  iv.  pp.  127  f. ;  see  Jcrahmocl,  pp. 
53  ft.,  also  Deut.  Rab.  xi.  9,  and  Zohar,  Gen.  46b,  47a.  The  source  of 
the  legend  is  the  Book  of  Enoch;  sec  Introduction.  On  the  names  of 
the  angels,  see  Briill,  Jahrbiicher  filr  Jiid.  Gesch.  i.  147  f.,  where  the 
reference  to  our  text  must  be  corrected. 

3  See  Nachmanides  (in  Gen.  in  he),  who  quotes  our  text. 

*  See  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  \i.  2  ;  and  cf.  Gen.  Rab.  xxvi.  7,  and  Jalkut, 
Gen.  §  44,  quoting  Midrash  Abkhir. 

^  See  Pal.  Targum  in  loc;   and  cf.  Tanna  de  be  Elijahu  Rab.  xxxi. 

p.  158. 

*  The  R.V.  renders,  "  the  sons  of  God."  The  Targum  gives  "  the 
sons  of  the  nobles  "  (or  the  "  mighty  ")  in  the  sense  of  "  angels." 
Our  MS.  quotes  the  second  half  of  this  verse  only,  the  first  editions 
quote  the  first  half  of  the  verse. 

'  The  Pal.  Targum  renders :  "  And  they  took  to  themselves  wives  of 
all  who  pleased  them." 

*  The  first  editions  add  :   "  ben  Korchah." 

*  Cf.  Paul's  expression,  "  burned  in  their  lust  one  toward  another" 
(Rom.  i.  27).  On  the  "  sin  of  the  angels,"  see  the  Book  of  Adam  and 
Eve  (cd.  Malan)  in.  iv.,  which  gives  a  very  interesting  version,  denying 
the  possibility  of  "  angels  .  .  .  committing  sin  with  human  beings  "  ; 
and  see  Recognitions  of  Clement,  iv.  26,  and  Methodius,  Discourse  on 
the  Resurrection,  vii. 


THE  FALL  OF  THE  ANGELS       161 

(Anakim),^  who  walked  with  pride  in  their  heart,^  and  who 
stretched  forth  their  hand  to  all  (kinds  of)  robbery  and 
violence,  and  shedding  of  blood,^  as  it  is  said,  "  And  there 
we  saw  the  Nephilim,^  the  sons  of  Anak  "  (Num.  xiii.  33) ; 
and  it  says,  "  The  Nephilim  were  on  the  earth  in  those 
days  "  (Gen.  vi.  4). 

Rabbi  Joshua  ^  said  :  ||  The  Israelites  are  called  "  Sons 
of  God,"  ^  as  it  is  said,  "  Ye  are  the  sons  of  the  Lord  your 
God  "  (Deut.  xiv.  1).  The  angels  are  called  "  Sons  of  God," 
as  it  is  said,  "  When  the  morning  stars  sang  together,  and 
all  the  sons  of  God  shouted  for  joy  "  (Job  xxxviii.  7) ; '  and 
whilst  they  were  still  in  their  holy  place  in  heaven,  these 
were  called  "  Sons  of  God,"  as  it  is  said,  "  And  also  after 
that,  when  ^  the  sons  of  God  came  in  unto  the  daughters  of 
men,  and  they  bare  children  to  them  ;  the  same  became  the 
mighty  men,  which  were  of  old,  men  of  renown  "  (Gen.  vi. 
4).« 

Rabbi  Levi  said  :  They  bare  their  sons  and  increased 
and  multiplied  ^°  like  a  great  reptile,  six  children  at  each 
birth.i^  In  that  very  hour  they  ^^  stood  on  their  feet,  and 
spoke  the  holy  language,  and  danced  before  them  like 
sheep,  as  it  is  said,  "  They  cast  their  young  like  sheep,  and 
their  children  danced  "  (Job  xxi.  11). 

Noah  ^^  said  to  them  :  Turn  from  your  ways  and  evil 

1  On  the  Anakim  "giants"  see  T.B.  Sotah,  34b,  and  Gen.  Rab., 
loc.  cit. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :   "  with  high  stature."     Cf .  Wisdom  xiv.  6. 
^  Cf.  Job  xxiv.  14. 

*  See  supra,  p.  luo,  note  2. 

*  First  editions  add  :   "  ben  Korchah." 

•On  "Sons  of  God"  in  Gen.  vi.  2  see  LXX,  Aquila,  and  Pesh.  ; 
and  Philo,  de  Gisant.  2,  i.  M.  i.  263,  C.W.  ii.  off.  p.  44,  and  other  refer- 
ences given  by  Charles  on  Jubilees  v.  i.     See  also  Wisdom  ii.  13,  15. 

'  See  Jubilees  V.  i.  The  LXX  version  of  Job  xxxviii.  7  is  interesting 
as  a  parallel  to  our  author's  interpretation  of  the  "  sons  of  God."  "  When 
the  stars  were  made,  all  my  angels  praised  me  with  a  loud  voice."  See 
also  the  Targum  to  Job  in  loc. 

*  The  MS.  and  the  first  editions  give  only  part  of  the  verse. 

*  The  angels  whilst  in  heaven  were  the  sons  of  "  Elohim  "  ;  when  they 
fell  and  sinned  they  lost  their  right  to  this  designation.  Men  may 
rise  by  virtue  and  hohness  and  become  worthy  of  being  called  "  the 
sons  of  Elohim." 

1"  See  Gen.  Rab.  xxxvi.  i  and  Lev.  Rab.  v.  i.  Luria  holds  that  this 
dictum  of  R.  Levi  has  been  interpolated  here  from  Gen.  Rab.  loc.  cit. 

^1  See  infra,  p.  1 74  ;  and  cf .  T.B.  Berakhoth,  6a. 

1^  The  offspring. 

^' The  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  (ed.  Malan),  loc.  cit.,  offers  a  close 
parallel :  "  But  Noah  preached  repeatedly  to  the  children  of  Cain,  saying, 

II 


162  RABBI  ELIEZER 

deeds,  so  that  He  bring  not  upon  you  the  waters  of  the 
Flood,  and  destroy  all  the  seed  of  the  children  of  men.^ 
They  said  to  him  :  Behold,  we  will  restrain  ourselves  from 
multiplying  and  increasing,  so  as  not  to  produce  the  off- 
spring of  the  children  of  men.  What  did  they  do  ?  When 
they  came  to  their  wives  they  spilled  the  issue  of  their  seed 
upon  the  earth  -  so  as  not  to  produce  offspring  of  the  children 
of  men,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  God  saw  the  earth,  and  behold 
it  was  spilled  "  (Gen.  vi.  12).  They  said  :  If  He  bring 
from  heaven  the  waters  of  the  Flood  upon  us,  behold,  we 
are  of  high  stature,  and  the  waters  will  not  reach  ||  up  to  our 
necks ;  ^  and  if  He  bring  the  waters  of  the  depths  against 
us,  behold,  the  soles  of  our  feet  can  close  up  all  the  depths. 
What  did  they  do  ?  They  put  forth  the  soles  of  their 
feet,  and  closed  up  all  the  depths."*  What  did  the  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  do  ?  He  heated  the  waters  of  the  deep, 
and  they  arose  and  burnt  their  flesh,  and  peeled  off  their 
skin  from  them,  as  it  is  said,  "  What  time  they  wax  warm, 
they  vanish ;  when  it  is  hot,  they  are  consumed  out  of  their 
place  "  (Job  vi.  17).  Do  not  read  thus  ("  When  it  is  hot," 
1»n3),  but  (read)  "  in  his  hot  waters  "  (VD^Dn3).5 

'  The  flood  will  come  and  destroy  you,  if  we  do  not  repent.'  But  they 
would  not  hearken  to  him  ;  they  onlj'  laughed  at  him."  See  also  Gen. 
Rab.  XXX.  7,  Tanna  de  be  Elijahu  Rab.  xv.  p.  74,  the  Book  of  Jashar  v. 
22  ff.,  Midrash  Agadah,  Gen.  p.  iS,  and  T.B.  Synhedrin,  io8b.  See  also 
Ephraim,  on  the  Repentance  of  Nineveh  (E.T.  p.  34),  for  the  refusal  of 
the  people  to  repent  at  the  bidding  of  Noah.  The  Church  Fathers  speak 
of  Noah  as  a  preacher.  See  Methodius,  Banquet  of  Ten  Virgins,  x.  3. 
and  cf.  Hippolytus,  A.N.C.L.  vi.  pp.  492  f. 

*  See  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  pp.  39  f .,  and  Wisdom  x.  4. 
*Thc  Oxford  MS.   (O.A.   167)  reads:  "And  the  Holy  One,  blessed 

be  He,  saw  that  they  had  corrupted  their  way."     See  R.V.  Gen.  vi.  12. 
^  "  Water  up  to  the  neck  "  is  an  expression  of  extreme  peril ;    cf. 
Isa.  viii.  8,  xxx.  28  ;  Ps.  Ixix.  2. 

*  See  Pal.  Targum  on  Gen.  vii.  10,  T.B.  Synhedrin,  loc.  cit.,  and 
infra,  p.  167. 

"  The  Hebrew  could  be  interpreted  as  meaning  "  anger."  The 
later  editions  add  :  "  The  Parashah  (Portion)  of  Bereshith  (Gen.  i. 
i-vi.  8)  is  completed."  These  words  are  highly  significant.  They  seem 
to  indicate  that  our  book  was  intended  originally  to  be  a  Midrash 
on  the  Torah,  and  as  it  is  now  preserved  it  is  but  a  fragment  of 
what  it  might  have  been.  The  "  Portion  "  of  Genesis  is  not  to  be 
identified  with  the  "  Book  "  of  Genesis.  The  question  of  the  triennial 
cycle  of  reading  the  Torah  must  also  be  borne  in  mind  in  dealing  with 
our  book.  Tlie  narrative  dealing  with  the  Adam  1.  gends  recurs  three 
times:  (i)  Chapters  IH.-V.,  (2)  Chapters  XI.-XIV.,  and  (3)  Chapters 
XVIII.-XXII.  Thus  far  in  the  first  twenty-two  chapters  of  the  book 
we  have  only  covered  the  first  six  chapters  of  Genesis.     The  first  two 


THE  FALL  OF  THE  ANGELS       163 

chapters  were  biographical,  and  apart  from  them,  the  actual  Midrash 
of  twenty  chapters  may  be  subdivided  as  follows  : 
III.-V.   Creation. 
VI. -VIII.  Astronomy. 
IX.  Ritual. 
X.  Jonah. 

XI.  Creation  Story  resumed. 
XII. -XIV.  Adam  and  Eve  and  Sammael. 
XV.  Ethical  matter. 
XVI.  Abraham,  Isaac,  Eliezer,  and  Rebecca,  and  Wedding 
Customs. 
XVII.  Mourning  Rites. 
XVIII.  Adam. 
XIX.-XX.  Sabbath. 
XXI.-XXII.  Cain,  Abel,  and  the  Fall  of  the  Angels. 
Chapters  XVI.  and  XVII.  seem  out  of  place  in  this  scheme. 

A  considerable  portion  of  this  chapter  and  the  one  following  occurs 
in  the  Midrash  Haggadol.  Several  parallels  are  to  be  found  in  Leljarli 
Tob,  Midrash  Agadah,  and  Aggadath  Bereshith. 


CHAPTER  XXIII 

THE  ARK  AND  THE  FLOOD  [26b.  ii.] 

"  And  this  is  how  thou  shalt  make  the  ark  "  ^  (Gen.  vi.  15). 
R.  Shemiah  taught :  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  showed 
Noah  with  a  finger  ~  and  said  to  him.  Like  this  and  that 
shalt  thou  do  to  the  ark.  One  hundred  and  fifty  rooms  ^ 
were  along  the  length  at  the  left  ^  side  of  the  ark,  thirty- 
three  ^  rooms  across  the  width  in  the  side  within,^  and  thirty- 
three  rooms  in  the  side  across  the  width  on  the  outside  ; ' 
and  ten  compartments  in  the  centre,  which  were  for  the 
storerooms  for  the  food.^  And  there  were  five  protected 
cisterns  ^  on  the  right  side  of  the  ark,  and  fifty  ^^  protected 
cisterns  on  the  left  side  of  the  ark,  and  the  openings  for  the 
water  pipes  opened  and  closed,  and  so  was  it  in  the  lowest 

*  The  Scripture  text  reads  "  it,"  referring  to  the  ark.  See  J.E. 
s.v.  Noah,  Ark,  Deluge  ;  the  Pal.  Targum  has  undoubtedly  used 
our  Midrash  in  the  paraphrase  of  the  Noah  narrative  (Gen.  vi.-vii.). 
The  subject  has  been  dealt  with  by  Griinbaum,  op.  cit.  pp.  79  ff.,  and 
by  Ginzberg,  op.  cit.  pp.  39  fi.,  79  ff.,  87. 

*  See  uifra,  pp.  382  f.,  and  T.B.  Menachoth,  29a,  Mekhilta,  p.  2b, 
Tosaphoth  to  T.B  Chullin,  42a,  and  Midiash  Haggadol,  c.  148. 

^  Lit.  "  nests  "  or  "  cells  "  ;  see  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  vi.  1 5 ,  and  Book 
of  Adam  and  Eve  (ed.  Malan)  iii.  ii.,  for  a  parallel  tradition. 

*  The  first  editions  read :  "  right  side  of  the  ark,  and  one  hundred 
and  fifty  along  the  left  side."  MS.  Gaster  reads  :  "  One  hundred  rooms 
along  tlic  right  side,"  etc. 

*  Pal.  Targum.  loc.  cit.,  has :  "  thirty-six  in  the  middle."  Ginsburger, 
Pseudo-Jonathan,  in  loc,  reads:  "thirty-three." 

*  Where  the  entrance  was,  i.e.  on  the  east  of  the  ark. 

'  Luria  suggests  that  "  within  "  may  refer  to  the  east,  and  "  the 
outside  "  to  the  west. 

*  See  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  (ed.  Malan),  loc.  cit.,  for  a  parallel,  and 
cf.  Hippolyius,  A.N.C.L.  vi.  p.  491. 

»  nvc!:BN  =  nv:p'iS!<  (puteana),  enclosures  surrounding  a  well ;  see  Book 
of  Adam  and  Eve,  loc.  cit. :  "  line  the  well  with  lead."  This  word  occurs 
in  the  Pal.  Targum,  loc.  cit. 

'•  The  printed  editions  read  :  "  five." 

164 


THE  ARK  AND  THE  FLOOD       165 

division ;  ^  and  so  |j  on  the  second  floor,  and  so  on  the  third 
floor.2 

The  dwelHng-place  of  all  the  cattle  and  animals  ^  was  in 
the  lowest  compartment,  the  dwelling-place  for  all  fowl  was 
in  the  second  compartment,  and  the  dwelling-place  for  the 
reptiles  ^  and  the  human  beings  was  in  the  third  compart- 
ment.^ Hence  thou  mayest  learn  ^  that  there  were  366  kinds 
of  cattle  on  the  earth,  and  366  kinds  of  fowl  on  the  earth, 
and  366  kinds  of  reptiles  on  the  earth,  for  thus  was  (the 
number)  in  the  lowest  compartment,'  so  in  the  second 
compartment,  and  so  in  the  third  floor,  as  it  is  said,  "  With 
lower,  second,  and  third  stories  shalt  thou  make  it  "  {ibid. 
16). 

Rabbi  Tachanah  ^  said  :  Noah  made  the  ark  during  fifty- 
two  years,^  so  that  they  should  repent  of  their  ways.^°  But 
they  did  not  repent.  Whilst  yet  the  Flood  had  not  come, 
the  unclean  (animals)  were  more  numerous  than  the  clean 
(animals).     But  when  the  waters  of  the  Flood  came,  and 

1  i.e.  the  hold. 

2  Cf.  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  (ed.  Malan),  loc.  cit. 

2  See  T.B.  Synhedrin,  io8b.  A  parallel  to  our  Midrash  is  to  be 
found  in  Hippolytus  in  A.N.C.L.  vi.,  loc.  cit.,  and  sec  German  edition 
(Achelis),  p.  SS.        Schatzhohle,  p.  17,  has  also  a  parallel. 

*  The  first  editions  add:  "  and  creeping  things." 
^  Cf.  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve,  loc.  cit. 

*  Cf .  Luria's  reading,  which  agrees  with  the  tradition  preserved  in 
Midrash  Konen,  B.H.M.  ii.  3<) ;  cf.  LekachTob,  Gen.  p.  39.  According 
to  Luria  the  text  should  be :  "  Hence  thou  mayest  learn,  that  all  the 
kinds  of  fowl  on  the  earth  equal  365  ;  and  likewise  with  the  kinds  of 
reptiles  on  the  earth,  and  so  with  the  kinds  of  cattle  and  animals  on 
the  earth."  The  first  editions  read  :  "  32  kinds  of  fowl  on  the  earth, 
365  kinds  of  reptiles  on  the  earth." 

'  366  rooms.     This  number  is  found  thus  :  150  on  the  right. 

150  on  the  left. 
33  "  within." 
33  "  without." 

366 

Does  this  number  refer  to  the  366  days  of  our  author's  solar  year  ? 
Noah  was  in  the  ark  one  solar  year. 

*  The  first  editions  read:  "  Tanchuma." 

*  According  to  the  Book  of  Jashar  v.  34  Noah  took  five  years  to 
build  the  ark  ;    see  A.N.C.L.  xviii.  p.  344. 

*"  The  first  editions  add :  "  and  evil  deeds,"  but  omit :  "  But  they 
did  not  repent."  See  the  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve,  loc.  cit.  The  same 
tradition  occurs  in  the  writings  of  several  of  the  Church  Fathers  : 
Theophilus  of  Antioch  (To  Autolyctts,  in.  19),  Ephraim  of  Syria  (on 
Jonah,  13) ;  Revelation  of  Paul,  A.N.C.L.  xvi.  p.  491 ;  and  Book  of 
the  Bee,  p.  31  ;  see  also  supra,  pp.  161  f. 


166  RABBI  ELIEZER 

the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  wished  to  increase  the  clean 
and  to  diminish  the  unclean  (animals),  He  called  to  Noah 
and  said  to  him  :  Take  to  thee  into  the  ark  of  all  clean 
beasts  seven  and  seven, ^  the  male  and  his  female  ;  and  of 
the  unclean  beasts  two  and  two,  the  male  and  his  female, 
as  it  is  said,  "  Of  every  ||  clean  beast  thou  shalt  take  to 
thee  2  seven  and  seven,  the  male  and  his  female  ;  and  of 
the  beasts  that  are  not  clean  two,  the  male  and  his  female  " 
{ibid.  vii.  2), 

Noah  said  to  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He :  Sovereign  of 
all  the  world  !  Have  I  then  the  strength  to  collect  them  unto 
me  to  the  ark  ?  The  angels  appointed  over  each  kind 
went  down  and  gathered  them,^  and  with  them  all  their 
food  unto  him  to  the  ark.  They  came  to  him  of  their 
own  accord,*  as  it  is  said,  "  And  they  came  unto  Noah 
into  the  ark  "  {ibid.  9) ;  they  came  by  themselves.  "  And 
they  brought  (them)  to  Noah  "  is  not  written  here,  but, 
"  And  they  came  unto  Noah  into  the  ark."  ^ 

Rabbi  Mana  said  :  When  all  the  creatures  had  entered 
(the  ark),  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  closed  and  sealed  ^ 
with  His  hand  the  gate  '  of  the  ark,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the 
Lord  shut  him  in  "  {ibid.  16). 

Rabbi  Meir  said  :  One  pearl  was  suspended  in  the  ark, 
and  shed  light  upon  all  the  creatures  in  the  ark,  like  a  lamp 
which    gives  light  ^   inside  ^  the  house,  and    like   the  sun 

1  The  first  editions  end  the  paragraph  here. 

*  The  quotation  ends  here  in  the  MS.,  which  adds  "  etc." 

'  The  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  (cd.  Malan)  iii.  viii.  says  :  "  My  power 
shall  go  with  it  (the  trumpet  blast)  to  make  it  come  into  the  ears  of 
the  beasts  and  the  birds.  ...  I  will  command  my  angel  to  blow  the 
horn  from  heaven,  and  all  these  animals  shall  be  gathered  unto  thee." 
Cf.  Pal.  Targum  on  Gen.  vi.  20 :  "  they  shall  enter  to  thee  by  the  hand 
of  the  angel,  who  will  take  and  cause  them  to  enter  to  thee." 

*  This  is  not  in  the  printed  texts.  For  a  similar  legend  see  Gen.  Rab. 
xxxii.  4  and  5,  and  cf.  Ephraim,  Sermon  on  Repentance  i.  t,. 

*  This  sentence  is  not  in  the  printed  texts.  In  the  previous  sentence 
the  first  editions  read  :  "  '  And  Noah  brought  '  is  not  written  in  the 
Scripture,  but  '  And  they  came  unto  Noah.'  " 

'  The  same  expression  occurs  in  the  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  (cd. 
Malan)  in.  ix. 
'  Or,  "  door." 

*  See  Pal.  Targum,  tw/oc;  T.B.  Synhedrin, /oc.cii. ;  Jalljcut.Gen.,  inloc; 
Gen.  Rab.  xxxi.  11,  which  has  a  different  version  as  compared  with  the 
Talmudic  version  of  the  legend.  According  to  the  Midrash  it  is  Rabbi  Levi 
who  gives  the  tradition.    Cf.  Leljach  Tob,  in  loc,  and  supra,  p.  21. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  by  its  power,  as  it  is  said  :  '  A  light 
shalt  thou  make,'  "  etc. 


THE  ARK  AND  THE  FLOOD       167 

yonder  which  shines  in  his  might,  as  it  is  said,  "  A  Hght  shalt 
thou  make  to  the  ark  "  {ibid.  vi.  16). 

Rabbi  Zadok  said  :  On  the  10th  of  Marcheshvan  all  the 
creatures  entered  the  ark  ;  on  the  17th  of  the  same  ^  (month) 
the  waters  of  the  Flood  descended  from  heaven  upon  the 
earth,  for  they  were  the  waters  (endowed  with  the)  male 
(principle).  And  there  came  up  the  waters  of  the  depths, 
for  they  are  the  waters  (endowed)  with  the  female  (prin- 
ciple),^  and  they  were  joined  with  one  another,  and  they 
prevailed  so  as  to  destroy  |I  the  world,^  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
the  waters  prevailed  exceedingly  upon  the  earth "  {ibid. 
vii.  19). 

And  all  living  things  which  were  upon  the  face  of  the 
earth  decayed,^  as  it  is  said,  "  And  every  living  thing  was 
destroyed  which  was  upon  the  face  of  the  ground  "  {ibid. 
23),  except  Noah  and  those  who  were  with  him  in  the  ark, 
as  it  is  said,  "  And  Noah  only  was  left,  and  they  that 
were  with  him  in  the  ark  "  {ibid.),  except  Og,^  king  of 
Bashan,  who  sat  down  on  a  piece  of  wood  under  the  gutter  ^ 
of  the  ark.  He  swore  to  Noah  and  to  his  sons  that  he 
would  be  their  servant  for  ever.''  What  did  Noah  do  ? 
He  bored  an  aperture  in  the  ark,  and  he  put  (through  it)  his 
food  daily  for  him,  and  he  also  was  left,  as  it  is  said,  "  For 
only  Og,  king  of  Bashan,  remained  of  the  remnant  of  the 
giants  "  (Deut.  iii.  11). 

(The  Flood  was  universal)  except  in  the  land  of  Israel,^ 
upon  which  the  water  of  the  Flood  did  not  descend  from 

^  See  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  vii.  1 1  ;  and  compare  our  text  with  the  Scrip- 
ture text.  See  also  T.B.  Rosh  Ha-Shanah,  iib;  Seder 'Olam  Rab.  iv. 
p.  loa,  note  17.  Rabbi  Eliezer  held  the  view  that  the  world  was  created 
in  EUul  and  Adam  in  Tishri. 

^  See  supra,  p.  30  ;  T.J.  Berakhoth  ix.  3.  14a,  and  Eth.  Enoch  liv.  <S. 
The  rain  from  heaven  is  the  male  principle. 

^  The  living  creatures  in  the  world. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :    "  were  destroyed." 

*  See  T.B.  Niddah,  6ia,  and  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  p.  267. 
The  Midrashic  interpretation  of  the  word  "  Rephaim  "  (Deut.  iii.  1 1)  gave 
rise  to  this  legend.  See  Job  xxvi.  5,  sttpra,  p.  112,  and  infra,  p.  253. 
The  legend  which  connects  Og  with  the  "  Palit  "  is  ignored  by  our  book, 
which  identifies  Og  with  EUezer,  the  servant  of  Abraham.  The  "  Paht  " 
is  identified  with  Michael,  see  infra,  pp.  193  f.  ;  and  cf.  J.E.  ix.  388,  and 
Griinbaum,  op.  cit.  p.  80. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :   "  On  a  rung  of  (one  of)  the  ladders." 
'  See  supra,  p.  112. 

*  See  T.B.  Zebachim,  113a;  Nachmanides  in  his  commentary  on 
Gen.,  in  loc,  and  3  Baruch  iv.  10. 


168  RABBI  ELIEZER 

heaven,  but  the  waters  were  gathered  together  from  all 
lands,  and  they  entered  therein,  as  it  is  said,  "  Son  of 
man,  say  unto  her.  Thou  art  a  land  that  is  not  cleansed,  nor 
rained  upon,  in  the  day  of  indignation  "  ^  (Ezek.  xxii.  2i). 
He  2  sent  forth  the  raven  to  ascertain  what  was  (the  state 
of)  the  world.  It  went  and  found  a  carcase  of  a  man  cast 
upon  the  summit  of  a  mountain, ^  and  it  settled  thereon 
for  its  food,*  and  it  did  not  return  with  its  message  to  its 
sender,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  he  sent  forth  the  raven  " 
(Gen.  viii.  7).  He  sent  forth  the  do\  e  to  see  what  was 
(the  state  of)  the  world,  and  she  brought  back  her  message 
to  her  sender,  as  it  is  said.  "  And  the  dove  came  in  to 
him  at  eventide,"  and,  lo,  in  her  mouth  an  olive  leaf  pluekt 
off  "  '^  {ibid.  11).  And  why  in  her  mouth  was  an  olive  leaf 
pluekt  off  ?  II  The  dove  spake  before  the  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  saying :  Sovereign  of  all  worlds  !  Let  my 
food  be  bitter  like  this  olive,  and  let  it  be  entrusted ' 
to  Thy  hand,  and  let  it  not  be  sweet  (even)  as  honey,  and 
given  by  the  hand  of  flesh  and  blood. ^  Hence  they  »  said  : 
He  who  sends  a  message  by  the  hand  of  an  unclean  (messen- 
ger) 1"  is  (like)  sending  by  the  hand  of  a  fool,  and  he  who 
sends  a  message  by  the  hands  of  a  clean  (messenger)  is  like 
sending  by  the  hand  of  a  messenger  faithful  to  his  senders." 
Rabbi  Zadok  said  :  For  twelve  12  months  all  the  creatures 

>  The  land  in  thr-  text  is  interpreted  by  the  Midrash  as  referring 
to  the  Holy  Land  at  the  time  of  the  Flood. 

-  i.e.  Noah.     The  first  editions  read  :    "  Noah." 
^  Lit.  "  upon  the  tops  of  the  mountains." 

*  Cf.  the    interpretation  of  Job  xxiv.  20,  in  G'=-n.  Rnb.  .xxxiii.  5. 
*The  MS.  ends  the  quotation  at  "eventide."      The  first  editions 

continue  the  verse.  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  viii.  11,  reads:  "And  the 
dove  came  to  him  at  the  evening  time,  and  behold,  a  leaf  of  olive 
gathered,  broken  off,  she  brought  in  her  mouth,  and  which  she  had 
taken  from  the  mount  of  Ohves."  Palestine  had  escaped  the  deluge. 
See  Seder 'Olam  Rab.  iv.  p.  lob.  note  27,  and  Tosaphoth  lo'Erubin  i8b. 
«  Cf.  the  R.V. 

'  The  first  editions  read  :   "  and  given  by  Thy  hand." 
•Cf.    Gen.  Rab.    xxxiii.  6;    T.B.  Synhedrin,   io8b  ;    and  Rabbinic 
Philosophy  and  Ethics,  p.  41.     See  also  Revelation  of  Paul,  loc.  cit. 

•  The  sages  of  Israel. 

'°  Later  editions  read:  "evil."  The  raven  was  "  unclean,"  whilst 
the  dove  was  a  "  clean  "  bird ;  see  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics, 
pp.  40  f . 

»'  Cf.  Prov.  XXV.  13  for  a  similar  expression ;  see  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  58 ; 
Aboth  de  R.  Nathan  '17)  xxxiv.  p.  51b. 

»=  See  Mishnah'Edujoth  ii.;  and  Scder'Olam  Rab.  iv.i>.<)h.  The  Flood 
began  on  the  17th  of  Marcheshvan,  and  on  the  27th  of  this  month,  a 


THE  ARK  AND  THE  FLOOD       169 

were  in  the  ark;  and  Noah  stood  and  prayed  before  the 
Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  saying  before  Him :  ^  Sovereign 
of  all  worlds  !  Bring  me  forth  from  this  prison,  for  my  soul 
is  faint,  because  of  the  stench  ^  of  lions.^  Through  me  will 
all  the  righteous  crown  Thee  with  a  crown  of  sovereignty,* 
because  Thou  hast  brought  me  forth  from  this  prison,  as 
it  is  said,  "  Bring  my  soul  out  of  prison,^  that  I  may  give 
thanks  unto  thy  name  :  for  the  righteous  shall  crown  me, 
when  thou  wilt  have  dealt  bountifully  with  me  "  (Ps,  cxlii.  7).^ 
Rabbi  Levitas,  a  man  of  Jamnia,  said  :  He  separated  the 
males  from  the  females  of  all  which  came  to  the  ark '  when 
they  came  into  the  ark,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Noah  went  in, 
and  his  sons,  and  his  wife,  and  his  sons'  wives  "  (Gen.  vii.  7). 
Verily  the  males  were  on  one  side.^  When  they  went  forth 
from  the  ark.  He  caused  the  males  to  be  joined  with  the 
females,  as  it  is  said,  "  Go  forth  of  the  ark,  thou,  and 
thy  wife,^  and  thy  sons,  and  thy  sons'  wives  with  thee  " 
(ibid.  viii.  16).  Verily  a  man  with  his  wife  (went  forth), 
"  Thy  sons,  and  thy  sons'  wives  with  thee"^°  (ibid.)  \\  He 
blessed  them,  that  they  might  increase  and  multiply  on  the 
earth,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  God  blessed  Noah  and  his  sons,^^ 


year  later,  Noah  was  released.  This  period  lasted  one  year  and  eleven 
days,  i.e.  one  lunar  year  plus  eleven  days,  which  is  the  duration  of  a 
solar  year. 

1  See  th'?  fine  prayer  in  the  Book  of  Jashar  \'i.  31.  which  has  used  our 
P.R.E.  See  Tanchuma,  Noah  §  ix.  The  basis  of  the  prayer  here  is 
probably  Isa.  xlix.  9. 

2  Luria  suggests  that  the  text  should  read:  "  the  dread." 
'  The  first  editions  add  :    "  bears  and  leopards." 

*  The  story  of  Noah  forms  part  of  the  "  ?ichronoth"  in  the  Syna- 
,c;oguc  liturgy  for  the  New  Year.  For  another  explanation  see  Tanchuma, 
Gen.,  loc.  cit.     See  Introduction. 

*  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here ;  the  first  editions  continue 
the  verse. 

*  See  the  Book  of  Jashar  vi.  36. 

'  The  first  editions  omit :  "  when  they  came  into  the  ark."  See  the 
Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  fed.  Malan)  iii.  vii.  f.  ;  T.J.  Ta'anith  i.  b.  64d  ; 
T.B.  Synhedrin,  loc.  cit.  ;  Gen.  Rab.  xxxi.  12.  The  Church  has  in  some 
quarters  to  this  day  retained  the  custom  of  separating  the  sexes  at 
Divine  worship.  For  other  references  see  Ginzberg,  op.  cit.  p.  82,  who 
quotes  Origen  and  Ephraim. 

*  The  first  editions  add  :  "  And  the  females  were  on  the  other  side." 
The  legend  occurs  also  in  Hippolytus  (ed.  Achelis),  G.T.,  loc.  cit. 

'  The  MSS.  end  the  quotation  here  :  the  first  editions  continue  the 
verse. 

"  Cf .  Luria's  reading. 

"  The  MS.  ends  the  quotation  here ;  the  first  editions  continue  the 
verse  till  the  word  "  multiply." 


170  RABBI  ELIEZER 

and  said  unto  them,  Be  fruitful,  and  multiply,  and  replenish 
the  earth  "  {ibid.  ix.  1).  The  sons  of  Noah  were  fruitful  and 
multiplied,  and  they  begat  sons  with  their  twins  with  thcni.^ 
Noah  found  a  vine  whieh  was  lying  there,-  whieh  had 
come  out  of  the  garden  of  Eden.^  It  had  its  clusters  with 
it,  and  he  took  of  its  fruit  and  ate,  and  rejoiced  in  his  heart,^ 
as  it  is  said,  "  My  wine,  which  cheercth  God  and  man  " 
(Judg.  ix.  13).  He  planted  a  vineyard  with  it.  On  the 
selfsame  day  it  produced  and  became  ripe  ^  with  its  fruits, 
as  it  is  said,  "  In  the  day  of  thy  planting  thou  dost  make 
it  grow,''  and  in  the  morning  thou  makest  thy  seed  to 
blossom  "  (Isa.  xvii,  11)."  He  drank  wine  thereof,  and  he 
became  exposed  in  the  midst  of  the  tent,  as  it  is  said, 
"  And  he  drank  of  the  wine,  and  was  drunken  ;  and  he  was 
uncovered  within  his  tent  "  (Gen.  ix.  21).*^  Canaan  entered 
and  saw  the  nakedness  of  Noah,  and  he  bound  a  thread 
(where  the  mark  of)  the  Covenant  ^  was,  and  emasculated 
him.  He  went  forth  and  told  his  brethren.  Ham  entered 
and  saw  his  nakedness.  He  did  not  take  to  heart  the  duty 
of  honouring  (one's  father  ^°).  But  he  ^^  told  his  two  brothers 
in   the  market,^-  making   sport  ^'^  of   liis   father.     His   two 

'  This   sentence    does    not   occur   in    the    printed   editions.       See 

Midiasli  Haggadol,  c.  105. 

'  The  first  editions  read:  "  which  had  been  cast  forth." 

^  Pal.  Targum,  G:n.  ix.  20,  reads:    "And   he  found  a  vine  which 

the  river  had  brought  away  from  the  i^arden  of  Eden."     Apparently 

our  ^Nlidrash  wishes  to  connect  the  folly  of  Noah  with  the  sin  of  Adam  ; 

see  Siphre,  Deut.  §  323.     Cf.  T.B.  Synhedrin,  70a,  Gen.  Kab.  xxxvi.  3, 

and  ^ohar,  Gen.  73a.    See  3  Baruch  iv.  10  ff. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  and  he  desired  them  in  his  heart."  The 
quotation  which  follows  in  our  text  is  omitted  by  the  printed  editions. 

*  The  1st  ed.  and  several  later  editions  read  :    "  its  fruits  ripened." 

*  The  quotation  ends  here  in  the  MS.  and  first  editions. 

"  Note  the  preceding  verse  in  Isaiah.  See  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and 
Ethics,  p.  43. 

*  The  quotation  does  not  occur  in  the  printed  editions  of  our  book. 

*  i.e.  Circumcision.  The  legend  that  Noah  was  an  eunuch  occurs 
also  in  Theophilus  of  Antioch  (To  Autolycus,  iii.  19).  Sec  aha  Zohar, 
Gen.  73b,  and  Griinbaum,  op.  cit.  p.  86. 

1°  bur  MS.  reads  :  "  the  duty  (or  precept)  of '  Honour '"  (Ex.  xx.  12). 
Some  editions  (Amsterdam)  add:  "and  mother."  See  Book  of  Adam 
and  Eve  (cd.  Malan)  iii.  xiii.  According  to  Luria  the  text  should  con- 
tinue: "therefore  was  he  cursed  by  being  called  a  slave";  see 
Tanchuma,  cd.  Bubtr,  Gen.  2.\h. 

"  The  first  editions  read  :   "  He  went  forth  and  told." 

*'  So  also  the  Targumim,  in  loc.  Perhaps  the  translation  should 
be  "outside." 

"  See  Justin  Martyr,  Dial.  c.  Tryph.  cxxxix.  ;  "  who  mocked  at  his 
father's  nakedness." 


THE  ARK  AND  THE  FLOOD       171 

brothers  rebuked  him.  What  did  they  do  ?  They  took 
the  curtain  of  the  east  ^  with  them,  and  they  went  back- 
wards and  covered  -  the  nakedness  of  their  father,  as  it 
is  said,  "  And  Shem  and  Japheth  took  a  garment,^  and 
laid  it  upon  both  their  shoulders,  and  went  backward,  and 
covered  the  nakedness  of  their  father ;  and  their  faces 
were  backward,  and  they  saw  not  their  father's  nakedness  " 
{ibid.  23). 

Noah  awoke  from  his  wine,  and  he  knew  what  the 
younger  son  of  Ham  had  done  unto  him,  and  he  cursed  him,^ 
as  it  is  said,  "  And  he  said,  Cursed  be  Canaan "  {ibid. 
25).  Noah  sat  and  mused  in  his  heart,  saying :  The  Holy 
One,  blessed  be  He,  delivered  me  ||  from  the  waters  of  the 
Flood,  and  brought  me  forth  from  that  prison,  and  am 
I  not  obliged  to  bring  before  Thee  a  sacrifice  and  burnt 
offerings  ?  ^  What  did  Noah  do  ?  He  took  from  the  clean  ^ 
animals  an  ox  and  a  sheep,'  and  from  all  the  clean  birds, 
a  turtle-dove  and  pigeons  ;  and  he  built  up  the  first  altar 
upon  which  Cain  and  Abel  ^  had  brought  offerings,  and  he 
brought  four  burnt  offerings,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Noah 
builded  an  altar  unto  the  Lord ;  and  took  of  every  ^  clean 
beast,  and  of  every  clean  fowl,  and  he  offered  burnt  offerings 
on  the  altar  "  {ibid.  viii.  20).  It  is  written  here  only,  "  and 
he  offered  burnt  offerings  on  the  altar,"  and  the  sweet 
savour  ascended  before  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  and  ^° 
it  was  pleasing  to  Him,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  Lord  smelled 
the  sweet  savour "  {ibid.  21).     What  did  the  Holy  One, 

1  Or  "veil  of  the  east,"  the  veil  or  curtain  used  to  shield  one 
from  the  heat  and  glare  of  the  sun.  The  2nd  ed.  reads :  "  the 
cover." 

*  See  Midrash  Agadah,  Gen.  p.  23,  note  16. 

*  The  quotation  ends  here  in  the  MS.  and  first  editions. 

*  See  Gen.  Rab.,  loc.  cit.,  and  Justin  Martyr,  Dial.  c.  Tvyph.,  loc.  cii.  ; 
for  other  references  to  Church  Fathers  see  Ginzberg,  op.  cit.  p.  86. 

°  See  ?ohar,  Gen.  70a.  There  is  considerable  agreement  between 
the  Zohar  and  P.R.E.  in  this  and  the  next  chapter. 

*  See  Book  of  Adam  and  Eve  (ed.  Malan)  in.  xi. 
'  The  first  editions  add  :   "  and  a  goat." 

*  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  viii.  20,  reads  :  "  And  Noah  built  an  altar  before 
the  Lord  ;  that  altar  which  Adam  had  built  at  the  time  when  he  was 
cast  forth  from  the  garden  of  Eden,  and  had  offered  an  offering  upon 
it ;  and  upon  it  had  Cain  and  Abel  offered  their  offerings."  Cf .  also 
T.B.  Zebachim,  115b,  and  Gen.  Rab.  xxxiv.  9, 

"  The  quotation  ends  here  in  the  MS. 

"The  first  editions  add:  "as  it  is  said,  'and  he  offered  burnt 
offerings  on  the  altar '  "  (Gen.  viii.  20). 


172  RABBI  ELIEZER 

blessed  be  He,  do  ?  He  put  forth  His  right  hand,  and 
swore  to  Noah  ^  that  He  would  not  -  bring  the  waters  of  the 
Flood  upon  the  earth,  as  it  is  said,  "  For  this  is  as  the  waters 
of  Noah  unto  me  ;  for  as  I  have  sworn  ^  that  the  waters 
of  Noah  should  no  more  go  over  the  earth  "  (Isa.  liv.  9). 
And  He  gave  a  sign  in  the  rainbow  as  a  sign  of  the  covenant 
of  the  oath  between  Himself  and  the  people,  as  it  is  said, 
"  I  do  set  my  bow  in  the  cloud,^  and  it  shall  be  for  a  token 
of  a  covenant  "  (Gen.  ix.  13). 

And  thus  our  sages  instituted  ^  that  they  should  (mention)  ^ 
the  oath  to  Noah  every  day,  as  it  is  said,  "  That  j^our  days 
may  be  multiplied,  and  the  days  of  your  children,  upon 
the  land  '  which  the  Lord  sware  unto  your  fathers  to  give 
them,  as  the  days  of  the  heavens  above  the  earth  "  (Deut. 
xi.  21). 

Noah  brought  his  sons  and  his  grandsons,  and  he  blessed 
them  with  their  (several)  settlements,^  and  he  gave  them 
as  an  inheritance  all  the  earth.^  He  especially  blessed  ^^ 
Shem  and  his  sons,  (making  them)  dark  but  comely,^^  and 
he  gave  them  the  habitable  earth.^^     jje  blessed  Ham  and 

*  See  infra,  pp.  335,  347  ;  and  cf.  Tanchuma,  Noah  §  xi. 

*  The  first  editions  add  here:  "  again." 

^  The  quotation  ends  here  in  the  MS.  and  the  first  editions,  which 
add  :   "  etc." 

*  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here ;  it  is  continued  in  the  first 
editions. 

*  See  T.B.  Berakhoth,  13a,  for  the  daily  recital  of  the  story  of  the 
Exodus.  The  Scripture  passage  quoted  occurs  in  the  second  section 
of  the  "  Shema  "  ;  see  Singer,  p.  41.  The  ritual  question  involved 
here  is  interesting,  because  the  actual  narrative  of  the  oath  to  Noah 
is  not  recited  daily.  The  verse  quoted  as  a  reason  for  this  institution 
continues,  after  the  word  "  land,"  thus:  "  which  the  Lord  sware  unto 
your  fathers  to  give  them."  This  was  not  the  oath  to  Noah.  See 
Eth.  Enoch  Iv.  2. 

*  The  MS.  omits  "  mention  "  ;  it  occurs  in  the  first  editions. 

'  The  first  editions  end  the  quotation  here  ;  in  the  MS.  the  last  word 
quoted  is  "  children."  In  the  printed  texts  this  quotation  is  the  con- 
clusion of  the  chapter.  Our  MS.  continues  with  a  section  which  forms 
part  of  chapter  xxiv.  in  the  printed  editions. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :    "  gifts." 

'  The  division  of  the  earth  among  the  sons  of  Noah  is  also  men- 
tioned by  Jubilees  viii.  10,  and  was  known  to  the  Church  Father, 
Epiphanius  (G.T.  pp.  217  ff.). 

'"  The  verb  is  repeated. 

"  Cf.  Cant.  i.  5  ;  but  they  were  not  "  black  "  ;  llic  Oxford  MS. 
(O.A.  1O7)  reads:  "  white  and  comely." 

*^  Not  the  sea  which  was  the  lot  of  the  sons  of  Ham,  nor  the  deserts 
which  fell  to  the  sons  of  Japhcth.  Shem  has  his  tents  and  fixed  abode 
in  the  habitable  lands  of  the  earth. 


THE  ARK  AND  THE  FLOOD      173 

his  sons,  (making  them)  dark  ||  hke  the  raven,^  and  he  gave 
them  as  an  inheritance  the  coast  of  the  sea.^  He  blessed 
Japheth  and  his  sons,  (making)  them  entirely  white,^  and 
he  gave  them  for  an  inheritance  the  desert  and  its  fields ;  * 
these  (are  the  inheritances  with)  which  he  endowed  them.^ 

^  Luria  reads,  as  an  emendation,  "  black  and  uncomely"  ;  cf.  Gen. 
Rab.  xxxvi.  7.  If  our  MS.  text  be  accepted,  a  parallel  may  be  found 
in  Cant.  v.  11. 

2  e.g.  the  Egyptians  on  the  seacoast,  or  the  Sidonians  on  the 
Phoenician  coast;  cf.  Jer.  xlvii.  7. 

3  The  first  editions  add :  "  and  beautiful."  Japheth  as  a  word 
signifies  "  beauty."  The  sons  of  Japheth  were  the  migratory  tribes 
from  the  north,  e.g.  the  Goths  who  settled  in  Europe.  See  Eth.  Enoch 
Ixxxviii.  g. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  desert  and  fields." 

^  i.e.  the  children  of  Noah.  The  words  in  brackets  occur  in  the  first 
editions.     Soe  Introduction,  pp.  xxiv.  f.,  and  li. 


CHAPTERXXIV 

NIMROD    AND    THE   TOWER   OF   BABEL   [28b.    i.] 

Rabbi  Eliezer  ^  said  :  They  begat  their  sons  and  increased 
and  raultipHed  like  a  great  reptile,  six  at  each  birth, ^  and 
they  were  all  one  people,  and  one  heart,  and  one  language, 
as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  whole  earth  was  of  one  language 
and  of  one  speech  "  (Gen.  xi.  1).^  They  despised  the  pleasant 
land,*  as  it  is  said,  "  And  it  came  to  pass,  as  they  journeyed  ^ 
in  the  east  "  {ibid.  2).  They  went  to  the  land  of  Shinar,  and 
found  there  a  large  stone,^  very  extensive,  and  the  whole 
plain,  and  they  dwelt  there,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  they  found 
a  plain  in  the  land  of  Shinar,  and  they  dwelt  there  "  {ibid.). 

Rabbi  Akiba  said :  They  cast  off  the  Kingdom  of 
Heaven  ^  from  themselves,  and  appointed  Nimrod  king  over 
themselves ;  a  slave  son  of  a  slave.  Are  not  all  the 
sons  of  Ham  slaves  ?  ^  And  woe  to  the  land  when  a  slave 
rules,^  as  it  is  said,  "  For  a  servant,  when  he  is  king  "  i° 
(Prov.  XXX.   22). 

Rabbi  Chakhinai  ^^  said :   Nimrod  was  a  mighty  hero, 

1  The  first  editions  read  "  Ilai." 

*  We  have  had  this  expression  supra,  p.  i6i.  It  is  an  "Oriental" 
exaggeration,  signifjring  the  proUfic  nature  of  the  people. 

3  See  Pal.  Targum,  in  loc. 

*  Palestine  ;  cf.  Ps.  cvi.  24,  and  Zohar,  Gen.  75b. 

*  "  In  the  east  "  might  also  be  rendered  "  in  the  commencement," 
or  "  at  first "  ;  see  ?ohar,  Gen.  74b. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  a  large  and  extensive  land,  entirely  a 
plain." 

'  See  T.B.  'Erubin,  53a  ;  cf.  Pal.  Targum  to  Gen.  x.  8  on  Nimrod  ; 
see  also  the  Book  of  Jashar  vii.  46  fl.,  and  Jerahmeel  Ivii.  14.  Augustine 
rendered  Gen.  x.  9,  "  Nimrod  was  a  hunter  against  God  "  {de  Civ.  Dei, 
xvi,  4). 

*  The  Venice  edition  reads  :  "  are  slaves." 

»  The  phraseology  is  based  on  Eccl  s.  x.  16. 

"  The  previous  verse  says,  "  The  earth  trembles."     Nimrod  caused 
the  people  to  tremble,  as  a  result  of  discarding  the  Kingdom  of  Heaven. 
»i  The  first  editions  read  "  Chanina." 

»74 


NIMROD  AND  TOWER  OF  BABEL     175 

as  it  is  said,  "  And  THush  begat  Nimrod,  who  began  to  be  a 
mighty  one  in  the  earth  "  (Gen.  x.  8).  Rabbi  Jehudah  said :  ^ 
The  coats  2  which  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  made  for 
Adam  and  his  wife,  were  with  Noah  ^  in  the  ark,  and  when 
they  went  forth  from  the  ark,  1|  Ham,  the  son  of  Noah, 
brought  them  forth  with  him,  and  gave  them  as  an  inherit- 
ance to  Nimrod.*  When  he  put  them  on,  all  beasts, 
animals,  and  birds,  when  they  saw  the  coats, ^  came  and  pros- 
trated themselves  before  him.^  The  sons  of  men '  thought 
that  this  (was  due)  to  the  power  of  his  might ;  therefore 
they  made  him  king  over  themselves,  as  it  is  said,  "  Where- 
fore it  is  said.  Like  Nimrod,  a  mighty  hunter  before  the 
Lord  "  {ibid.  9).8 

Nimrod  said  to  his  people :  ^  Come,  let  us  build  a  great 
city  for  ourselves,  and  let  us  dwell  therein,  lest  we  be 
scattered  upon  the  face  of  all  the  earth,  as  the  first  people  ^° 
(were).  Let  us  build  a  great  tower  in  its  midst,  ascending 
to  heaven,  11  for  the  power  of  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He, 
is  only  in  the  water,!^  and  let  us  make  us  a  great  name  on  the 
earth,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  let  us  make  us  a  name  "  {ibid. 
xi.  4). 

^  See  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  pp.  44  f .  On  the  garments 
of  Adam  and  Eve  see  the  Book  of  Jashar,  vii.  24  ff. ;  Gen.  Rab.  xx.  12 
and  Ixv.  16;  Pal.  Targ.  Gen.  xxv.  27,  xxvii.  15. 

*  The  first  editions  read  "  coat."     See  Book  of  the  Bee,  p.  3^. 

'  The  first  editions  read  "  them."  See  Hippolytus, .<4  .AT.C.L.  vi.  p.492. 

*  The  Recognitions  of  Clement,  iv.  27,  speak  of  Ham  as  the  first 
magician  and  refer  to  Nimrod  as  follows :  "  the  magic  art  having 
been  handed  down  to  him  as  bv  a  flash  "  {ibid.  29). 

»  The  MS.  reads  :  "  the  writing"  (ansn). 

*  See  Rashi  on  T.B.  Pesachim,  54b,  and  the  Book  of  Jashar,  loc. 
cit. 

'  The  first  editions  read  "  they,"  i.e.  his  fellow-countrymen  ;  see 
Jalkut,  Gen.  §  62.     See  J.E.  ix.  309. 

^  The  next  verse  says,  "  The  beginning  of  his  kingdom."  See 
Josephus,  Ant.  i.  4.  2  ;  T.B.  Pesachim,  94b;  and  cf.  Pal.  Targum, 
in  loc,  and  the  Book  of  the  Bee,  p.  37. 

*  See  T.B.  Chullin,  89a;  Gen.  Rab.  xxvi.  4;  and  cf.  Lekach  Tob, 
Gen.  p.  27a. 

"  At  the  Flood.  According  to  Jubilees  vii.  20,  Noah  enjoined 
upon  his  sons  commandments  "  to  cover  the  shame  of  their 
flesh,  and  to  bless  their  Creator,  and  honour  father  and  mother,  and 
love  their  neighbour,  and  guard  their  souls  from  fornication  and 
uncleanness  and  all  iniquity.  For  owing  to  these  three  things  came 
the  flood  upon  the  earth." 

"  See  T.B.  Synhedrin,  109a,  and  Othijoth  de  R.  'Akiba,  letter  Resh. 
B.H.M.  iii.  pp.  46  f. 

12  Luria  thinks  that  the  correct  reading  should  be  "  in  heaven," 
and  not  "  in  the  water." 


176  RABBI  ELIEZER 

Rabbi  Phineas  said  :  There  were  no  stones  there  where- 
with to  build  the  city  and  the  tower.  What  did  they  do  ? 
They  baked  bricks  and  burnt  them  Hke  a  builder'  (would 
do),  until  they  built  it  seven  ^  mils^  high,  and  it  had  ascents 
on  its  east  and  west,  (The  labourers)  who  took  up  the 
bricks  went  up  on  the  eastern  (ascent),  and  those  who 
descended  went' downTon  the  western  (descent).  If  a  man 
fell  and  died  they  paid  no  heed  to  him,  but  if  a  brick  fell 
they  II  sat  down  and  wept,  and  said :  Woe  is  us !  when  will 
another  one  come  in  its  stead  ?  ' 

And  Abraham,'*  son  of  Terah,^  passed  by,  and  saw  them 
building  the  city  and  the  tower,  and  he  cursed  them  in  the 
name  of  his  God,'  as  it  is  said,  "  Swallow  up,  O  Lord, 
divide  their  language  "  (Ps.  Iv.  9).  But  they  rejected  his 
words,^  like  a  stone  cast  upon  the  ground.  Is  it  not  a  fact 
that  every  choice  and  good  ^  stone  is  only  put  at  the  corner 
of  a  building  ?  and  with  reference  to  this,  the  text  says, 
"  The  stone  which  the  builders  rejected  is  become  the  head 
of  the  corner  "  {ibid,  cxviii.  22). 

Rabbi  Simeon  said  :  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He, 
called  to  the  seventy  ^^  angels,  who  surround  the  throne  of 
His  glory,  and  He  said  to  them :  Come,  let  us  descend  and 
let  us  confuse  the  seventy  nations  and  the  seventy  languages. '^ 

Whence  (do  we  know)  that  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be 

'  Or  "  stone  mason." 

2  The  first  editions  read  "  seventy."     See  Book  of  the  Bee,  p.  41. 

'  "  Mil  "  (mille)  =2000  cubits.  According  to  the  Jalkut,  Gen.  in 
loc,  the  height  was  seven  miles;  see  also  Jalkut  Makhiri,  Ps.  Iv.  p. 
145b.     The  MS.  adds  "  of  property." 

*  This  indifference  to  the  value  of  human  life  reappears  in  the  story 
of  the  Egj^tian  bondage  ;  see  infra,  p.  380.  See  also  Rabbinic  J  Philo- 
sophy and  Ethics,  p.  46,  and  cf.  3  Baruch  iii.  5. 

'  In  the  first  editions  the  name  is  "  Abram."     See  Wisdom  x.  5. 

'  Terah  was  one  of  those  who  assisted  in  the  building  of  the  Tower 
of  Babel,  according  to  the  Zohar,  Lev.  iiib. 

'The  expression  is  borrowed  from  2  Kings  ii.  2.\.  See  Seder 
'Olam  Rab.  i.  p.  3a. 

*  Abraham     uttered     his    reproof     in    vain.       See     Jalkut,     Pss. 

§  703. 

'  See  I  Sam.  ix.  2  for  this  phrase. 

1"  The  seventy  nations  with  Israel  form  the  human  famil3^  Israel 
has  no  guardian  angel ;  God  is  the  Guardian  of  Israel.  Sec  LXX, 
D  ut.  xxxii.  8.  for  the  earliest  form  of  this  Midrash.  Augustine,  de  Civ. 
Dei,  xvi.  5,  offers  a  parallel  to  this  Haggadali.  See  al.so  Hippolytus 
((-d.  AcLelis),  ii.  p.  -'43;  CLmeiii  of  ALxandria,  Strom,  vi.  17;  and 
Recognitions  of  Clement,  ii.  42. 

"  The  first  editions  read  :   "  Come,  let  us  confuse  their  speech." 


NIMROD  AND  TOWER  OF  BABEL     177 

He,  spake  1  to  them?  Because  it  is  said,  "  Go  to,  let  us 
go  down  "  (Gen.  xi.  7).  "  I  will  go  down  "  is  not  written, 
but  "  Go  to,  let  us  go  down."  ^  And  they  cast  lots  among 
them.  Because  it  is  said,  "  When  the  Most  High  gave  to 
the  nations  their  inheritance  "  (Deut.  xxxii.  8).  The  lot 
of  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  fell  upon  Abraham  and 
upon  his  seed,^  as  it  is  said,  "  For  the  Lord's  portion  is  his 
people  ;   Jacob  is  the  lot  of  his  inheritance  "  (ibid.  9). 

The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  said  :  The  portion  and 
lot  which  have  fallen  to  Me,*  My  soul  liveth  thereby,^  as  it 
is  said,  "  The  lots  have  fallen  unto  me  in  pleasures  ;  yea, 
I  have  a  goodly  heritage  "  (Ps.  xvi.  6).  The  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  descended  with  the  seventy  angels,  who 
surround  ||  the  throne  of  His  glory,  and  they  confused  their 
speech  into  seventy  ^  nations  and  seventy  languages.  Whence 
do  we  know  that  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  descended  ? 
Because  it  is  said,  "  And  the  Lord  God  came  down  to  see 
the  city  and  the  tower  "  (Gen.  xi.  5).  This  was  the  second 
descent.' 

And  they  wished  to  speak  one  to  another  in  the  lan- 
guage ^  of  his  fellow-countryman,  but  one  did  not  understand 
the  language  of  his  fellow.  What  did  they  do  ?  Every 
one  took  his  sword,  and  they  fought  one  another  to  destroy 
(each  other),  and  half  the  world  fell  there  by  the  sword, 
and  thence  the  Lord  scattered  them  upon  the  face  of  all 
the  earth,  as  it  is  said,  "  So  the  Lord  scattered  them 
abroad  on  that  account,  upon  the  face  of  all  the  earth  " 
{ibid.  8). 

Rabbi  Meir  said  :    Esau,  the  brother  of  Jacob,  saw  the 

1  Luria  reads,  "  He  called."  The  first  editions  read  :  "  descended 
unto  them." 

^  See  JaH:ut  Makhiri,  Pss.,  loc.  cit.,  and  cf.  Gen.  Rab.  xxxviii.  lo. 
^  Some  editions  read :  "  and  upon  his  house." 

*  See  Jalkut,  Psalms,  §  667. 

°  The  first  editions  read  :    "  My  soul  delighteth  in  him." 

*  Some  editions  read,  "  seventy  languages."  The  first  editions 
add  :  "  Each  nation  had  its  own  writing  and  its  own  language,  and 
He  appointed  an  angel  over  each  people.  And  Israel  fell  unto  His 
lot  and  portion,  and  concerning  this  it  is  said,  '  For  the  Lord's  portion 
is  his  people'"  (Deut.  xxxii.  9).  Each  nation  had  not  only  its  own 
language  but  also  its  peculiar  style  of  writing. 

'  See  supra,  p.  97. 

8  The  first  editions  read,  "  in  the  holy  language."  See  supra, 
p.  161 .  The  original  language  was  Hebrew.  See  for  a  parallel  legend. 
Recognitions  of  Clement,  i.  30,  and  the  Book  of  the  Bee,  p.  42. 

12 


178  RABBI  ELIE^ER 

coats  ^  of  Nimrod,  and  in  his  heart  he  coveted  them,^  and 
he  slew  him,^  and  took  them  from  him.^  Whence  (do  we 
know)  that  they  were  desirable  in  his  sight  ?  Because  it 
is  said,  "  And  Rebecca  took  the  precious  raiment  of  Esau, 
her  elder  son  "  {ihid.  xxvii.  15).  When  he  put  them  on 
he  also  became,  by  means  of  them,  a  mighty  ^  hero,  as  it  is 
said,  "  And  Esau  was  a  cunning  hunter  "  {ibid.  xxv.  27). 
And  when  Jacob  went  forth  ^  from  the  presence  of  Isaac, 
his  father,  he  said  :  Esau,  the  wicked  one,  is  not  worthy  to 
wear  these  coats.  What  did  he  do  ?  He  dug  in  the  earth 
and  hid  them  there,  as  it  is  said,  "  A  noose '  is  hid  for  him 
in  the  earth  "  (Job  xviii.  10). 

1  The  first  editions  add  :  "  which  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  made 
for  Adam  and  Eve." 

2  The  Venice  edition  reads,  as  in  our  text,  "  them  "  ;  but  the  Prague 
edition  reads  "  it  "  (i.e.  one  garment). 

*  See  the  Book  of  Jashar  vii.  24,  and  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xxv.  zji. 
The  wonderful  garments  of  Adam  and  Eve  have  a  parallel  in  the  seam- 
less tunic  of  the  Founder  of  Christianity,  see  A.N.C.L.  xvi.  pp.  235! 

*  See  Midrash  Agadah,  Gen.  xxvii.  13  ;  Lekach  Tob,  Gen.  p.  06b 
and  07:1;  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  115  ;  of.  Rashi  on  T.B.  Pesachim,  54b,  and 
Tanchuma,  Toledoth,  §  xii. 

*  The  sentence  is  wanting  in  tli^'  Oxford  MS.  (O.A.  167). 

*  After  receiving  the  blessing  from  Isaac. 

'  The  rest  of  the  verse  says,  "and  a  trap  for  him  in  the  way." 
The  garments  enabled  the  wearer  to  catch  the  animals.  See  Pal. 
Targum,  Gen   xxvii.  15  ;  and  |alk\it,  Gen.  §  115. 


CHAPTER    XXV 

THE   SIN   OF   SODOM   [29a.    ii.] 

The  third  descent  ^  which  He  descended  ^  ||  was  at  Sodom, 
as  it  is  said,  "  I  will  go  down  now  and  see  "  (Gen.  xviii,  21). 
The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  said  :  Shall  I  not  ^  tell  My 
friend  Abraham  an  important  matter  which  I  will  do  in 
My  world  in  the  future,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  Lord  said, 
Shall  I  hide  from  Abraham  that  which  I  do  ?  "  {ibid.  17). 
Rabbi  Chanina,  son  of  Dosa,^  said :  The  Holy  One,  blessed 
be  He,  was  revealed,  and  three  angels  °  (appeared)  unto 
our  father  Abraham,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  he  lifted  up  his 
eyes  and  looked,  and,  lo,  three  men  "  {ibid.  2).  He  ^  began 
to  inform  him  about  the  conception  ^  of  the  womb  by  Sarah 
his  wife,  as  it  is  said,  "  I  will  certainly  return  unto  thee 
when  the  season  cometh  round"  {ibid.  10).  Afterwards  He® 
told  (him)  about  the  doom^  of  Sodom,^''  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
the  Lord  said,  Because  the  cry  of  Sodom  and  Gomorrah  is 
great  "  {ibid.  20). 

1  See  preceding  chapter.  On  the  ten  descents  see  Zohar,  Gen. 
75a  ;  Aboth  de  Rabbi  Nathan  («)  xxxiv. ;  Gen.  Rab.  xxxviii.  9  and  xUx. 
0  ;  and  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  27  and  §  83,  and  supra,  p.  97.  note  i. 

■^  The  first  editions  read  :  "  which  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He, 
descended." 

3  The  first  editions  read  :  "  I  will  tell." 

*  The  first  editions  read  here  "  Chaninah." 

''  According  to  our  book,  God  with  three  angels  appeared  to 
Abraham  at  Mamre  ;  see  Rashbam,  Ibn  Ezra,  and  Nachmanides,  in  loc. 
(Gen.  xviii.).  According  to  Midrash  Agadah,  Gen.  (p.  39),  the  three 
angels  were  Michael,  Gabriel,  and  Raphael.  See  also  T.B.  Joma,  37a, 
and  Lekach  Tob,  Gen.  p.  41b. 

^  The  first  editions  read  :  "  One  "  (angel). 

'  On  the  angelic  message  to  Abraham  see  T.B.  Baba  Mezi'a,  86b;  Pal. 
Targum  to  Gen.  xviii.  2  ;  G:n.  Rab.  xlvdii.  16  and  1.  2  ;  Zohar,  Gen.  99a. 

*  Instead  of  "  Afterwards,"  the  first  editions  read  :  "  Another  " 
(angel). 

8  Lit.  the  work,  or  affair,  or  business. 
1"  The  first  editions  add  :  "  and  Gomorrah." 

»79 


180  RABBI  ELIEZER 

Hence  thou  mayest  learn  :  ^  Everyone,  who  wishes  to 
tell  his  companion  a  matter  which  is  a  disgrace  to  him, 
begins  with  a  good  word  '^  and  concludes  with  the  evil  matter 
which  is  unpleasant  to  him.  Whence  do  we  learn  this  ? 
From  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  for  when  He  was  revealed 
to  our  father  Abraham,  He  began  to  announce  to  him  (the 
good  news)  concerning  the  conception  by  Sarah  his  wife. 
Afterwards  He  told  him  about  the  fate  of  Sodom,  as  it  is 
said,  "  And  the  Lord  said.  Because  the  cry  of  Sodom  and 
Gomorrah  is  great  "  {ibid.).^  (Abraham)  began  to  ask  for 
compassion  before  Him  on  behalf  of  Lot,  the  son  of  his 
brother.  He  spake  before  Him  :  Sovereign  of  all  worlds  ! 
Like  the  death  of  the  wicked  shall  the  death  of  the  ||  righteous 
be  ?  (As  it  is  said),"*  "  Wilt  thou  consume  the  righteous  ^ 
with  the  wicked  ?  "  {ibid.  23).  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be 
He,  answered  him  :  Abraham  !  *'  By  the  merit  of  the  right- 
eous '  (one)  will  I  forgive  Sodom.**  "  If  I  find  in  Sodom 
fifty  righteous"  {ibid.  26),  then  will  I  forgive  it  all  its^ 
sins. 

Hence  they  i°  said :  If  there  be  fifty  righteous  in  the 
world,  the  world  exists  through  their  righteousness. 
(Abraham)  arose  and  began  to  beseech  (God),  and  made 
supplication  before  Him  until  he  brought  (the  number 
down  to)  ten.  Hence  (the  sages  said) :  ^^  (When  there  are) 
ten  people  in  a  place,  the  place  is  delivered  by  their  righteous- 
ness, as  it  is  said,  "  And  he  said,  I  will  not  destroy  it  for 
the  sake  of  the  ten  "  {ibid.  32).i2 

1  The  first  editions  read  :  "  they  said,"  i.e.  the  sages. 

2  This  rule  still  obtains  in  connection  with  the  public  recital  of  the 
Torah  ;  see  Orach  Chayyim,  138. 

3  Tlie  first  editions  omit  the  repetition  of  the  quotation  here. 
*"  As  it  is  said  "  is  omitted  in  the  MS. 

*  "  The  righteous  "  in  the  Hebrew  is  in  the  singular  number;  this 
fact  might  suggest  the  idea  that  Abraham  was  referring  to  Lot. 

«  The  first  editions  add  :   "  By  thy  hfe  !  " 

'  The  first  editions  read :  "  By  the  merit  of  fifty  righteous 
(people)." 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  as  it  is  said." 
8  The  first  editions  read  :  "  their." 

1°  The  sages. 

"  The  first  editions  read :  "  Hence  the  sages  said  :  If  there 
be  ten  righteous  people  in  a  place,  by  their  merit  the  place  is 
delivered." 

1- See  Gen.  Rab.  xlix.  13  ;  Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  v.  p.  26b;  and  Zohar, 
Gen.  105b.  Jer.  v.  i  is  the  Biblical  authority-  for  the  doctrine  that 
the  merit  of  the  individual  procures  Divine  forgiveness ;  cf.  Ezek.  xiv. 


THE  SIN  OF  SODOM  181 

Rabbi  Ze'era  said :  The  men  of  Sodom  were  the  wealthy 
men  of  prosperity,^  on  account  of  the  good  and  fruitful 
land  2  whereon  they  dwelt.  For  every  need  which  the 
world  requires,  they  obtained  therefrom.  They  procured 
gold  therefrom,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  it  had  dust  of  gold  " 
(Job  xxvdii.  6).  What  ^  is  the  meaning  (of  the  text),  "  And 
it  had  dust  of  gold  "  ?  At  the  hour  when  one  of  them 
wished  to  buy  a  vegetable,  he  would  say  to  his  servant, 
Go  and  purchase  for  me  (for  the  value  of)  an  assar.'*  He 
went  and  bought  (it),  and  found  beneath  it  heaps  of  gold ;  ** 
thus  it  is  written,  "And  it  had  dust  of  gold"^  (ibid.). 
They  obtained  silver  therefrom,  as  it  is  said,  "  Surely 
there  is  a  mine  for  silver  "  {ibid.  1).  They  procured  precious 
stones  and  pearls  thence,  as  it  is  said,  IJ  "  The  stones  thereof 
are  the  place  of  sapphires "  {ibid.  6).  They  obtained 
bread  therefrom,  as  it  is  said,  "  As  for  the  earth,  out  of  it 
Cometh  bread  "  {ibid.  5).  But  they  did  not  trust  in  the 
shadow  of  their  Creator,  but  (they  trusted)  in  the  multitude 
of  their  wealth,"  for  wealth  thrusts  aside  its  owners  from  the 
fear  of  Heaven,^  as  it  is  said,  "  They  that  trust  in  their 
wealth  "  (Ps.  xlix.  6).^ 

Rabbi  Nathaniel  ^°  said :  The  men  of  Sodom  had  no  con- 
sideration for  the  honour  of  their  Owner  by  (not)  distributing 

19.  The  inference  as  to  the  salvation  of  the  world  by  the  merit  of  fifty 
righteous  people  is  derived  from  God's  words  in  Gen.  xviii.  26 :  "  And 
I  will  spare  for  their  sake  all  the  place"  {i.e.  every  place).  Abraham 
had  spoken  merely  of  "  the  place." 

'  The  first  editions  read  :  "  the  wealthy  men  of  the  world." 
2  Sodom  was  situated  at   the  right   of  Jerusalem  ;   see  Ezek.  xvi. 
46.     The  phraseology  in  our  text  is  borrowed  from  Num.  xiii.  19,  20. 
^  The  first  editions  omit  this  sentence. 

*  Assar  =  Assarius  =  y*,  of  a  silver  Denar.  On  this  point  see 
Krauss,  T.A.  li.  p.  407.  The  first  editions  add:  "(some)  vege- 
tables." 

^  Lit.  "full  of  gold."  The  first  editions  read:  "gold."  See 
T.B.  Synhedrin,  109a  ;  Siphre,  Deut.  §  43 ;  and  Tosephta  Sotah  iii. 
p.  296. 

*  See  Lev.  Rab.  v.  2  ;  and  Jalkut,  Job,  §  915.  The  idea  of  the 
Haggadah  seems  to  be  as  follows  :  When  the  vegetable  was  bought  at 
the  cost  of  an  Assar,  the  dust  of  the  earth  which  was  clinging  to  the 
vegetable  was  so  valuable  (owing  to  the  gold  which  it  contained)  that 
the  purchaser  received  back  more  than  he  had  paid. 

'  See  Ps.  Iii.  9  ;  the  Midrashim  refer  this  passage  to  the  story  of 
Sodom. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  thrusts  aside  from  its  owners  the  fear  of 
Heaven." 

'  See  Prov.  xxx.  8. 
1"  The  first  editions  read  :  "  Joshua,  son  of  Korchah," 


182  RABBI  ELIEZER 

food  to  the  wayfarer  and  the  stranger,^  but  they  (even) 
fenced  in  -  all  the  trees  on  top  above  their  fruit  so  that  they 
should  not  be  seized ;»  (not)  even  by  the  bird  of  heaven, 
as  it  is  said,  "  That  path  no  bird  of  prey  knoweth  "  (Job 
xxviii.  7). 

Rabbi  Joshua,  son  of  Korchah,^  said :  They  appointed  over 
themselves  judges  who  were  lying  judges,  and  they  oppressed 
every  wayfarer  ^  and  stranger  who  entered  Sodom  by  their 
perverse  judgment,  and  they  sent  them  forth  naked,  as  it  is 
said,  "  They  have  oppressed  the  stranger  without  judgment " 
(Ezek.  xxii.  29).^ 

They  were  dwelling  in  security  without  care  and  at  ease, 
without  the  fear  of  war  from  all  their  surroundings,  as  it 
is  said,  "  Their  houses  are  safe  from  fear  "  (Job  xxi.  9).^ 
They  were  sated  with  all  the  produce  of  the  earth,  but  they 
did  not  strengthen  with  the  loaf  of  bread  either  the  hand 
of  the  needy  or  of  the  poor,'^  as  it  is  said,  '^  Behold,  this 
was  the  iniquity  of  thy  sister  Sodom ;  pride,  fulness  of  bread,^ 
and  prosperous  ease  was  in  her  and  in  her  daughters ; 
neither  did  she  strengthen  the  hand  of  the  poor  and  needy  " 
(Ezek.  xvi.  49).»  || 

Rabbi  Jehudah  said  :  They  made  a  proclamation  in 
Sodom  (saying)  :  Everyone  who  strengthens  the  hand  of 
the  poor  or  the  needy  with  a  loaf  of  bread  shall  be  burnt 

'The  first  editions  read  :  "  the  native  and  the  stranger"  ;  see  Job 
xxviii.  4.  They  caused  human  intercourse  with  the  outside 'world  to 
cease.  To  honour  God  is  to  be  merciful  ;  see  Prov.  iii.  3  and  xiv.  31  ; 
T.B.  Sabbath,  127a.  The  men  of  Sodom  did  not  suffer  the  birds  to 
praise  God  by  singing  on  the  trees  in  their  land.  The  Book  of  Jashar 
(.XIX.  7)  says  :  "  And  when  men  heard  all  these  things  that  the  people 
of  the  cities  of  Sodom  did,  they  refrained  from  coming  there."  For 
further  stories  of  cruelty  see  Pal.  Targum  on  Gen.  xviii  •  and  cf 
Rahbimc  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  pp.  60  ff.  ' 

2  The  first  editions  read  :  "  thev  cut  of?." 

3  The  first  editions  read  :  "  so  that  there  should  not  be  any  benefit 
from  them."  •' 

*  The  first  editions  read  "  Nathaniel." 

6  Sec  the  Book  of  Jashar  xix.  ?  ff.  ;  T.B.  Synhedrin,  109a. 

^  1  he  first  editions  omit  this  quotation. 

'  The  Book  of  Jashar  (xix.  44)  reads  :  "For  they  (the  men  of  Sodom) 
had  abundance  of  food  and  had  tranquillity  amongst  them,  still  they 
would  not  sustain  the  poor  and  needy." 

8  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here,  "  etc."  being  added. 

'Their  prosperity  led  to  their  rebelHon  against  God;  cf.  Hos. 
xui.  6.  In  the  Book  of  Jashar,  cluipier  xix.,  we  have  two  stories 
on  the  theme  of  this  paragraph  ;  they  are  probably  variants  of  one 
tradition. 


THE  SIN  OF  SODOM  183 

by  fire.  Peletith,^  daughter  of  Lot,  was  wedded  to  one  of 
the  magnates  of  Sodom.  She  saw  a  certain  very  ^  poor 
man  in  the  street  of  the  city,  and  her  soul  was  grieved  on 
his  account,  as  it  is  said,  "  Was  not  my  soul  grieved  for 
the  needy  ?  "  (Job  xxx.  25).=^  What  did  she  do  ?  Every 
day  when  she  went  out  to  draw  water  she  put  in  her  bucket 
all  sorts  of  provisions  from  her  home,  and  she  fed  that  poor 
man.  The  men  of  Sodom  said :  How  does  this  poor  man 
live  ?  When  they  ascertained  the  facts,  they  brought  her 
forth  to  be  burnt  with  fire.  She  said  :  Sovereign  of  all 
worlds  !  Maintain  my  right  and  my  cause  ^  (at  the  hands 
of)  the  men  of  Sodom.  And  her  cry  ascended  before  the 
Throne  of  Glory.  In  that  hour  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be 
He,  said :  "  I  will  now  descend,  and  I  will  see  "  (Gen.  xviii. 
21)^  whether  the  men  of  Sodom  have  done  according  to 
the  cry  ^  of  this  young  woman,  I  will  turn  her  founda- 
tions upwards,'^  and  the  surface  thereof  shall  be  turned 
downwards,  as  it  is  said,  "  I  will  now  descend,  and  I  will 
see  whether  they  have  done  altogether  according  to  her 
cry,  which  is  come  unto  me  "  (ibid.).  "  According  to  their 
cry  "  is  not  written  here  (in  the  text),  only  "  According  to 
her  cry." 

And  thus  the  text  savs,^  "  He  who  walketh  with  wise 

1  See  T.B.  Synhedrin,  109b.  The  name  Peletith  is  given  by  the 
Pal.  Targum  on  Gen.  xviii.  21,  Book  of  Jashar  xix.  24  ;  cf.  Gen.  Rab. 
xlix.  6;  Jalkut,  Gen.  §83;  and  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  p.  63. 
In  the  Midrash  Agadah  (Genesis),  p.  42.  the  name  of  Lot's  daughter 
is  Kalah.     The  Oxford  MS.  (O.A.  167)  reads  "  Paltia." 

2  Lit.  "  broken,"  "  afflicted,"  or  "  humiUated."     See  J.E.  xi.  424. 
^  This  quotation  is  not  in  the  printed  texts  of  P.R.E. 

*  Ps.  ix.  4  may  have  suggested  the  phrase  of  our  text.  Luria 
observes  that  this  Psalm  might  well  apply  to  the  story  of  Sodom. 

'  The  first  editions  continue  the  verse  :  "  whether  according  to  her 
cry  which  is  come  unto  me."  The  word  in  the  Hebrew  text  which  the 
R.V.  renders  "  according  to  the  cry  of  it "  is  rendered  by  the  Midrash 
literally  "  according  to  her  cry." 

®  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xviii.  20 f.,  reads:  "And  the  Lord  said  to  the 
ministering  angels,  The  cry  of  Sodom  and  Gomorrah,  because  they 
oppress  the  poor,  and  decree  that  whosoever  giveth  bread  to  the  needy 
shall  be  burnt  with  fire,  is  therefore  great ;  and  their  guilt  is  exceed- 
ingly heavy.  I  will  now  appear,  and  see  whether,  as  the  cry  of  tlie 
damsel  Peletith,  which  ascendeth  before  Me,  they  have  completed  their 
sins." 

'  See  Job  xxviii.  5.  This  chapter  is  applied  by  our  author  to  the 
story  of  Sodom.  See  also  Lev.  Rab.  v.  2  ;  and  Midrash  Haggadol.  c. 
282,  note  98. 

*  Luria  reads :  "  Behold  (the  text)  says."  The  reading,  if  rendered 
literally,  is  :  "  And  thus  it  (or  he)  says." 


184  RABBI  ELIEZER 

men  slmll  be  wise :  but  the  companion  of  fools  shall  be 
broken  "  (Prov.  xiii.  20).  ||  "  He  who  walketh  with  wise 
men  shall  be  wise."  To  Avhat  is  this  like  ?  To  one  who 
enters  a  perfumer's  shop,  although  he  neither  takes  any- 
thing nor  gives  anything,^  nevertheless  he  absorbs  a  good 
scent,  and  goes  away  (therewith).  Like^v^se  everyone 
who  walks  with  the  righteous  acquires  some  of  their 
good  ways  and  deeds.  Therefore  it  is  said,  "  He  who 
walketh  with  wise  men  shall  be  ^vise."  "  But  the  com- 
panion of  fools  shall  be  broken  "  (ibid.).  To  what  is  this 
comparable  ?  To  a  man  who  enters  a  tannery,  although 
he  neither  takes  or  gives  anything,^  nevertheless  he  has 
absorbed  a  foul  odour.^  Likewise  he  who  walks  with  the 
wicked  acquires  some  of  their  evil  ways  and  deeds,  that  is 
according  to  what  is  written,^  "  But  the  companion  of 
fools  shall  be  broken  "  (ibid.). 

Another  explanation :  ■*  "  He  who  walketh  with  wise 
men  shall  be  wise  "  (ibid.).  This  refers  to  Lot,'^  who  walked 
with  our  father  Abraham,  and  learned  of  his  good  deeds 
and  ways.  They  ^  said  :  What  did  oiu-  father  Abraham 
do  ?  He  made  for  himself  a  house  opposite  to  Haran,'' 
and  he  received  everyone  who  entered  into  or  went  out 
from  Haran,  and  he  gave  him  to  eat  and  to  drink.  He 
said  to  them  :  Say  ye,  The  God  of  Abraham  is  the  only 
one  in  the  universe.^  |]  When  Lot  came  to  Sodom  he  did 
likewise.  When  they  made  proclamation  in  Sodom  :  All 
who  strengthen  the  hand  of  the  poor  or  need)'  with  a  loaf 
of  bread  shall  be  burnt  by  fire,^  he  was  afraid  of  the  men  of 
the  city,  (and  did  not  venture)  to  do  so  by  day,  but  he  did 
it  by  night,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  two  angels  came  to 
Sodom  at  even  ;    and  Lot  sat  in  the  gate  of  Sodom  "  (Gen. 

^  Or,  "  he  neither  sells  nor  buys." 

*  The  first  editions  add  :   "  and  he  brings  it  away  with  himself." 
'  The  first  editions  read  :  "  as  it  is  said." 

*  This  is  missing  in  the  first  edition. 

«  See  Jalkul,  Deut.  §  824;  Midrash,  Prov.  (ed.  Buber),  ch.  xiii. 
p    3<>b;  and  Jalkut,  Prov.  xiii.  ij  950. 

*  The  sages. 

'  Cf.  Gen.  .xii.  .\  L  Luria  suggests  that  the  reading  should  be 
"  Sodom."  See  Agadath  Bercshith,  25  ;  Gen.  Rab.  hi.  i  and  liv.  '>; 
Jalkut,  Gen.  §  84,  reads:  "  outside  Haran." 

"The  first  editions  read:  "He  said  to  him:  There  is  one  God 
in  the  Universe." 

"  See  Pal.  Targum,  quoted  supra,  p.  183,  note  6, 


THE  SIN  OF  SODOM  185 

xix.  1).  Why  did  Lot  sit  in  the  gate  of  Sodom  ?  1  Because 
he  was  afraid  of  the  men  of  the  city,  (and  did  not  venture)  to 
act  (charitably)  by  day,  but  he  did  so  by  night.  He  saw  the 
two  angels  walking  in  the  street  of  the  city ,  and  he  thought  that 
they  were  wayfarers  in  the  land,  and  he  ran  to  meet  them. 
He  said  to  them  :  Come  and  lodge  ye  overnight  in  my  house, 
eat  and  drink,  and  ye  shall  go  your  way  in  peace.  But  the 
men  would  not  accept  this  for  themselves,  and  he  took  them 
by  the  hand  against  their  will,  and  brought  them  inside  his 
house,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  he  urged  them  greatly  "  {ibid.  3). 
A  certain  young  man  of  the  people  of  that  city  saw  them, 
and  he  ran  and  told  all  the  men  of  that  city,  and  they 
all  gathered  together  at  the  door  of  the  house  to  do  according 
to  their  wont,  even  deeds  of  sodomy,^  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
they  called  unto  Lot,  and  said  unto  him,  ||  Where  ^  are  the 
men  who  came  to  thee  to-night  ?  bring  them  forth  unto  us 
that  we  may  know  *  them  "  {ibid.  5).  What  did  Lot  do  ? 
Just  as  Moses  gave  his  life  for  the  people,^  so  Lot  ^  gave 
up  his  two  daughters  instead  of  the  two  angels,  as  it  is 
said,  "  Behold,  now,  I  have  two  daughters "  {ibid.  8). 
But  the  men '  would  not  agree  (and  did  not  accept  them). 
What  did  the  angels  do  to  them  ?  They  smote  them  with 
blindness  until  the  dawn  of  the  (next)  morning.  All  were 
treated  with  (measure  for)  measure.^    Just  as  he  had  taken 

1  The  first  editions  read  :  "  For  on  that  day  they  had  appointed 
him  (judge)  over  themselves.  (Lot)  overtook  them  (the  angels)  and 
said  to  them,"  etc.  Cf.  Esth.  v.  13,  lor  Mordecai  who  sits  in  the  "  king's 
gate,"  i.e.  as  a  judge  ;  cf.  Sublime  Porte  for  the  use  of  "  gate  "  as  a 
court  of  government  or  law.^  The  MS.  seems  to  have  a  mistake  here  ; 
it  merely  repeats  what  was  stated  a  few  lines  previously,  without  ex- 
plaining why  Lot  sat  in  the  gate  of  Sodom.     See  Pal.  Targum,  in  loc. 

2  The  first  editions  omit  "  deeds  of  sodomy."  A  parallel  occurs  in 
Ck-ment  of  Alexandria,  P(sd.  iii.  8. 

^  The  MS.  does  not  give  this  part  of  the  verse. 

*  "  Know  "  in  the  sense  of  punishing  offenders,  cf.  Judg.  viii.  16  ; 
see  Parchon's  Heb.  Lexicon,  s.v.  yT  ;  or  perhaps  it  is  used  here  in  the 
sense  of  carnal  knowledge. 

*  The  first  editions  read  "  Israel."     See  Mekhilta,  p.  34b. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  So  Lot  gave  his  life  for  them."  By 
going  out  to  reason  with  the  men  of  Sodom,  who  threatened  to  deal 
with  him  according  to  their  wont. 

'  Of  Sodom. 

*  See  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xix.  24:  "  And  the  word  of  the  Lord  had 
caused  showers  of  favour  to  descend  upon  Sodom  and  Gomorrah  that 
they  might  repent,  but  they  did  not." 

^  Dr.  Buchler  notes  as  a  parallel  the  expression  xaai  nyi  of  the 
court  of  the  Exilarch  of  Babylon. 


186  RABBI  ELIEZER 

them  by  the  hand  without  their  will  and  taken  them  into 
his  house,  so  they  took  hold  of  his  hand,^  and  the  hand  of 
his  wife,  and  the  hand  of  his  two  daughters,  and  took  them 
outside  the  city,  as  it  is  said,  "  But  he  lingered  ;  and  the 
men  laid  hold  upon  his  hand  "  {ibid.  16).  And  they  -  said  to 
them :  ^  Do  not  look  behind  you,  for  verily  the  Shckhinah 
of  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  has  descended  in  order 
to  rain  upon  Sodom  and  upon  Gomorrah  brimstone  and 
fire.^  The  pity  of  'Edith  ^  the  wife  of  Lot  was  stirred  for 
her  daughters,  who  were  married  in  Sodom, ^  and  she  looked 
back  behind  her  to  see  if  they  were  coming  after  her  or  not. 
And  she  saw  behind  "  the  Shekhinah,  and  she  became  a 
pillar  of  salt,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  his  wife  looked  back 
from  behind  him,  and  she  became  a  pillar  of  salt  "  {ibid.  26).^ 

1  Cf.  Gen.  xix.  i6  ff.  Some  of  the  later  editions  omit  the  words 
"  the  hand  of  his  wife."     See  Mid  rash  Haggadol,  c.  291  f. 

2  The  angels. 

=*  Lot  and  his  family.  The  text  in  Gen.  (xix.  17)  says,  "  Do  not 
look  behind  thee  "  ;  note  that  the  singular  number  is  employed. 

*  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xix.  J4,  reads :  "  There  are  now  sent  down  upon 
them  sulphur  and  fire  from  before  the  word  of  the  Lord  from  Heaven." 
See  Zohar,  G'.n.  107b  f. 

*'The  MS.  reads  either  "  'Erith  "  or  "  'Edith."  Midrash  Haggadol, 
c.  293,  has  ""Edith."  In  Jalkut,  iw /of., '"Erith  "  is  the  reading.  'Edith 
points  to  '"Ed,"  witness,  for  such  was  the  pillar  of  salt.  "  Ado  "  is  the 
reading  in  the  Book  of  Jashar  (xix.  52).  Pal.  Targum.  loc.  cit.  2h,  reads  : 
"  And  his  wife  looked  after  the  angel  to  know  what  would  be  the  end  of 
her  father's  house,  for  she  was  of  the  daughters  of  the  men  of  Sodom, 
and  because  she  sinned  by  salt  she  was  manifestly  punished  ;  behold, 
she  was  made  a  statue  of  salt."  The  Second  Version  adds:  "  until  the 
time  of  the  resurrection  shall  come  when  the  dead  shall  arise." 

®  See  Midrash  Haggadol,  loc.  cit. 

''  The  first  editions  read  :  "  behind  her." 

*  The  first  editions  add  the  following  :  "  And  she  stands  even  now. 
All  day  the  oxen  lick  it  and  it  decreases  up  to  her  feet,  and  in  the 
morning  (the  pillar  of  salt)  grows  afresh,  as  it  is  said  :  '  And  his  wife 
looked  back  from  behind  him,  and  she  became  a  pillar  of  salt'  "  (Gen. 
xix,  26).  In  the  days  of  Maimonides  all  trace  of  the  pillar  had  been 
lost.  The  Book  of  Jashar  (xix.  54)  reads  :  "  And  the  oxen  which  stood 
in  that  place  daily  licked  up  the  salt  to  the  extremities  of  their  feet, 
and  in  the  morning  it  would  spring  forth  afresh  and  they  again  licked 
it  up,  unto  this  day."  For  a  paralKl  Christian  Midrash,  .see  "A  Strain 
of  Sodom"  in  A.N.C.L.  xviii.  p.  230.  See  Jalkut,  Esth.  §  1055;  Jalkut, 
Exodus,  §  256.  See  Koran  (ed.  Rodwcll),  Ixxxvii.  p.  301,  and  Josephus, 
Ant.  i.  II.  4,  for  references  to  Sodom.  On  Lot's  wife,  see  Wisdom  x. 
7  ;  Cyril  of  Jerusalem  ;  Mystagogue's  Catechism  viii. ;  Augustine,  de  Civ. 
Dei,  X.  8.  On  the  Flight  from  Sodom,  see  Ambrose,  Flight  from  the  World, 
54  ;  Gregory  the  Great,  Pastoral  Ride,  iii.  27.  On  Lot's  hospitality,  see 
Chrysostomus,  Horn,  xxxiii.  2  ;  cf.  Heb.  xiii.  2.  See  also  Griinbaum, 
op,  cit.  pp.  132  ff.,  and  Ginzb.rg,  op.  cit.  pp.  108  ff. 


CHAPTER    XXVI 

THE   TRIALS    OF   ABRAHAM    [31a.    ii.] 

Our  father  Abraham  was  tried  with  ten  trials,^  ||  and  he  stood 
firm  in  them  all.^  The  first  trial  ^  was  when  our  father 
Abraham  was  born  ;  all  the  magnates  of  the  kingdom  * 
and  the  magicians  sought  to  kill  him,  and  he  was  hidden 
under  the  earth  ^  for  thirteen  years  without  seeing  sun  or 
moon.     After  thirteen  years  ^  he  went  forth  from  beneath 

^  See  Jubilees  xvii.  17  and  xix.  8.  Parallels  to  our  text  are  to 
be  found  in  Aboth  v.  3  (with  a  variant  reading)  ;  Aboth  de  R.  Nathan 
{a)  xxxiii.  and  {b}  xxxvi.  ;  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  68  ;  Bock  of  Jashar  xii.  ff. ; 
Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  xviii.  p.  77a  ;  Midrash  Agadah  (Genesis),  p.  26;  and 
cf.  Liturg}'  for  the  Second  Day  of  the  New  Year,  the  Piyyut :  "  Thy 
Word  is  pure  "  ;  and  see  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  p.  75,  and  cf. 
Griinbaum,  op.  cit.  pp.  99  f. 

2  The  first  editions  insert  here  the  following  :  "  and  it  was  foreseen 
by  him  that  in  the  future  his  children  would  tempt  the  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  with  ten  trials,  and  He  anticipated  the  cure  for  their 
wound, 1  and  He  tried  him  with  ten  trials."  - 

*  The  Aboth  de  R.  Nathan,  loc.  cit.,  does  not  enumerate  this  nor  the 
second  trial.  On  the  order  of  the  trials,  see  Hoffmann,  Mishnajoih.  p.  352. 

*  See  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  pp.  49  f.,  and  Jalkut,  Gen.  loc. 
cit.,  which  reads  as  our  MS.  ;  and  see  the  Book  of  Jashar  (viii.  15  ff.), 
and  Jerahmeel  xxxiv.  The  first  editions  omit:  "  and  the  magicians." 
Instead  of  "  the  kingdom  "  later  editions  read  "  Nimrod."  The 
magicians  were  led  to  persecute  Abram  by  observing  his  star  at  his 
birth;  see  infra,  pp.  377  f.  ;  and  cf.  Beer,  Das  Leben  Abrahams, 
pp.  98 f.  The  birth  stories  of  Abraham,  Moses  (cf.  Josephus,  Ant. 
ii.  9.  2,  and  T.B.  Sotah,  12a),  and  Jesus  have  much  in  common  except 
the  "  Virgin  Birth,"  which  is  peculiar  to  the  narrative  concerning  the 
birth  of  the  founder  of  Christianity. 

''  Lit.  "  in  a  house  of  the  earth,"  i.e.  a  cave.  Cf.  Isa.  xU.  2  and 
the  Book  of  Jashar  viii.  35. 

*  The  Midrashim  differ  on  this  point;  see  Gen.  Rab.  xxxviii.  12, 
xcv.  3  ;  Cant.  Rab.  on  Cant.  ii.  5.  See  the  Book  of  Jashar  ix.  4;  and 
R.  Bechai  on  Gen.,  in  loc.  See  also  T.B.  Nedarim,  32a  ;  Est.  Rab. 
ii.   5 ;   and  generally  for  the  legends  of  Abraham,  see   Ginzberg,  The 

1  See  T.B.  Megillah,  13b. 

2  In  Aboth  de  R.  Nathan,  loc.  cit.,  the  ten  plagues  in  Egypt  are 
referred  to  as  a  parallel  to  the  ten  trials.     See  also  Jalkut,  Ps.  §  777. 

187 


188  RABBI  ELIEZER 

the  earth,  speaking  the  holy  language ;  ^  and  he  despised 
idols  2  and  held  in  abomination  the  graven  images,  and 
he  trusted  in  the  shadow  of  his  Creator,  and  said :  ^ 
"  Blessed  is  the  man  who  trusts  in  thee  "  (Ps.  Ixxxiv.  12). 

The  second  trial  was  when  he  was  put  into  prison  for 
ten  years — three  years  in  Kuthi,"*  seven  years  in  Budri.-^ 
After  ^  ten  years  they  sent  and  brought  him  forth  and 
cast  him  into  the  furnace  of  fire,"  and  the  King  of 
Glory  ^  put  forth  His  right  hand  ^  and  delivered  him 
from  the  furnace  of  fire,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  he  said  to 
him,  I  am  the  Lord  who  brought  thee  out  of  the  furnace  ^^ 
of  the  Chaldees "  (Gen.  xv.  7).  Another  verse  (says), 
"  Thou  art  the  Lord  the  God,  who  didst  choose  Abram, 
and  broughtest  him  forth  out  of  the  furnace  of  the 
Chaldees  "  (Neh.  ix.  7).ii 

The  third  trial  was  his  migration  ^^  from  his  father's 
house  1^  and  from  the  land  of  his  birth ;  and  He  brought  him  to 

Legends  of  the  Jews.  i.  pp.  1S5  ff.,  and  Gorion's  Die  Sngen  der  Juden.  ii. 
pp.  26  ff.  For  further  references  see  Beer,  op.  cit.  pp.  102  f .  Our  book 
relates  that  Abraham  was  in  his  fourteenth  year  when  he  abandoned 
idol  worship.  This  agrees  with  Jubilees  xi.  16,  which  also  speaks  of  hi? 
learning  writing.  OurauLiior  varies  this  by  referring  to  his  knowledge 
of  the  Holy  language.  Jubilees  xii.  25,  26,  however,  refers  to  Abraham's 
ability  to  speak  Hebrew. 

*  See  Gen.  Rab.  xlii.  8. 

"  The  first  editions  read  :   "  groves." 

^  The  first  editions  add  :  "  O  Lord  of  Hosts."  This  is  part  of  the 
verse  quoted.  See  the  Gospel  of  Pseudo-Matthew  vi.  {A.N.C.L.  xvi. 
p.  23)  for  a  parallel  Christian  jMidrash. 

■*  The  first  editions  read  Kutha,  which  is  identified  by  the  Talmud 
{B.  Baba  Bathra,  91a)  with  the  Casdim  ;  see  also  Josephus,  Ant.  i. 
6.  5  and  i.  7.  i. 

'6  Cf.  T.B.  Baba  Bathra,  loc.  cit..  and  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  77.  The  first 
editions  read  Kardi  ;  for  the  variant  spellings  see  Jastrow,  T.D.  I4r2a. 
Probably  our  MS.  should  read  Kudri.  See  also  Hi])polyius  (ed. 
Achelis),  p.  90. 

*  In  the  first  editions  the  reading  is  :  "  Some  say  three  years  in 
Kardi  and  seven  years  in  Kutha." 

'  See  Rahbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  pp.  52  ff.,  and  cf.  Pal.  Targnm, 
Gen.  xi.  28.     See  also  infra,  p.  420. 

*  See  T.B.  Pesachim,  ii8a.  and  Cant.  Rab.  on  Cant.  i.  i. 
'*  See  Gen.  Rab.  xliv.  4. 

**•  niN  (Ur),  "furnace."  Cf.  Isa.  xliv.  iT.  and  Griiiibaum,  op.  cit. 
pp.  90 ff.,  and  see  Introduction,  p.  li. 

"  This  quotation  is  omitted  by  the  printed  texts.  It  forms  part  of 
the  morning  liturgy  ;  see  Singer,  p.  34. 

'^  See  Jubilees  xvii.  17.  This  trial  is  the  first  according  to  the  Mid- 
rash  Haggadol,  Gen.  c.  201. 

'^  From  Ur  of  the  Chaldees,  his  country.  This  agrees  with  Ibn 
Ezra's  interpretation  of  the  text,  Gen.  xii.  i. 


THE  TRIALS  OF  ABRAHAM       189 

Haran,^  and  there  his  father  Terah  died,-  and  Athrai  ^  his 
mother.^  Migration  is  harder  for  man  than  for  any  other 
creature.^  Whence  do  we  know  of  his  migration  ?  Because 
it  is  said,  "  Now  the  Lord  said  1|  unto  Abram,  Get  thee  out " 
(Gen.  xii.  l).^ 

The  fourth  trial  (was  the  famine).  From  the  day  when 
the  heavens  and  the  earth  were  created,  the  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  had  not  brought  into  the  world  a  famine 
but  only  in  the  days  of  Abraham,'  and  not  in  any  of 
the  lands  but  only  in  the  land  of  Canaan,^  in  order  to 
try  him  and  to  bring  him  down  into  Egypt,  as  it  is  said, 
"  And  there  was  a  famine  in  the  land,  and  Abram  went 
down  into  Egypt  "  (ibid.  10). 

The  fifth  trial  was  when  Sarah  his  ^vife  was  taken  to 
Pharaoh  to  be  (his)  wife.  And  is  there  any  man,  who 
seeing  his  wife  taken  away  to  another  man,  would  not  rend 
his  garments  ?  But  (he  trusted  in  the  Holy  One,  blessed 
be  He,)  that  he  would  not  approach  her.^  Whence  do  we 
know  that  Sarah  was  taken  to  Pharaoh  to  be  his  wife  ? 
Because  it  is  said,  "  And  the  jDrinces  of  Pharaoh  saw  her  " 
{ibid.  15).io 

Rabbi  Joshua,  son  of  Korchah,^^  said :  In  that  night  when 
our  mother  Sarah  was  taken,  it  was  Passover  night,^-  and 

^  Luria  thinks  that  the  text  should  continue  :  "  as  it  is  said  : 
'  Get  thee  out  of  thy  land  and  from  thy  birthplace  '  "  (Gen.  xii.  i). 

-  See  Seder  'Olam  Rab.  i.  p.  2b,  note  22,  and  p.  3a,  note  24. 

3  The  2nd  ed.  reads  Amathlai ;  see  T.B.  Baba  Bathra,  91a.  and 
Beer,  op.  cit.  pp.  96  f. 

*  See  T.B.  Baba  Bathra,  loc.  cit. 

*  Cf.  T.B.  Kethuboth,  28a,  based  on  Isa.  xxii.  17;  see  also  T.B. 
Synhedrin,  26a,  and  Jalkut  on  Isa.  §  280.  Perhaps  the  last  words  of 
the  sentence  in  our  text  should  read  :  "  than  anything  else."  The 
reading  in  the  Midrash  Haggadol,  Gen.,  loc.  cit.,  is :  "  which  was  the 
hardest  of  all  "  (the  trials). 

*  The  first  editions  continue  the  quotation. 

'  This  does  not  agree  with  Gen.  Rab.  xxv.  3,  according  to  which 
there  were  two  famines  prior  to  the  days  of  Abraham. 

*  See  Rashi,  Gen.  xii.  10. 

'  The  words  in  brackets  are  missing  in  our  MS.  ;  they  are  based  on 
Luria's  emendation.  The  first  editions  read  :  "  But  in  accordance  with 
her  counsel  he  did  not  approach  her." 

1"  The  printed  texts  omit  the  question  and  answer.  The  rest  of  the 
quotation  reads  :  ' '  And  they  praised  her  to  Pharaoh  :  and  the  woman 
was  taken  into  Pharaoh's  house." 

1^  The  first  editions  read  :  "  Rabbi  Tarphon."  This  agrees  with  the 
reading  preserved  in  the  Midrash  Haggadol,  Gen.  c.  208  f. 

'-  See  supra,  p.  i  ^t,,  for  a  similar  expression  in  connection  with  the 
offering  of  Cain  and  Abel ;  of.  Zohar,  Gen.  21b,  22a. 


190  RABBI  ELIEZER 

the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  brought  upon  Pharaoh  and 
upon  his  house  great  plagues,^  to  make  known  -  that  thus 
in  the  future  would  He  smite  the  people  of  his  land,^  as  it 
is  said,  "  And  the  Lord  plagued  Pharaoh  and  his  house 
with  great  plagues  "  (ibid.  17).  Concerning  the  Egyptians 
it  is  written,  "  Yet  one  plague  more  will  I  bring  upon 
Pharaoh,  and  upon  Egypt "  (Ex.  xi.  1).  Was  this  a 
plague  ?  Was  it  not  (the  slaying  of)  the  first-born  of  the 
Egyptians  ?  But  the  slaying  is  compared  with  the  plagues, 
therefore  it  is  said,  "  And  the  Lord  plagued  \\  Pharaoh  " 
(Gen.  xii.  17).'» 

Rabbi  Joshua  ben  Korchah  said :  Because  of  his  love  for 
her,  (Pharaoh)  ^  wrote  in  her  marriage  document  (giving  her) 
all  his  wealth,^  whether  in  silver,  or  in  gold,  or  in  man- 
servants, or  land,^  and  he  wrote  (giving)  her  the  land  of 
Goshen  for  a  possession.  Therefore  the  children  of  Israel 
dwelt  in  the  land  of  Goshen,  in  the  land  of  their  mother 
Sarah.^  He  (also)  wrote  (giving)  her  Hagar,  his 
daughter  ^  from  a  concubine,  as  her  handmaid.  And 
whence  do  we  know  that  Hagar  was  the  daughter  of 
Pharaoh  ?  ^^  Because  it  is  said,  "  Now  Sarai  Abram's 
wife  bare  him  no  children  ;  and  she  had  an  handmaid,  an 
Egyptian,  whose  name  was  Hagar"  {ibid.  xvi.  1).  Pharaoh 
rose  up  early  in  the  morning  confused  ^^  because  he  had  not 
approached  her,^-  and  he  sent  and  called  Abraham,  and 
said  to  him  :  Behold,  Sarai  thy  wife  is  before  thee,  and  all 
the  deeds  of  her  marriage  contract  are  with  her,  take  (her) 

1  Cf.  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  68. 

-  The  Venice  edition  reads  :  "  to  make  known  to  him." 
^  The  first  editions  read  :   "  the  Egyptians  with  great  plagues." 
■*  This  entire  section  from  "Concerning"  is  omitted  in  the  printed 
texts.     On  the  subject-matter  see  Midrash  Agadah  (Gen.),  p.  47. 

*  "  Pharaoh  "  is  missing  in  the  MS.  ;  it  occurs  in  the  first  editions. 

«  Lit.  "  his  Mammon."  On  this  term  sec  Jewish  Sources  of  the 
Sermon  on  the  Mount,  p.  16  >. 

'  jalkut,  loc.  lit.,  adds  :   "  maid-servants." 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  which  belonged  to  our  mother 
Sarah."  Have  we  an  apology  on  behalf  of  Jews,  who  in  the  days 
of  our  author  were  living  in  Egypt,  claiming  to  be  in  their  own  land  ? 

*  See  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xvi.  i,  and  Gen.  Rab.  xlv.  i.,  and  the  Book 
of  the  Bee,  p.  42. 

">  The  first  editions  read  :  "  Hagar  the  Egyptian  was  an  hand- 
maid ?  "     See  Midrash  Haggadol,  Gen.  c.  208,  and  c.  241. 

^'  The  first  editions  add  :   "  and  agitated." 

12  The  first  editions  read  :  "  Sarah."  The  various  incidents  are 
based  on  the  story  of  Abimelcch's  conduct  in  a  similar  instance. 


THE  TRIALS  OF  ABRAHAM       191 

and  go,  do  not  tarry  in  this  land,  as  it  is  said,  "  Now 
therefore  behold  thy  wife,  take  her,  and  go  "  (ibid.  xii.  19).^ 
"  And  Pharaoh  gave  men  charge  concerning  him,^  and  they 
sent  him  forth "  {ibid.  20).  And  he  had  Abraham  led 
so  as  to  come*^  to  the  land  of  Canaan.  He  sojourned  in 
the  land  of  the  Philistines  *  in  order  to  be  refreshed 
there.  And  he  went  away.  And  everything  is  foreseen 
by  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  and  Abimelech  ^  sent 
and  took  Sarah,  thinking  to  raise  up  children  from  her, 
as  it  is  said,  "  And  Abimelech  .  .  .  sent,  and  took  Sarah  " 
(ibid.  XX.  2). 

And  Abimelech  became  impotent,  and  all  the  women  of 
his  house  became  barren,^  even  ||  to  the  smallest  insect  (which 
also  became)  barren,  as  it  is  said,  "  For  the  Lord  had  fast 
closed  up  all  the  wombs  of  the  house  of  Abimelech  "  (ibid. 
18).  And  the  angel  Michael  descended  and  drew  his  sword 
against  him."  Abimelech  said  to  him :  Is  this  a  true 
judgment  and  a  true  sentence  to  slay  me  as  long  as  I  had 
no  knowledge  ?  ^  "  Wilt  thou  slay  even  a  righteous 
nation  ?  "   {ibid.  4).^     He  said   unto  him  :  ^^  "  Restore  the 

^  The  first  editions  add  :  "  And  it  is  written  after  this  (text)." 
2  The  quotation  ends  here.     See  Pal.  Targum,  in  loc.     The  first 
editions  add  :  "  Whatever  he  gave  to  Sarah,  Abimelech  gave  to  Abram, 
as  it  is  said,  '  And  Abimelech  took  sheep  and  oxen,  and  menservants 
and  womenservants  '  "  (Gen.  xx.  14). 

*  The  first  editions  read :  "  And  he  had  Abram  led  (so  a;.)  to  come 
in  the  land  of  Canaan  as  far  as  the  land  of  the  Philistines." 

*  Luria  thinks  that  the  reading  of  our  text  was  originally  thus  : 
"  Let  us  pass  over  the  narrative  of  Abraham,  from  his  entrance  into 
Egypt  till  he  came  to  the  land  of  the  Philistines  ;  all  this  story  will 
be  narrated  farther  on  in  this  book."  Our  MS.  preserves  apparently 
a  better  reading. 

^  Luria  holds  that  the  text  should  read  :  "  As  far  as  the  land  of 
the  Philistines,  and  (here)  Abimelech  sent  and  took  Sarah,  thinking 
that  he  would  be  enabled  to  acquire  children  from  her  ;  but  everything 
is  revealed  before  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  Michael  descended," 
etc.     Our  MS.  seems  to  have  preserved  the  true  text. 

*  See  T.B.  Baba  Kamma,  92a.  The  MS.  adds  :  "  and  even  Michael 
(came  before)  Abimelech."  The  words  are  out  of  place,  and  are  wanting 
in  the  Oxford  MS. 

'  The  first  editions  add  :  "  to  slay  him."  For  the  narrative  see 
Pesikta  Rabbatln,  p.  176b  ;  and  cf.  Liturgy  for  the  Second  Day  of  the 
New  Year  (ed.  Heidenheim),  p.  33a,  where  tlie  ten  trials  are  enumerated; 
and  cf.  T.B.  Baba  Kamma,  loc.  cit.,  and  R.Is.J.,  Ixviii.  p.  147. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  to  slay  me  for  a  matter  which  I  did  not 
know,  as  it  is  said." 

*  The  first  editions  add  :  "  Verily  he  said  unto  me  :  '  She  is  my 
sister'  "  (Gen.  xx.  2). 

"  Abimelech. 


192  RABBI  ELIEZER 

man's  wife,  for   he  is   a  prophet  "   {ibid.  7).^       "  And  he 
shall  pray  for  thee,  and  thou  shalt  live  "  {ibid.). 

Rabbi  Joshua,  son  of  Korchah,  (rehearsed)  before  Rabbi 
Tarphon  (saying)  :  Whatever  Pharaoh  gave,  he  gave  to 
Sarah  ;  whatever  Abimelech  gave,  he  gave  to  Abraham  ;  as 
it  is  said,  "  And  Abimelech  took  sheep  and  oxen  "  {ibid. 
14).'-  Abraham  arose  and  prayed  before  the  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  and  said  before  Him  :  Sovereign  of  all  the 
worlds  !  Thou  hast  created  the  whole  world  to  increase 
and  multiply,  and  let  Abimelech  and  all  the  females  of  his 
household  increase  and  multiply.  The  Holy  One,  blessed 
be  He,  was  entreated  of  him,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Abraham 
prayed  ^  unto  God  :  and  God  healed  Abimelech,  and  his  wife, 
and  his  maidservants;^  and  they  bare  children"  {ibid.  17). 

1  The  first  editions  add  here:  "From  thee  one  may  learn,  if  a 
man  come  to  a  town,  let  people  ask  him  concerning  his  requirements 
of  food,  but  let  them  not  inquire  after  his  wife."  See  T.B.  Maccoth, 
gb,  and  T.B.  Baba  Kamma,  92b. 

2  The  text  continues :  "  and  gave  them  unto  Abraham."  The 
entire  sentence  is  wanting  in  the  first  editions.  The  section  seems  out 
of  place  here. 

*  The  quotation  ends  here  in  the  MS.  ;  it  is  continued  in  the  first 
editions. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  his  household."  The  legend  of  Abram 
in  the  furnace  was  known  to  Augustine,  de  Civ.  Dei.  xvi.  13.  The 
incident  with  Sarah  and  Abimelech  is  discussed  by  Chrj'sostomus,  To 
Olympias,  iii.  3  ;  Theodoret,  On  Divine  Providence,  x.  Augustine,  de 
Civ.  Dei,  xvi.  19,  defends  Abraham's  conduct  and  praises  him  in  this 
connection. 


CHAPTER    XXVII 

THE  TRIALS  OF  ABRAHAM  (continued)  [32a.  i.] 

The  sixth  trial  ^  was  (when)  all  the  kings  ^  came  against 
him  3  to  slay  him.^  They  said  :  Let  us  first  begin  with  the 
house  ^  of  his  brother,  and  afterwards  let  us  begin  with  him.^ 
On  account  of  Lot  they  took  all  (the  wealth  of)  ^  Sodom 
and  Gomorrah,®  as  it  is  said,  "  And  they  took  all  the  goods 
of  Sodom  and  Gomorrah "  ||  (Gen.  xiv.  11).  Afterwards 
they  took  Lot  captive,  and  all  his  wealth,  as  it  is  said, 
"  And  they  took  Lot  .  .  .  and  ^  his  goods  "  (ibid.  12). 

Michael  came  and  told  Abraham,  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
there  came  one  who  had  escaped,  and  told  Abram  ^"^  the 
Hebrew"  {ibid.  13).  He^^  is  the  prince  of  the  world,  he 
was  the  one  who  told,  as  it  is  said,  "  Curse  not  the  king, 
no,  not  in  thy  thought ;  .  .  ,  he  who  hath  wings  shall  tell 
the  matter  "  (Eccles.  x.  20).  Why  was  his  name  called 
"Palit"  ("One  who  had  escaped")?  Because  in  the  hour 
when  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  caused  Sammael  and 

^  According  to  Mid  rash  Agadah,  Gen.  p.  26,  this  incident  is  not 
enumerated  among  the  ten  trials  of  Abraham.  A  good  deal  of  the 
material  of  this  chapter  is  preserved  in  Midrash  Haggadol,  Gen.  c. 
214  ff. ;  especially  cols.  217  and  218. 

2  Amraphel  and  his  allies  mentioned  in  Gen.  xiv.  i.  Amraphel 
is  identified  with  Nimrod  in  T.B.  "Erubin,  53a.     See  Gen.  Rab.  xlii.  4. 

'  See  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  68,  which  has  used  P.R.E. 

*  See  T.B.  Synhedrin,  y5b. 

^  The  first  editions  read  :  "  with  the  son  of  his  brother."  The 
reference  is  to  Lot. 

*  See  Lekach  Tob  and  Agadath  Bereshith  on  Gen.  xiv.  1 1. 

'  Our  MS.  omits  "  the  wealth  of  "  ;  it  occurs  in  the  first  editions; 
see  also  for  similar  text,  Midrash  Haggadol,  Gen.  c.  216. 
8  See  Gen.  Rab.  xlii.  7. 

*  The  MS.  reads :  "  and  all  his  goods  "  ;  the  word  "  all  "  is  not  in  the 
actual  quotation. 

1"  See  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  p.  182. 

"  i.e.  Michael.  See  Midrash  Haggadol,  Gen.,  loc.  cit.,  which  has  a 
better  text :  "for  he  discloses  all  the  secrets  of  the  world," 


194  RAEBI  ELIEZER 

his  band  to  descend  from  heaven  from  their  holy  place, ^ 
he  caught  hold  of  the  wings  of  Michael  to  make  him  fall  - 
with  himself,  and  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  saved  ^  him 
from  his  power  ;  ■*  therefore  was  his  name  called  "  The  one 
who  had  escaped."  ^  Concerning  him  Ezekicl  said,  "  One 
who  had  escaped  ^  out  of  Jerusalem  came  to  me,  saying, 
The  city  is  smitten  "  (Ezek.  xxxiii.  21). 

Abraham  rose  up  early  in  the  morning,  and  he  took  his 
three  disciples,  Aner,  Eshcol,  and  Mamre,  with  him,  and 
Eliezcr '  his  servant  with  him  (also),  and  he  pursued  after 
them  as  far  as  Dan,  which  is  Pameas,^  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
he  pursued  as  far  as  Dan  "  (Gen.  xiv.  14).  And  there  the 
righteous  man  ^  was  hindered,  for  there  it  was  told  him  : 
Abraham,  know  thou  that  in  the  future  ^'^  thy  children's 
children  will  serve  idols  in  this  place ;  therefore  was  he 
hindered  there.  Whence  do  we  know  that  Israel  served 
idols  there  ?  Because  it  is  said,  "  And  he  made  two  calves 
of  gold  .  .  .  and  he  set  the  ||  one  ^^  in  Bethel,  and  the  other  put 
he  in  Dan  "  (1  Kings  xii.  28,  29).  There  he  left  his  three 
disciples,i2  ^nd  he  took  his  servant  Eliezer.  The  numerical 
value  of  the  letters  of  his  name  equals  318.^3     jje  pursued 

>  See  supra,  pp.  46,  92,  99. 

2  "  With  him  "  is  added  by  the'Arukh,  ed.  Kohut,  vi.  p.  340b. 

^ths,  hence  B^"?!!  (Paht). 

*  Lit.  "  hand."  See  Assumption  of  Moses  x.  i,  2  for  the  final  con- 
flict b  twe en  Michael  and  SatEin.     Cf.  Jude  9. 

'  Palit.  The  title  of  Michael  as  Palit  (e'Vs)  may  possibly  be  due  to 
an  abbreviated  form  of  his  other  title  of  Praklit  (a''7pi3j  ;  see  Rabbinic 
Philosophy  and  Ethics,  p.  74. 

*  See  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xiv.  13. 

'  The  first  editions  read  :  "  three  disciples  and  EUezer  his  servant." 

*  See  T.B.  Megillah,  6a,  Bechoroth,  55a,  and  'Arukh,  ed.  Kohut,  vi. 
p.  369b  ;  and  cf .  Targum  to  Cant.  v.  4. 

*  Abraham. 

^o  See  T.B.  Synhedrin,  96a  ;   and  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xiv.  14. 

"  The  calf  of  gold. 

I''  See  T.B.  Nedarim,  32a  ;  Gen.  Rab.  xhii.  2  ;  Agadath  Bereshith, 
13;  and  cf.  Tanchuma,  Lekh  Lekha,  §  ix.  The  first  editions  add: 
"  and  their  wives  with  them." 

13  This  Haggadah  was  known  to  Clement  of  Alexandria,  whose  book 
The  Miscellanies,  vi.  11,  states:  "As  then  in  astronomy  we  have 
Abraham  as  an  instance,  so  also  in  arithmetic  we  have  the  same 
Abraham.  For,  hearing  that  Lot  was  taken  captive,  and  having 
numbered  his  own  servants  born  in  his  house,  318,  he  defeats  a  very 
great  number  of  the  enemy."  See  also  the  Epistle  of  Barnabas  ix., 
where  the  "  318  "  is  interpreted  as  a  Christian  Midrash.  See  Siegfried, 
Philo  von  Alexandria,  p.  330,  and  Gudemann,  Religionsgeschichtliche 
Studien,  pp.  119-121.  Other  Rabbinic  parallels  are  Pal.  Targum,  Gen., 
he.  cit.,  and  Posikta  Rabbathi,  §  xviii.  p.  91  h.     The  first  editions  add 


THE  TRIALS  OF  ABRAHAM       195 

them  as  far  as  the  left  of  Damascus,^  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
he  pursued  them  unto  Hobah  "  (Gen.  xiv.  15). 

Samuel  the  Younger  said  :  There  the  night  was  divided 
for  him  ;  (the  night)  when  the  children  of  Israel  went 
forth  out  of  Egypt,-  that  was  the  night  in  which  Abraham 
smote  the  kings  and  their  camps  with  them,  as  it  is  said, 
"And  he  divided  himself  against  them  by  night,  he  and  his 
servants  "  (ibid.).^ 

Hillel  the  Elder  said  :  Abraham  took  all  the  wealth  of 
Sodom  and  Gomorrah  and  all  the  wealth  of  Lot,  the  son  of 
his  brother,  and  he  returned  in  peace,'*  and  not  even  one  of 
his  men  failed  ^  him,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  he  brought  back 
all  ^  the  goods,  and  also  his  brother  Lot  "  {ibid.  16)." 

Rabbi  Joshua  ®  said  :  Abraham  was  the  first  to  begin 
to  give  a  tithe.  He  took  all  the  tithe  of  the  kings  and  all 
the  tithe  of  the  wealth  of  Lot,  the  son  of  his  brother,  and 
gave  (it)  to  Shem,^  the  son  of  Noah,  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
he  gave  him  a  tenth  of  all  "  {ibid.  20). 

after  318:  "He  led  forth  his  trained  men,  born  in  his  house"  (Gen. 
xiv.  14).  There  are  also  variations  in  the  next  quotation,  according  to 
our  MS.  and  the  first  editions  respectively. 

1  See  Gen.  xiv.  15. 

2  The  first  editions  read  :  "  That  is  the  night  which  was  from  of 
old,  that  is  the  night  in  which  He  smote  the  first-born  of  the  Egyptians." 
This  night  was  destined  from  the  beginning,  prepared  for  the  victories 
of  Abraham  and  his  seed,  see  Mekhilta,  p.  1 3a  ;  G  n.  Rab.  xliii.  3  ;  and  cf . 
infra,  pp.  201 ,  402.  The  night  itself  was  divided,  one-half  being  spent 
in  the  days  of  Abraham  in  gaining  victory,  and  the  other  half  of  the 
night  was  destined  to  be  reserved  for  the  victory  of  God  over  Egypt  at 
the  Exodus.      See  Wisdom  xviii.  6. 

*  The  first  editions  add  :  "  And  concerning  this  (night)  it  is  said  : 
'  And  it  came  to  pass  at  midnight  '  "  (Ex.  xii.  29).  See  Pal.  Targum, 
Gen.  xiv.  i  5. 

*  This  is  based  on  the  Haggadic  interpretation  of  Isa.  xli.  3.  See 
Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xiv.  16,  and  cf.  T.B.  Sjoihedrin,  io8b;  Zohar,  Gen. 
26a,  and  Gen.  Rab.,  loc.  cit. 

*  For  the  word  in  the  text  see  2  Sam.  xvii.  22.  Luria  interprets  : 
"  nothing  of  the  wealth  was  missing." 

*  Our  MS.  omits  "  all." 

'  The  first  editions  add  here  :  "  Abraham  was  afraid,  and  said  : 
Perchance  I  have  slain  all  these  troops  (or,  multitude),  and  no  righteous 
person  can  be  found  among  them.  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  said 
to  him:  '  Fear  not,  Abram  '  (Geii.  xv.  i).  With  reference  to  this  it  is 
said  :  '  He  pursueth  them  and  passeth  on -safely,  even  by  a  way  that 
he  had  not  gone  with  his  feet  '  (Isa.  xU.  3).  It  has  not  come  on  thy  foot 
to  soil  thee  in  this  matter."     See  Shocher  Tob,  p.  233b. 

*  The  first  editions  add  :   "  son  of  Korchah." 

*  He  was  the  chief  priest  then;  see  supra,  pp.  53  f.,  and  cf.  J.E. 
xi.  261  f.  As  we  have  seen,  P.R.E.  identifies  Shem  with  Melchizedek  ; 
see  Jubilees  xiii.  25,  especially  Charles'  note  on  pp.  100  f. 


196  RABBI  ELIEZER 

Shem,  the  son  of  Noah,  came  forth  to  meet  him,^  and  when 
he  saw  all  the  deeds  which  he  had  done  and  all  the  wealth 
which  he  had  brought  back,  ||  he  wondered  in  his  heart. 
He  began  to  praise,  to  glorify,  and  to  laud  the  name  of 
the  Most  High,  saying  :  "  And  blessed  be  God  the  Most 
High,  who  hath  delivered  thine  enemies  into  thy  hand  " 
{ibid.).  Abraham  arose  and  prayed  before  the  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  saying  :  Sovereign  of  all  worlds  !  Not  by 
the  power  of  my  hand,  nor  by  the  power  of  my  right  hand 
have  I  done  all  these  things,  but  by  the  power  of  Thy  right 
hand  with  which  Thou  dost  shield  me  in  this  world  and  in 
the  world  to  come,  as  it  is  said,  "  But  thou,  O  Lord,  art 
a  shield  about  me  "  (Ps.  iii.  3)  in  this  world  ;  "  my  glory, 
and  the  lifter  up  of  mine  head"  (ibid.)^  in  the  world  to 
come.^  The  angels  answered  and  said :  Blessed  art  Thou, 
O  Lord,  the  shii  Id  of  Abraham.* 

'  With  bread  and  wine  ;  see  Gen.  xiv.  i8. 

2  The  first  editions  read  :  "  '  But  thou,  O  Lord,  art  a  shield  about 
me ;  my  glory,  and  the  lifter  up  of  mine  head  '  (Ps.  iii.  3)  in  the  world 
to  come." 

^  See  next  chapter.  According  to  the  Midrash,  Ps.  ex.  refers  to 
Abraham;  see  Shocher  Tob,  pp.  2^<a,  b. 

*  See  Singer,  p.  44.  These  angelic  words  form  the  end  of  the 
first  benediction  of  the  Shemoneh 'Esreh.  Other  chapters  of  P.R.E. 
terminate  with  the  last  words  of  other  benedictions  of  this  Prayer. 
This  fact  is  not  mentioned  in  the  annotated  edition  of  Singer's  Prayer 
Book.  From  this  aspect  our  book  forms  a  Midrash  on  the  Shemoneh 
'Esreh.  See  Rokeach,  322,  and  G^n.  Rab.  xli\.  4.  See  al  o  Snach  (h. 
X.*)  in  A.  and  P.  i.  p.  515.  Tiie  last  chapter  of  our  book  probably 
ended  with  the  words  printed  in  the  "contents  of  the  chapters"  in 
the  Venice  edition  (1544)  and  in  later  editions  thus:  "Blessed  art 
Thou,  O  Lord,  who  healest  the  sick  of  Thy  people  Israel."  This  is 
the  eighth  benediction  of  the  Shemoneh  'Esreh.     See  Singer,  p.  47. 


CHAPTER    XXVIII 

THE    TRIALS    OF   ABRAHAM    (continued) 

The  Vision  between  the  Pieces  [32b.  ii.] 

The  seventh  trial  (was  as  follows)  :  "  After  these  things 
the  word  of  the  Lord  came  unto  Abram  in  a  vision,  saying  " 
(Gen.  XV.  1).  To  all  the  prophets  He  was  revealed  in  a 
vision,^  but  to  Abraham  He  was  revealed  ^  in  a  revelation 
and  in  a  vision.  Whence  do  we  know  of  the  revelation  ? 
Because  it  is  said,  "  And  the  Lord  appeared  unto  him  by 
the  oaks  of  Mamre  "  (ibid,  xviii.  1).  Whence  do  we  know  of 
the  vision  ?  Because  it  is  said,  "  After  these  things  the  word 
of  the  Lord  came  unto  Abram  in  a  vision  "  {ibid.  xv.  1). 
He  said  to  him  :  Abraham  !  Do  not  fear,  for  My  right  hand 
is  shielding  thee  in  every  place  where  thou  goest ;  ^  it  is  like 
a  shield  *  against  misfortunes,  and  it  gives  thee  a  good 
reward,  (even)  to  thee  and  to  thy  children,  ||  in  this  world  and 
in  the  world  to  come,  as  it  is  said,  "  Thy  exceeding  great 
reward  "  {ibid.) J" 

^  The  first  editions  add  :  "  he  appeared  in  a  vision  of  the  night." 
Instead  of  reading  "  of  the  night,"  Luria  holds  that  the  reading  should 
be,  "or  in  a  revelation."  This  passage  was  possibly  the  authority 
used  by  Maimonides  in  dealing  with  the  subject  of  prophecy ;  see  his 
Hilkhoth  Jesode  Ha-Torah  vi.  2  and  6.  For  Luria's  suggested  reading  see 
Lev.  Rab.  i.  4.     On  "  vision  and  revelation"  see  Gen.  Rab.  xliv.  (>. 

^  The  first  editions  read  :  "  but  to  Abraham  in  a  vision  and  in  a 
revelation.  Whence  do  we  know  of  the  vision  ?  Because  it  is  said  : 
'  In  a  vision  saying,  Fear  not,  Abram,  I  am  thy  shield  '  (Gen.  xv.  i) 
in  this  world  ;  '  thy  exceeding  great  reward  '  {ibid.)  in  the  world  to 
come."     See  Pal.  Targum,  in  loc,  and  Gen.  Rab.,  loc.  cit. 

^  Cf.  Isa.  xli.  10,  13. 

*Cf.  Abothiv.  15. 

*  The  Midrashim  and  Pal.  Targum  (Gen.  xv.  i)  interpret  the  fear 
of  Abraham  as  implying  that  his  victory  was  his  entire  recompense 
for  his  life's  devotion  to  the  cause  of  God.  This  would  be  covered  by 
the  word  of  the  text,  "  Thy  reward  "  ;  "  exceeding  great  "  would  imply 
the  reward  in  the  future  life. 

»97 


198  RABBI  ELIEZER 

Rabbi  ^  said  :  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  brought 
Abraham  outside  (his  house)  on  the  night  of  Passover,'- 
and  He  said  to  him  :  Abraham  !  Hast  thou  the  ability  to 
count  all  the  host  of  heaven  ?  He  said  before  Him  : 
Sovereign  of  all  worlds  !  Is  there  then  a  limit  to  Thy 
troops  ^  (of  angels)  ?  He  said  to  him  :  Likewise  thy  seed 
shall  not  be  counted  owing  to  their  great  number,  as  it 
is  said,  "  And  he  said  unto  him,  So  shall  thy  seed  be  " 
{ibid.  5).* 

Rabbi  Eliezer  ^  said  :  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He, 
showed  to  our  father  Abraham  (at  the  covenant)  between 
the  pieces  ®  the  four  kingdoms,  their  dominion  and  their 
downfall,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  he  said  unto  him,  Take  me  an 
heifer  of  three  years  old,  and  a  she-goat  of  three  years  old  " 
{ibid.  9).  "  An  heifer  of  three  years  old  "  {ibid.)  refers  to  the 
kingdom  of  Edom,"  which  is  like  the  heifer  of  a  sheep. 
"  And  a  she-goat  of  three  years  old "  {ibid.)  refers  to 
the  kingdom  of  Greece,^  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  he-goat 
magnified  himself  exceedingly "  (Dan.  viii.  8).  "  And  a 
ram  of  three  years  old  "  (Gen.  xv.  9)  ;  this  is  the  kingdom 
of  Media  and  Persia,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  ram  which 
thou  sawest  that  had  the  two  horns,  they  are  the  kings  of 
Media  and  Persia  "  (Dan.  viii.  20).     "  And  a  turtle-dove 


5> 


1  i.e.  Jehudah  the  Prince.  The  first  editions  read  :  "  Rabbi 
Jehudah." 

^  The  attack  of  Amraphel  was  also  on  the  Passover  night  ;  see 
Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xi\-.  i  ^,  and  cf.  Passover  Haggadah  Oz  Rob  Nissim 
and  the  poem  Omez  Geburathekha.  The  chief  references  for  these 
traditions  are  :  Mekhilta,  Bo,  p.  3;!  ;  Pal.  Targum  on  Ex.  xii.  42,  trans- 
lated in  Rabbinic  I'hilosophy  and  Ethics,  pp.  164  f.  See  also  Seder 'Olam 
Rab.  V.  T.  p.  lib.  Is  there  perhaps  a  reference  h  re  to  the  triennial 
reading  of  the  Law,  this  section  in  Genesis  being  read  on  Passover  ? 

'  This  is  based  on  Job  xxv.  3  ;  see  T.B.  Chagigah,  13b,  and  Siphre, 
Numb.  §  42. 

*  The  rest  of  this  chapter  is  missing  in  Luria's  edition.  It  is  to  be 
found  in  the  old  editions,  e.g.  Venice,  Prague,  Amsterdam.  There  is 
no  reason  to  dispute  its  authenticity.  The  Censor  is  probably  respon- 
sible for  Luria's  omission.     His  book  was  printed  in  Warsaw. 

^  The  first  editions  read  '"Akiba." 

*  See  Gen.  xv.  9  ff.  For  a  Christian  Midrash  on  this  theme  see 
Methodius,  Banquet  oj  the  Ten  Virgins,  v.  2. 

'  The  Roman  Empire  is  referred  to  under  this  designation.  Some 
of  the  old  editions  read,  "  Seir."  "  Edom  "  is  the  usual  term  for  the 
Roman  Empire.     MS.  Gaster  adds:  "This  is  the  lourth  Kingdom." 

^  On  the  kingdoms,  Greece  and  Rome,  see  4  Ezra  v.  3  ;  Rev.  xvii. ; 
Lactantius,  Divme  Institutes,  vii.  15.  "  In  the  Johannine  Apocalypse," 
says  Bousset,  Antichrist,  E.T.,  p.  126,  "the  Roman  Empire  is  plainly 
enough  indicated  as  the  last  anti-Christian  power." 


THE  TRIALS  OF  ABRAHAM        199 

(Gen.  XV.  9)  ;  this  refers  to  the  sons  of  Ishmael.i  xhis 
expression  is  not  to  be  understood  in  the  Hteral  meaning 
of  Tor  (turtle-dove),  but  in  the  Aramaic  language,  in  which 
Tor  means  Ox,  for  when  the  male  ox  is  harnessed  to  the 
female,  they  will  open  and  break  all  the  valleys,^  even  as 
it  says  (about)  "  the  fourth  beast  "  (Dan.  vii.  19).3  "  And 
a  young  pigeon  "  (Gen.  xv.  9) ;  this  refers  to  the  Israelites, 
who  are  compared  ||  to  a  young  pigeon,  as  it  is  said,  "  O  my 
dove,  thou  art  in  the  clefts  of  the  rock  "  (Cant.  ii.  14).  For 
thy  voice  is  pleasant  in  prayer,  and  thy  appearance  is  beauti- 
ful in  good  deeds.  "  And  a  young  pigeon  "  (Gen.  xv.  9) ;  this 
refers  to  the  Israelites,  who  are  compared  to  a  young  pigeon  : 
"  My  dove,  my  perfect  (one),  is  (but)  one  "  (Cant.  vi.  9).* 

Rabbi  Acha  ben  Jacob  said  :  This  expression,  "  three 
years  old"  (Gen.  xv.  9),  is  said  only  with  reference  to  the 
mighty  in  power,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  a  threefold  cord  is 
not  quickly  broken  "  (Eccles.  iv.  12).^ 

Rabbi  Mesharshyah  ^  said  :  (Three  years  old)  refers  to 
a  threefold  (dominion)  which  they  would  exercise  three 
times  in  the  future  in  the  land  of  Israel.  At  the  first  time 
each  one  would  rule  by  himself ;  at  the  second  time  two 
together  (would  rule)  ;  on  the  third  occasion  (all)  altogether 
to  fight  against  the  house  of  David,^  as  it  is  said,  "  The 

1  The  Mohammedan  Empire.  Is  this  an  indication  of  the  date 
of  our  bo^k  ?  It  fixes  a  limit,  in  the  sense  that  it  must  have  been 
written  after  the  rise  of  the  Mohammedan  Empire.  We  shall  have 
ground  for  asserting  that  the  beginning  of  the  ninth  century  is 
probably  the  earliest  date  of  the  final  redaction  of  our  book. 

2  See  Gen.  Rab.  Ixxvi.  6.  The  first  editions  read  :  "  they  will  open 
and  break  the  (clods  of)  all  the  valleys.  For  phraseology  of.  Isa.  xxviii. 
24:  "to  open  and  break  the  clods  "  of  the  ground.  The  next  words 
about  the  fourth  beast  are  not  in  the  printed  editions. 

^  The  entire  passage  in  the  first  editions  reads  thus  :  "  This  (ex- 
pression) Tor  (turtle  dove)  is  not  said  here  in  the  language  of  the 
Torah  {i.e.  Hebrew),  but  in  the  Aramaic  language.  Tor  is  the  ox,  and 
when  the  male  ox  is  harnessed  to  the  female  they  will  open  and  break 
(the  ground  of)  all  the  valleys." 

*  The  Oxford  MS.  (O.A.  1O7)  reads:  "Another  explanation.  'A 
young  pigeon  '  refers  to  Israel,  as  it  is  said,  '  My  dove,  my  perfect  (one), 
is  (but)  one '  "  (Cant.  vi.  9). 

*  The  Oxford  MS.  (O.A.  167)  reads  :  "  Rabbi  Acha  ben  Jacob  said  : 
What  is  the  meaning  of  this  expression,  '  three  years  old '  ?  It  refers  to 
the  mighty  in  power,  (who  are)  like  a  threefold  cord,  as  it  is  said,"  etc. 
On  R.  Acha  ben  Jacob,  see  J.E.  i.  p.  278. 

*  There  were  several  teachers  so  named ;  J.E.  viii.  502b  gives  one 
only. 

"7  Messianic  wars  are  referred  to  here.  The  first  editions  read  : 
"  to  fight  against  the  Son  of  David." 


200  RABBI  ELIEZER 

kings  of  the  earth  set  themselves,^  and  the  rulers  take 
counsel  together,  against  the  Lord,  and  against  his  anointed  " 
(Ps.  ii.  2). 

Rabbi  Joshua  said  :  Abraham  took  his  sword  and  divided 
them,  eaeh  one  into  two  parts,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  he  took 
him  all  these,  and  he  divided  them  in  the  midst  "  (Gen. 
XV.  10).  Were  it  not  for  the  fact  that  he  divided  them,  the 
world  would  not  have  been  able  to  exist,  but  because  he 
divided  them,  he  weakened  their  strength,  and  he  brought 
each  part  against  its  corresponding  part,  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
he  laid  each  half  over  against  the  other  "  (ibid.).  And  the 
young  pigeon  he  left  alive,  as  it  is  said,  "  But  the  bird  he 
divided  not  "  (ibid.).  Hence  thou  mayest  learn  that  there 
was  not  any  other  bird  there  excejat  a  young  pigeon. ^  The 
bird  of  prey  came  down  upon  them  ||  to  scatter  them  and  to 
destroy  them.^  "  The  bird  of  prey  "  is  nought  else  but 
David,  the  son  of  Jesse,*  who  is  compared  to  a  "  speckled 
bird  of  prey,"  as  it  is  said,  "  Is  mine  heritage  unto  me  as  a 
speckled  bird  of  prey  ?  "  (Jer.  xii.  9). 

When  the  sun  was  about  to  rise  in  the  east,  Abraham  sat 
down  and  waved  his  scarf  over  them,  so  that  the  bird  of 
prey  should  not  prevail  over  them  until  the  raven  came.^ 

Rabbi  Ela?ar  ben  'A?ariah  said :  From  this  incident  thou 
mayest  learn  that  the  rule  of  these  four  kingdoms  will  only 
last  one  day  ^  according  to  the  day  of  the  Holy  One,  blessed 
be  He.  Rabbi  Ela?ar  ben  'Arakh  said  unto  him :  Verily  it 
is  so,  according  to  thy  word,  as  it  is  said,  "  He  hath  made 
me  desolate  and  faint  all  the  day  "  (Lam.  i.  13),  except  for 

*  The  quotation  ends  here  in  the  MS. 

2  The  first  editions  read :  "  Hence  thou  mayest  learn  that  the 
word  Zippor  in  the  Torah  means  only  a  young  pigeon." 

^  Pal.  Targ.  Gen.  xv.  ii  reads:  "And  there  came  down  people 
who  were  like  unto  an  unclean  bird,  to  steal  away  the  sacrifices  of  Israel ; 
but  the  merit  of  Abram  was  a  shield  over  them." 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  is  nought  else  but  the  Son  of  David." 
See  Hastings'  D.B.  iv.  p.  6ioa,  on  "  the  speckled  bird."  This  passage, 
in  its  Messianic  interpretation,  has  escaped  the  notice  of  Schottgen. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  until  evening  set  in."  This  seems  a 
better  reading.     Cf.  Jubilees  xi.  ii. 

'  The  one  day  of  God  is  looo  yeai's,  see  supra,  p.  128.  Do  the  four 
kingdoms  referred  to  by  Daniel  begin  with  the  Greek  persecutions  under 
Antiochus  Epiphanes,  168  b.c.e.,  so  that  the  end  of  these  hostile  king- 
doms was  to  be  expected  about  1000  years  later,  i.e.  about  832  c.e.  ?  If 
so,  this  is  another  indication  as  to  the  date  of  our  book.  It  would  not 
be  later  than  this  date  (832  c.e.).  Accordingly,  we  may  fix  the  date 
of  its  final  redaction  in  the  early  years  of  the  ninth  century. 


THE  TRIALS  OF  ABRAHAM       201 

two-thirds  of  an  hour  (of  God).  Know  that  it  is  so.  Come 
and  see,  for  when  the  sun  turns  to  set  in  the  west,  (during) 
two  hours  1  its  power  is  weakened,^  and  it  has  no  Hght, 
likewise  whilst  the  evening  has  not  yet  come,  the  light  of 
Israel  shall  arise,^  as  it  is  said,  "  And  it  shall  come  to  pass, 
that  at  evening  time  there  shall  be  light  "  (Zech.  xiv.  7). 

Abraham  arose  and  prayed  before  the  Holy  One,  blessed 
be  He,  that  his  children  should  not  be  enslaved  by  these 
four  kingdoms.  A  deep  sleep  fell  upon  him,  and  he  slept, 
as  it  is  said,  "  A  deep  sleep  fell  upon  Abram  "  (Gen.  xv. 
12).  Does  then  a  man  lie  down  and  sleep,  and  yet  be  able 
to  pray  ?  But  this  teaches  thee  that  Abraham  was  lying 
down  and  sleeping  because  of  the  intensity  of  his  prayer 
that  his  children  might  enslave  ||  these  four  kingdoms,^  as  it 
is  said,  "  And,  lo,  an  horror  of  great  darkness  fell  upon 
him  "  (ibid.).^  "  Horror  "  refers  to  the  kingdom  of  Edom, 
as  it  is  written,  "  And  behold  a  fourth  beast,  terrible  and 
powerful,  and  strong  exceedingly  "  (Dan.  vii.  7).  "Dark- 
ness "  is  the  kingdom  ^  of  those  who  darken  the  eyes  of 
Israel  (by  preventing  the  observance  of)  all  the  precepts 
which  are  in  the  Torah.  "  Great "  (Gen.  xv.  12)  refers  to  the 
kingdom  of  Media  and  Persia,  which  was  great  (enough  to 
be  able  to  afford)  to  sell  Israel  for  nought.^  "Fell"  (ibid.) 
refers  to  the  kingdom  of  Babylon,  because  in  their  hand  fell 
the  crown  ^  of  Israel,  as  it  is  said,  "  Babylon  is  fallen,  is 
fallen  "  (Isa.  xxi.  9).     "  Upon  him  "  (Gen.  xv.  12)  refers  to  the 

1  The  first  editions  read :  "  two-thirds  of  an  hour." 

2  The  1st  ed.  reads :  "  remain  over."  The  Venice  edition  omits 
this  and  reads  instead  :  "  it  is  dark  and  it  has  no  hght."  The  words 
"  it  is  dark  "  is  an  error,  and  should  be  "  its  strength  fails." 

^  The  first  editions  read:  "the  Son  of  David  will  cause  the  light  of 
Israel  to  arise."  Cf.  the  use  of  "  Zemach  "  (Dayspring)  as  a  Messianic 
title  in  Hellenism  and  Christianity,  pp.  iig  f. 

*  The  first  editions  read  here  :  "  that  his  children  might  escape 
these  four  kingdoms."  In  the  preceding  words  the  first  editions  read  : 
"  and  sleeping  and  he  prayed  "  that  his  children,  etc. 

°  Cf.  Pal.  Targ.,  in  loc,  for  a  different  reading  ;  see  also  Gen.  Rab. 
xli\'.  i8  ;  Ex.  Rab.  li.  7  ;  Pesikta  de  R.  Kahana,  42b. 

®  The  first  editions  read  :  "  the  kingdom  of  Greece."  See  also 
Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  lii.  8,  pp.  143b  f. ;  and  Lev.  Rab.  xiii.  5.  The  idea  in 
our  context  has  a  parallel  in  Wisdom  x^-iii.  4. 

'  See  Esth.  iii.  11  :  "  And  the  king  said  to  Haman  :  The  silver  is 
given  to  thee,  the  people  also,  to  do  with  them  as  it  seemeth  good  to 
thee." 

*  i.e.  the  Temple  of  God  at  Jerusalem.  In  the  printed  editions  the 
quotation  from  Isa.  xxi.  9  is  missing. 


202  RABBI  ELIEZER 

Ishmaelites,  upo7i  whom  the  Son  of  David  will  flourish,i  as  it 
is  said,  "  His  enemies  will  I  clothe  with  shame :  ^  but  upon 
him  shall  his  crown  flourish  "  (Ps.  cxxxii.  18). 

Rabbi  Ze'era  ^  said :  These  kingdoms  were  created  only 
as  fuel  for  Gehinnom,  as  it  is  said,  "Behold,  a  smoking 
furnace,''  and  a  flaming  torch  that  passed  "  (Gen.  xv.  17). 
Here  the  word  "  furnace  "  ^  signifies  only  Gehinnom,  which 
is  compared  to  a  furnace,  as  it  is  said,  "  Saith  the  Lord, 
whose  fire  is  in  Zion,  and  his  furnace  in  Jerusalem  "  (Isa. 
xxxi.  9). 

1  Or  it  might  mean  "  arise  "  ;  cf.  supra,  p.  2oi,  note  3. 
-In  the   MS.    the   quotation   ends  here,   "etc."   being  added;    in 
the  first  editions  the  verse  is  continued. 
^  The  printed  editions  read  "  'Azariah." 

*  Pal.  Targ.,  in  loc,  renders  :  "  And  lo,  Abram  saw  Gehinnom  bring- 
ing up  flaming  coals  and  burning  flakes  of  fire,  wherein  the  wicked  are 
to  be  judged."  See  Jer.  Targum,  in  loc,  and  cf.  also  Gen.  Rab.  .xhv. 
•21  ;  Apoc.  Banichiv.  4;  and  4  Ezra  iii.  14  (ed.  Box),  p.  12,  note  a. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  '  Furnace  '  and  '  torch  '  refer  only  to 
Gehinnom,  as  it  is  said,"  etc.  The  readings  preserv^ed  in  the  Jal'kut, 
Gen.  §  jy,  and  the  Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  234,  should  be  compared  with 
our  text.  Beer's  Leben  Abraham' s  should  also  be  consulted  for  further 
references  to  the  Midrashic  sources. 


CHAPTER    XXIX 

THE   TRIALS    OF   ABRAHAM    (continued) 

The  Covenant  of  Circumcision  [33b.  ii.] 

The  eighth  trial  (was  as  follows) :  "  And  when  Abram  was 
ninety-nine  years  old  "  (Gen.  xvii.  1),^  the  Holy  One,  blessed 
be  He,  said  to  him :  Until  now  thou  hast  not  been  perfect 
before  Me ;  but  circumcise  the  flesh  of  thy  foreskin,  and 
"  walk  before  me,  and  be  thou  perfect"  -  (ibid.).  Moreover, 
the  foreskin  is  a  reproach,  as  it  is  said,  "  For  that  is  a 
reproach  unto  us  "  {ibid,  xxxiv.  14),  because  the  foreskin 
is  more  unclean  than  all  unclean  things,  as  it  is  said,  "  For 
henceforth  there  shall  no  more  ||  come  into  thee  the  uncir- 
cumcised  and  the  unclean  "  (Isa.  lii.  1).  For  the  foreskin  is 
a  blemish  above  all  blemishes.  Circumcise  the  flesh  of  thy 
foreskin  and  be  perfect. 

Rabban  Gamaliel  said  :  Abraham  sent  and  called  for 
Shem,^  the  son  of  Noah,  and  he  circumcised  the  flesh  of  the 
foreskin  of  our  father  Abraham,^  and  the  flesh  of  the  fore- 
skin of  Ishmael  his  son,  as  it  is  said,  "  In  the  selfsame  day 
was  Abraham  circumcised,  and  Ishmael  his  son  "  ^  (Gen. 
xvii.  26).  "  In  the  selfsame  day  "  (means)  in  the  might  of 
the  sun  at  midday.^     Not  only  that,  but  (it  indicates)  the 

'  The  first  editions  add  :  "  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  said  to 
him,  '  Walk  before  me,  and  be  thou  perfect ' "  (Gen.  xvii.  i). 

2  See  IVIidrash  Agadah,  Gen.  xvii.  21,  p.  36. 

'  On  Abraham's  circumcision  see  Gen.  Rab.  xlvi.  4  and  xlvii.  8. 
Shem  was  bom  circumcised;  see  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  80;  J.E.  xi.  261  ;  Hip- 
polytus  (ed.  Achelis),  p.  91  ;  and  Jerome,  Ep.  cxxvi.  quoted  by  Rahmer, 
op.  cit.  p.  72. 

*  See  Agadath  Bereshith,  p.  35,  and  Tanchuma  Vayera,  §  ii. 

^  Luria  thinks  that  the  rest  of  the  verse,  "  And  also  all  those  born 
in  his  house,"  etc.,  is  missing  in  our  text. 

*  And  then  it  is  at  its  zenith.  See  Gen.  Rab.  xlvii.  9;  Rashi  on 
Gen.,  in  loc. ;  and  Lekach  Tob,  in  loc. 

203 


204  RABBI  ELIEZER 

tenth  day  of  the  month,^  the  Day  of  Atonement.  It  is 
written  in  connection  with  the  Day  of  Atonement,  "  Ye 
shall  do  no  manner  of  work  on  that  selfsame  day,  for  it  is 
a  day  of  atonement  "  (Lev.  xxiii.  28)  ;  and  in  the  present 
instance  the  text  says,  "  In  the  selfsame  day  was  Abraham 
circumcised  "  (Gen.  xvii,  26).  Know  then  that  on  the  Day  of 
Atonement  Abraham  our  father  was  circumcised. ^  Every 
year  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  sees  the  blood  of  our 
father  Abraham's  circumcision,  and  He  forgives  all  the  sins 
of  Israel,  as  it  is  said,  "  For  on  this  day^  shall  atonement  be 
made  for  you,  to  cleanse  you  "  (Lev.  xvi.  30).  In  that  place 
where  Abraham  was  circumcised  and  his  blood  remained, 
there  the  altar  was  built,*  and  therefore,  "  And  all  the 
blood  thereof  shall  he  pour  out  at  the  base  of  the  altar  " 
{ibid.  iv.  30).  (It  says  also),^  "  I  said  unto  thee.  In  thy 
blood,  live  ;  ^  yea,  I  said  unto  thee,  In  thy  blood,  live  " 
(Ezek.  xvi.  6). 

Rabbi  Chanina  ben  Dosa  said  :  All  who  are  circumcised 
have  (excessive)  pain  on  the  third  day,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  it 
came  to  pass  on  the  third  day,  when  they  were  sore  "  (Gen. 
xxxiv.  25).^  They  may  wash  ||  the  child  on  the  third  day,^  when 
it  happens  to  fall  on  the  Sabbath,  and  all  things  necessary  for 
a  circumcision  ^  are  permitted  to  be  done  on  the  Sabbath. ^^ 

1  Tishri,  the  7th  month. 

2  This  is  mentioned  by  Tosaphoth  to  T.B.  Rosh  Ha-Shanah,  iia, 
catchword  "  But."  The  story  is  given  by  R.  Bechai,  Comm.  on  Gen.,  in 
loc,  with  a  different  reading;  see  also  Midrash  Agadan,  Gen.  xvii.  21. 
According  to  T.B.  Baba  Mezi'a,  Sob,  the  circumcision  of  Abraham  took 
place  on  Passover.  Jubilees  xxxi\ .  iS  speaks  of  the  instiiuiion  of  tlie 
Day  of  Atonement  in  connection  with  Joseph.  Our  author,  in  his 
opposition  to  Jubilees,  connects  the  Day  of  Atonement  with  the  Hfe  of 
Abraham.  Such  variant  traditions  are  common  to  all  histories;  cf. 
Usener,  "  Weihnachsfest,"  for  the  different  dates  observed  by  the 
Church  to  celebrate  the  birthday  of  the  Founder  of  the  Christian  faith. 

^  i.e.  the  event  that  marked  this  day,  namely,  the  circumcision  of 
the  Founder  of  the  Hebrew  religion.  The  circumcision  of  the  Founder 
of  the  Christian  Church  is  now  observed  annually  on  ist  January. 

*  Mount  Moriah.  Cf.  the  legends  of  Golgotha  and  Akeldama,  see 
Jerome,  Com.  in  Eph.  v.  14. 

*  The  last  two  sentences  of  this  paragranh  arc  wanting  in  the 
Oxford  MS. 

*  The  MS.  omits  here  the  second  half  of  the  verse  ;  it  occurs  in  the 
first  editions. 

'  The  first  editions  add  :  "  Accordingly  the  sages  have  taught." 
»  After  birth.     This  is  a  Mishnah  in  T.B.  Sabbath  xix.  3.  134b,  and 
cf.  Talkut,  Gen.  §  135. 

■9  See  T.B.  Sabbath,  112a. 

'»  See  T.B.  Sabbath,  i2Sb  and  133a. 


THE  TRIALS  OF  ABRAHAM       205 

Every  uncircumcised  (man)  shall  not  eat  (of  the  Paschal 
offering),  and  shall  not  touch  the  sanctuary.  He  who 
separates  himself  from  circumcision  is  like  one  separated 
from  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He. 

Rabban  Gamaliel, ^  the  son  of  Rabbi  Jehudah  the  Prince, 
said  :  When  our  father  Abraham  was  circumcised,  on  the 
third  day  he  was  very  sore,-  in  order  to  test  him.^  What 
did  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  do  ?  He  pierced  one  hole 
in  the  midst  of  Gehinnom,  and  He  made  the  day  hot,  like 
the  day  of  the  wicked.^  He  ^  went  forth,  and  sat  down  at 
the  entrance  of  the  tent  in  the  cool  of  the  day,  as  it  is  said, 
"  And  he  sat  at  the  tent  door  (in  the  heat  of  the  day)  "  {ibid. 
xviii.  1).  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  said  to  the  minister- 
ing angels :  Come  ye,  let  us  descend  and  visit  the  sick,  for 
the  virtue  of  visiting  the  sick  is  great  before  Me.^  The 
Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  and  the  angels  descended  to  visit 
our  father  Abraham,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  Lord  appeared 
unto  him  "  (ibid.).  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  said  to 
the  ministering  angels :  Come  ye  and  see  ye  ^  the  power  of 
circumcision.**  Before  Abraham  was  circumcised  he  felP 
on  his  face  (before  Me),  and  afterwards  I  spake  with  him, 
as  it  is  said,  "  And  Abraham  fell  upon  his  face  "  (ibid. 
xvii.  17).  Now  that  he  is  circumcised  he  sits  and  I  stand. 
Whence  do  we  know  that  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  was 
standing  ?  Because  it  is  said,  "  And  he  looked,  and,  lo, 
three  men  stood  over  against  him  "  [ibid,  xviii.  2). 

^  This  is  Gamaliel  ii.,  to  be  distinguished  from  his  grandfather 
Gamaliel  i.  mentioned  previously. 

2  The  pain  on  the  third  day  was  made  exceptionally  severe  in 
order  to  test  Abraham.  This  was  the  eighth  trial  according  to  our 
Book. 

3  See  AgadathBereshith,  pp.  37ff.,  and  Jalkut,Gen.  §  S 2, which  reads  : 
"  What  did  He  do  to  try  him  ?     He  pierced  an  aperture  in  Gehinnom." 

*  See  T.B.  Baba  Mezi'a,  Sub,  and  see  infra,  p.  416,  and  cf. 
'Arukh,  ed.  Kohut,  v.  390,  s.v.  pmj,  and  ibid.  p.  20,  s.v.  d.iS.  There  is 
no  eternal  Gehenna  in  the  future  life,  only  a  day  of  heat ;  see  T.B. 
Nedarim,  8b. 

*  i.e.  Abraham. 

*  Cf.  supra,  pp.  89,  107. 

'  This  expression  is  a  characteristic  of  our  author. 

8  On  Circumcision  see  J.E.  iv.  92  ff.,  and  on  '"Orlah"  see  ibid.  ix. 

435- 

®  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xvii.  17,  reads  :  And  because  Abraham 
was  not  circumcised  he  was  not  able  to  stand,  but  he  bowed  himself 
upon  his  face."  Balaam  also  fell  down  when  receiving  the  Divine 
oracles. 


206  RABBI  ELIEZER 

Rabbi  Ze'era  ||  said  :  There  are  five  ^  kinds  of  Orlah  (things 
iincircumcised)  in  the  world  :  four  with  reference  to  man, 
and  one  concerning  trees.  Whence  do  we  know  this  con- 
cerning the  four  (terms)  applying  to  man  ?  (Namely,)  the 
uncircumcision  of  the  ear,  the  uncircumcision  of  the  lips, 
the  uncircumcision  of  the  heart,  and  the  uncircumcision  of 
the  flesh.  Whence  do  we  know  of  the  uncircumcision  of  the 
ear  ?  Because  it  is  said,  "  Behold,  their  ear  is  uncircum- 
cised  "  (Jer.  vi.  10).  Whence  do  we  know  of  the  vmcircum- 
cision  of  the  lips  ?  Because  it  is  said,  "  For  I  am  of  un- 
circumcised  lips  "  (Ex.  vi.  12).  Whence  do  we  know  of 
the  uncircumcision  of  the  heart  ?  Because  it  is  said, 
"  Circumcise  the  foreskin  of  your  heart  "  (Deut.  x.  16) ; 
and  (the  text)  says,  "  For  all  the  nations  are  uneircumcised, 
and  all  the  house  of  Israel  are  uneircumcised  in  heart  " 
(Jer.  ix.  26).  Whence  do  we  know  of  the  uncircumcision 
of  the  flesh  ?  Because  it  is  said,  "  And  the  uneircumcised 
male  who  is  not  circumcised  in  the  flesh  of  his  foreskin  " 
(Gen.  xvii.  14).  And  "  all  the  nations  are  uneircumcised  " 
in  all  the  four  cases,  and  "  all  the  house  of  Israel  are  uneir- 
cumcised in  heart."  The  uncircumcision  of  the  heart  does 
not  suffer  Israel  to  do  the  will  of  their  Creator.  And  in  the 
future  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  will  take  away  from 
Israel  the  uncircumcision  of  the  heart,  and  they  will  not 
harden  their  stubborn  (heart)  any  more  before  their  Creator, 
as  it  is  said,  "  And  I  will  take  away  the  stony  heart  ^  out 
of  your  flesh,  and  I  will  give  you  an  heart  of  flesh  "  (Ezek. 
xxxvi.  26) ;  and  it  is  said,  "  And  ye  shall  be  circumcised  in 
the  flesh  of  your  foreskin  "  ^  (Gen.  xvii.  11).  Whence  do  we 
know  concerning  the  one  ('Orlah)  for  trees  ?  *  Because  it 
is  said,  "  And  when  ye  shall  come  into  the  land,  and  shall 
have  planted  all  manner  of  trees  for  food,  then  ye  shall 

1  See  Gen.  Rab.  xlvi.  5.  The  tractate  of  'Orlah  in  the  Mishnah, 
Tosephta,  and  Jerushalmi  deals  with  the  "  uncircumcision  "  of  trees 
based  on  Lev.  xix.  23-25. 

2  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here ;  in  the  first  editions  it  is  con- 
tinued as  in  our  version.     The  MS.  adds  "  etc." 

^  The  first  editions  read  :  "  And  ye  shall  circumcise  the  foreskin  of 
your  flesh,"  which  is  not  an  actual  quotation,  but  a  combination  of 
Gen.  xvii.  11  and  Deut.  x.  16.  The  MS.  originally  read  :  "  the  foreskin 
of  your  heart,"  which  has  been  deleted. 

*  In  addition  to  the  Mishnah  and  Tosephta  on  '"Orlah"  see 
Maimonides,  Ma'akhaloth  'Asuroth.  x.  9  ff.  According  to  T.B. 
Kiddushin,  37a,  the  law  of  'Orlah  is  limited  to  Palestine. 


THE  TRIALS  OF  ABRAHAM        207 

count  the  fruit  thereof  as  their  uncircumcision  :  ^  three  years 
shall  they  be  as  vuicircumcised  unto  you  "  (Lev.  xix.  23). 

Rabbi  Ze'era  ^  taught :  The  tree  ||  which  is  mentioned 
here  is  none  other  than  the  vine  tree.^  If  they  do  not  cut 
off  from  the  tree  the  fruit  of  the  first  three  years,  all  the 
fruit  which  it  yields  will  be  gleanings  fit  to  be  pluckt  off, 
and  not  good  ;  and  its  wine  will  be  disqualified  for  the 
altar  ;  but  if  they  cut  off  from  the  tree  the  fruit  of  the  first 
three  years,  all  the  fruit  which  it  yields  will  be  good  for 
the  sight,  and  their  wine  will  be  selected  to  be  brought 
upon  the  altar.  So  with  our  father  Abraham ;  before  he 
was  circumcised,  the  fruit  which  he  produced  was  not  good 
[in  its  effects,^  and  was  disqualified  from  the  altar;  but 
when  he  had  been  circumcised,  the  fruit  which  he  produced 
was  good  in  its  effects,^  and  his  wine]  ^  was  chosen  to  be 
put  upon  the  altar  like  wine  for  a  libation,  as  it  is  said, 
"  And  wine  for  the  drink  offering  "  (Num.  xv.  5). 

Rabbi  ^  said :  Abraham  did  not  delay  aught ^  with  reference 
to  all  (things)  which  He  commanded  him,  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
he  that  is  eight  days  old  shall  be  circumcised  "  (Gen.  xvii.  12) ; 
and  when  Isaac  was  born,  (and  when)  he  was  eight  days 
old  (Abraham)  brought  him  to  be  circumcised,  as  it  is  said, 
"  And  Abraham  circumcised  his  son  Isaac  when  he  was 
eight  days  old  "  {ibid.  xxi.  4).  Hence  thou  mayest  learn 
that  everyone  who  brings  his  son  for  circumcision  is  as 
though  (he  were)  a  high  priest  bringing  his  meal  offering 
and  his  drink  offering  upon  the  top  of  the  altar.^     Hence 

*  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here. 

2  The  first  editions  read  "  Zerika."  On  "  ?e'era  "  see  J.E.  xii.  651  f., 
and  on  "  Zerika"  see  ibid.  662. 

^  See  Joreh  Di'ah,  294.  For  a  similar  law  see  Jubilees  vii.  i  and 
35-38.  All  trees  bearing  fruit  fit  to  be  eaten  were  subject  to  this  law ; 
cf.  Ezek.  xvii.  5  ff.  It  is  very  remarkable  that  our  author  restricts  the 
law  of 'Orlah  to  the  vine,  which  the  Rabbis  included  among  the  fruit- 
bearing  trees  ;  see  Siphra,  90a. 

*  With  reference  to  Ishmael.     See  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  81. 

*  With  reference  to  Isaac. 

*  This  portion  in  square  brackets  is  missing  in  the  MS.,  but  un- 
doubtedly it  must  be  supplied  ;  it  occurs  in  the  first  editions. 

'  The  first  editions  read :  "  Rabbi  Ishmael."  This  section  occurs 
in  a  later  part  of  the  chapter  in  the  printed  texts. 

*  See  T.B.  Pesachim,  4a. 

^  This  sentence  is  not  in  the  printed  texts.  The  first  editions  read  : 
"  And  he  brought  him  (as)  a  meal  offering  upon  the  top  of  the  altar, 
and  he  made  festivities  and  a  banquet."  See  Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  cxii. 
p.  2T4b.     This  Midrash  has  used  our  book.     Some  of  the  printed  texts 


208  RABBI  ELIEZER 

the  sages  said  :  A  man  is  bound  to  make  festivities  and  a 
banquet  on  that  day  when  he  has  the  merit  of  having  his 
son  1  circumcised,  Hke  Abraham  our  father,  who  circumcised 
his  son,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Abraham  circumcised  l|  his  son 
Isaac  "  -  (ibid.). 

Rabbi  Jochanan  said  :  All  heathens  who  come  to  Israel 
are  circumcised  by  their  own  freewill  and  with  their  consent, 
and  in  the  fear  of  Heaven  are  they  circumcised.  We  do 
not  believe  a  proselyte  until  seven  generations  (have  passed), 
so  that  the  waters  should  not  return  to  their  source.^  But 
slaves  arc  circumcised  both  by  their  freewill  and  with  their 
consent  as  well  as  without  their  consent,  and  no  confidence 
is  placed  in  slaves.  Likewise  with  all  the  slaves  who  were 
circumcised  with  our  father  Abraham,  they  did  not  remain 
true  (converts)  in  Israel,  neither  they  nor  their  seed,  because 
it  is  said,  "  All  the  men  of  his  house,  those  born  in  the 
house,^  and  those  bought  with  money  of  the  stranger,  were 
circumcised  mth  him  "  {ibid.  xvii.  27).  Why  did  he  cir- 
cumcise them  ?  Because  of  purity,  so  that  they  should 
not  defile  their  masters  with  their  food  and  with  their 
drink,  for  whosoever  eateth  with  an  uncircumcised  person 
is  as  though  he  were  eating  flesh  of  abomination.^  All 
who  bathe  ^vith  the  uncircumcised  are  as  though  they 
bathed  with  carrion,^  and  all  who  touch  an  uncircumcised 
person  are  as  though  they  touched  the  dead,  for  in  their 
lifetime  they  are  like  (the)  dead ;  ^  and  in  their  death  they 

read:  "he  presented  him  Uke  an  offering"  (by  circumcision).  See 
Jalkut,  Gen.,  loc.  cit.,  and  Tania  Rabbathi,  96  (od.  Warsaw),  p.  loib. 

i  See  Tosaphoth  on  Sabbath,  130a  ;  Joreh  Di'ah,  265. 

2  The  first  editions  do  not  use  this  quotation,  but  "  And  Abraham 
made  a  great  feast  on  the  day  that  Isaac  was  weaned  "  (Gen.  xxi.  8). 
This  was  not  the  day  of  circumcision.  But  just  as  Abraham  made  a 
feast  at  the  weaning  of  his  son,  it  was  inferred  that  he  had  also  made  a 
feast  at  the  circumcision. 

*  To  test  whether  they  might  revert  to  their  former  idolatry.  Cf . 
T.B.  Synhedrin,  94a,  and'Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  2,57. 

*  The  quotation  ends  here  in  the  MS. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "as  though  he  were  eating  with  a  dog. 
]ust  as  the  dog  is  not  circumcised  so  the  uncircumcised  person  is  not 
circumcised."  For  parallel  N.T.  teaching  see  Phil.  iii.  2  and  Eph. 
ii.  II. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  a  leper."  Sec  Maimonides,  On  Idolatry, 
vii.  18. 

'  Cf .  Matt.  viii.  22,  where  the  Jews  are  referred  to  as  "  the  dead."  Th  • 
lieathens  or  Gentiles  were,  according,'  to  the  N.'l".,  believed  to  be  under 
the  control  of  Satan  (see  2  Cor.  vi.  15-18;  and  cf.  i  Cor.  x.  19  and 
xii.  2)  and  therefore  children  of  death  (see  H^b.  ii.  14  f.),  whereas  the 


THE  TRIALS  OF  ABRAHAM       209 

are  like  the  carrion  of  the  beast,^  and  their  prayer  does  not 
come  before  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  as  it  is  said, 
"  The  dead  praise  not  the  Lord  "  (Ps.  cxv.  17).  But  Israel 
who  are  circumcised,  their  prayer  comes  before  the  Holy 
One,  blessed  be  He,  ||  like  a  sweet  savour,  as  it  is  said,  "  But 
we  will  bless  the  Lord  -  from  this  time  forth  and  for  evermore. 
Praise  ye  the  Lord  "  {ibid.  18). 

Rabbi  said  :  Isaac  circumcised  Jacob,  and  Esau  ;  ^  and 
Esau  despised  the  covenant  of  circumcision  just  as  he 
despised  the  birthright,  as  it  is  said,  "  So  Esau  despised 
his  birthright  "  (Gen.  xxv.  34).  Jacob  clung  to  the  covenant 
of  circumcision,  and  circumcised  his  sons  and  his  grandsons. 
Whence  (do  we  know)  that  the  sons  of  Jacob  were  circum- 
cised ?  Because  it  is  said,  "  Only  on  this  condition  will 
the  men  consent  unto  us  to  dwell  ^  with  us  .  .  .  if  every 
male  among  us  be  circumcised,  as  they  are  circumcised." 
{ibid,  xxxiv.  22).  Another  text  says,  "  Only  on  this  con- 
dition will  we  consent  unto  you  :  if  ye  will  be  as  we  be  " 
{ibid.  15).^  Hence  thou  canst  learn  that  the  sons  of  Jacob 
were  circumcised.  The  sons  of  Jacob  circumcised  their 
sons  and  their  grandsons.  They  gave  it  to  them  as  an 
inheritance  for  an  everlasting  statute,  until  Pharaoh  the 
Wicked  arose  ®  and  decreed  harsh   laws  concerning  them, 

believers  or  Christians  are  the  only  ones  who  really  live  (cf .  Rom.  v. 
12-21,  ibid.  i.  ib-32,  ibid.  vi.  13,  and  ibid.  viii.  b-io).  The  Ephesians, 
formerly  "  Gentiles  in  the  flesh  who  are  called  Uncircumcision  "  (Eph. 
ii.  11),  are  addressed  thus  :  "You  who  were  dead  in  trespass  and  sins" 
{ibid.  i). 

1  The  first  editions  read  :  "of  the  field."  A  parallel  to  the  teaching 
of  this  section  is  to  be  found  in  the  doctrine  so  strongly  emphasized  by 
Paul  that  the  Christians  should  not  partake  of  "  the  things  which  the 
Gentiles  sacrifice"  (i  Cor.  x.  20).  Jesus  also  said,  "Give  not  that 
which  is  holy  unto  the  dogs,  neither  cast  your  pearls  before  the  swine, 
lest  haply  they  trample  them  under  their  feet,  and  turn  and  rend  you  " 
(Matt.  vii.  6).  On  "  Dog  "  as  applied  to  non-Christians  in  the  New 
Testament  and  Christian  literature,  see  Jewish  Sources  of  the  Sermon 
on  the  Mount,  pp.  219  fi.  See  also  Jubilees  xv.  26.  The  Church 
Councils  prohibited  Christians  eating  with  the  Jews,  see  Apostolic  Con- 
stitutions, ii.  62  and  viii.  47. 

2  The  quotation  ends  here  in  the  MS.,  it  is  continued  in  the  first 
editions. 

3  Jubilees  xv.  30  says  of  Esau :  "  the  Lord  did  not  cause  him  to 
approach  him."     See  Jalkut.  Gen.  §  116. 

*  In  the  MS  the  quotation  ends  here. 

»  This  quotation  is  not  in  the  printed  texts.  The  verse  continues  : 
"  that  every  male  of  you  be  circumcised." 

*  See  Eccles.  Rab.  on  Eccles.  ix.  12 ;  Ruth  Rab.  Proem.  (<.  Accord- 
ing to  Num.  Rab.  xv.  12,  only  the  tribe  of  Levi  kept  the  rite  of  circum- 

14 


210  RABBI  ELTEZER 

and  withheld  from  them  the  covenant  of  circumcision. 
And  on  the  day  when  the  children  of  Israel  went  forth 
from  Egypt  all  the  people  were  circumcised,  both  young 
and  old,  as  it  is  said,  "  For  all  the  people  that  came  out 
were  circumcised  "  (Josh.  v.  5). 

The  Israelites  took  the  blood  of  the  covenant  of  circum- 
cision,^ and  they  put  (it)  -  upon  the  lintel  of  their  houses, 
and  when  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  passed  over  to  plague 
the  Egyptians,  He  saw  the  blood  of  the  covenant  of  circum- 
cision upon  the  lintel  of  their  houses  and  the  blood  of  the 
Paschal  lamb.  He  was  filled  ||  with  compassion  ^  on  Israel,  as 
it  is  said,  "  And  when  I  passed  by  thee,  and  saw  thee 
weltering  in  thy  (twofold)  blood,*  I  said  unto  thee.  In  thy 
(twofold)  blood,  live  ;  yea,  I  said  unto  thee.  In  thy  (two- 
fold) blood,  live  "  (Ezek.  xvi.  6).  "  In  thy  blood  "  is  not 
written  here,  but  in  "  thy  (twofold)  blood,"  with  twofold 
blood,  the  blood  of  the  covenant  of  circumcision  and  the 
blood  of  the  Paschal  lamb  ;  therefore  it  is  said,  "  I  said  unto 
thee,  In  thy  (twofold)  blood,  live  ;  yea,  I  said  unto  thee. 
In  thy  (twofold)  blood,  live  "  (ibid.). 

Rabbi  Eliezer  said  :  Why  ^  did  the  text  say  twice, 
"  I  said  unto  thee.  In  thy  blood,  live  ;  yea,  I  said  unto  thee, 
In  thy  blood,  hve  "  ?  But  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He, 
said  :  By  the  merit  of  the  blood  of  the  covenant  of  circum- 
cision and  the  blood  of  the  Paschal  lamb  ye  shall  be  redeemed 
from  Egypt,  and  by  the  merit  of  the  covenant  of  circum- 
cision and  by  the  merit  of  the  covenant  of  the  Passover  in 
the  future  ye  shall  be  redeemed  at  the  end  of  the  fourth 
kingdom ;  ^    therefore   it   is   said,   "  I    said    unto    thee,    In 

cision  in  Egypt ;  the  other  tribes  refused  to  obey  in  this  matter.  See 
Ex.  Rab.  i.  20,  and  xix.  5;  Tanna  de  be  Ehjahu  Rab.  xxiii.  p.  123; 
and  Siphre,  Num.  §  67. 

'  The  first  editions  add  :  "  and  the  blood  of  the  Paschal  lamb."  See 
Pal.  Targum  on  Ex.  xii.  i  ^,  which  reads,  "  And  the  blood  of  the  Paschal 
offering  and  the  rite  of  circumcision  shall  be  a  guarantee  to  you,  to 
become  a  sign  upon  the  houses  where  ye  dwell  "  ;  see  also  Mekhilta  (on 
Ex.  xii.  ())  p.  5a,  Zohar,  Lev.  95a,  and  Num.  Rab.  xiv.  12. 

-The  first  editions  read  "them,"  i.e.  the  blood  of  the  circumcision 
as  well  as  the  blood  of  the  Paschal  lamb. 

^  The  root  "  Pasach "  (nos)  means  to  spare,  hence  to  be  com- 
passionate. 

*  The  quotation  ends  here  in  the  MS. ;  in  the  first  editions  it  is  con- 
tinued. 

*  Lit.  "  For  what  purpose  did  the  text  see  to  say." 

*  At  the  Messianic  redemption. 


THE  TRIALS  OF  ABRAHAM       211 

thy  blood,  live  ;  yea,  I  said  unto  thee,  In  thy  blood,  live  " 
{ibid.).^ 

There  are  three  afflictions,^  (namely,)  the  affliction  of 
the  fast,  the  affliction  of  the  prison,  and  the  affliction  of 
the  road.3  Whence  do  we  know  of  the  affliction  of  the  fast  ? 
(Because  it  is  said,)  ^  "  I  afflicted  my  soul  with  fasting  " 
(Ps.  XXXV.  13).  Whence  do  we  know  of  the  affliction  of  the 
prison  ?  (Because  it  is  said,)  *  "  They  hurt  his  feet  with 
fetters  "  (ibid.  cv.  18).  Whence  do  we  know  of  the  affliction 
of  the  road  ?  (Because  it  is  said,)  ^  "  He  weakened  my 
strength  in  the  way  "  {ibid.  cii.  23).  On  account  of  the 
affliction  of  the  road,  (the  children  of  Israel)  ^  did  not 
circumcise,  and  when  they  went  forth  from  Egypt  all  the 
people  were  circumcised,  both  young  and  old,  as  it  is  said, 
"  For  all  the  people  that  came  out  were  circumcised  "  || 
(Josh.  V.  5).^ 

Rabbi  Ishmael  said  :  Did  the  uncircumcised  ^  hear  the 
voice  of  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  on  Mount  Sinai, 
saying,  "  I  am  the  Lord  thy  God  "  (Ex.  xx.  2)  ?  '  They 
were  circumcised,  but  not  according  to  its  regulation.^  They 
had  cut  off  the  foreskin,  but  they  had  not  uncovered  the 
corona.  Everyone  who  has  been  circumcised,  but  has  not 
had  the  corona  uncovered,  is  as  though  he  had  not  been 
circumcised,  therefore  the  text  says,  "  Israel  was  not 
circumcised  of  old."  ^ 

When  they  came  to  the  land  (of  Canaan),i^  the  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  said  to  Joshua :  Joshua !  Dost  thou  not  know 
that  the  Israelites  are  not  circumcised  according  to  the  proper 
regulation  ?     He  again  circumcised  them  a  second  time,  as 

1  See  Targum  on  Ezek.  xvi.  6  ;  and  cf.  infra,  pp.  383  ff. 

-  See  T.B.  Nedarim,  31b,  32a  ;  T.B.  Gittin,  70a  ;  Shocher  Tob, 
Ps.  xxxi.  p.  i2ia;  Lam.  Rab.  i.  50;  T.B.  Jebamoth,  71b,  on  the 
danger  of  circumcision  when  one  travels. 

^  Or,  journey. 

*  This  is  omitted  by  the  MS.,  but  it  occurs  in  the  first  editions. 

*  The  printed  editions  quote  Josh.  v.  7. 

*  i.e.  the  Israehtes. 

'  See  Num.  Rab.  xi.  3,  Cant.  Rab.  i.  12,  and  Shocher  Tob,  Pss. 
p.  39a  ;  and  cf .  T.B.  Jebamoth,  72a.  The  first  editions  add :  "  And 
did  He  give  them  the  Torah  ?  But,  Heaven  forbid  !  They  were 
circumcised,  but  they  did  not  have  the  corona  uncovered." 

*  This  refers  to  (nv<iBi  "  F'ri'ah"  (having  the  corona  uncovered). 
9  This  is  not  a  Biblical  quotation.     Should  Josh.  v.  5  be  quoted  ? 

1°  The  first  editions  read  :  "  When  the  Israelites  came  to  the  land  of 
Israel." 


212  RABBI  ELIEZER 

it  is  said,  "  The  Lord  said  unto  Joshua,  Make  thee  knives 
of  flint,!  and  circumcise  again  the  children  of  Israel  a  second 
time  "  (Josh.  V.  2).  "  And  Joshua  made  him  knives  of  flint  " 
{ibid.  3),  and  he  gathered  all  the  foreskins  until  he  made 
them  (as  high)  as  a  hill,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  he  circumcised 
the  children  of  Israel  at  the  hill  of  the  foreskins  "  (ibid.). 
The  Israelites  took  the  foreskin  and  the  blood  -  and  covered 
them  with  the  dust  ^  of  the  wilderness.  When  Balaam  ^ 
came,  he  saw  all  the  wilderness  filled  with  the  foreskins  of 
the  Israelites,  he  said  :  Who  will  be  able  to  arise  by  the 
merit  of  the  blood  of  the  covenant  of  this  circumcision, 
which  is  covered  by  the  dust  ?  as  it  is  said,  "  Who  can  count 
the  dust  of  Jacob  ?  "  (Num.  xxiii.  10). 

Hence  ||  the  sages  instituted  that  they  should  cover  the 
foreskin  and  the  blood  with  the  dust  of  the  earth,^  because 
they  ^  are  compared  to  the  dust  of  the  earth,  as  it  is  said, 
"  And  thy  seed  shall  be  as  the  dust  of  the  earth  "  (Gen. 
xxviii.  14).  Thus  the  Israelites  were  wont  to  circumcise 
until  they  were  divided  into  two  kingdoms.  The  kingdom 
of  Ephraim  cast  off  from  themselves  the  covenant  of  circum- 
cision.^ Elijah,  may  he  be  remembered  for  good,  arose 
and  was  zealous  with  a  mighty  passion,  and  he  adjured  the 
heavens  to  send  down  neither  dew  nor  rain  upon  the  earth. 
Jezebel  heard  (thereof),  and  sought  to  slay  him.  Elijah 
arose  and  prayed  before  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He. 

The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  said  to  him  :  "  Art  thou 
better  than  thy  fathers  ?  "  ^     Esau  sought  to  slay  Jacob, 

1  The  quotation  ends  here  in  the  MS. ;  in  the  first  editions  the  latter 
part  of  the  verse  only  is  given. 

'  The  law  of  the  covering  of  the  blood  is  ascribed  by  Jubilees  vii.  30 
to  Noah,  who  tells  his  sons  :  "  and  work  ye  a  good  work  to  your  souls 
bv  covering  that  which  has  been  shed  on  the  face  of  the  earth  "  ;  see 
also  ibid.  31,  33.  In  opposition  to  Jubilees,  our  author  transfers  the 
precept  to  Abraham. 

*  The  Babylonian  Jews  appear  to  have  used  water  to  cover  the  blood 
at  the  circumcision,  whereas  the  Palestinian  Jews  used  earth  to  cover 
the  blood  and  the  foreskin  after  the  circumcision.  See  Sha'are  Zedek 
V.  10  ;  Tur  Jorch  Di'ah,  265  ;  Zohar,  Gen.  95a.     Cf.  Menorath  Ha-Maor 

§  Ixxx. 

*  The  Veniceedition  adds  here:  "the  magician."  See  Jalkut,Gen.§7i . 
^  See  previous  note  3 ;    and  see  Chiluf  Minhagim,  ed.  Miiller,  pp. 

18  f.,  and  see  also  the  Haggadic  Commentary  Sekhel  Tob  i.  p.  19. 

*  The  Israelites. 

'  Jubilees  xv.  33  refers  to  the  neglect  of  circumcision  by  the 
children  of  Israel. 

*  Cf .  I  Kings  xix.  4. 


THE  TRIALS  OF  ABRAHAM       213 

but  he  fled  before  him/  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Jacob  fled  into 
the  field  of  Aram  "  ^  (Hos.  xii.  12).  Pharaoh  sought  to  slay- 
Moses,  who  fled  before  him  and  he  was  saved,  as  it  is  said, 
"  Now  when  Pharaoh  heard  this  thing,^  he  sought  to  slay- 
Moses.  And  Moses  fled  from  the  face  of  Pharaoh  "  (Ex. 
ii.  15).  Saul  sought  to  slay  David,  who  fled  before  him 
and  was  saved,  as  it  is  said,  "  If  thou  save  not  thy  life 
to-night,  to-morrow  thou  shalt  be  slain  "  (1  Sam.  xix.  11).* 
Another  text  says,  "  And  David  fled  and  escaped  "  {ibid. 
18).  Learn  that  everyone,  who  flees,  is  saved.  Elijah, 
may  he  be  remembered  for  good,  arose  and  fled  from  the 
land  of  Israel,^  |]  and  he  betook  himself  to  Mount  Horeb,  as 
it  is  said,  "  And  he  arose,  and  did  eat  and  drink  "  (1  Kings 
xix.  8).  There  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  was  revealed 
unto  him,  and  He  said  to  him  :  "  What  doest  thou  here, 
Elijah  ?  "  {ibid.  9).  He  answered  Him,  saying  :  "  I  have 
been  very  zealous"  {ibid.  10).  (The  Holy  One,  blessed 
be)  ^  He,  said  to  him :  Thou  art  always  zealous !  " 
Thou  wast  zealous  in  Shittim  ^  on  account  of  the  im- 
morality. Because  it  is  said,  "  Phineas,^  the  son  of 
Eleazar,  the  son  of  Aaron  the  priest,^"  turned  my  wrath 
away  from  the  children  of  Israel,  in  that  he  was  zealous 
with  my  zeal  among  them"  (Num.  xxv.  11).  Here  also  art 
thou  zealous.     By  thy  life  !     They  ^^  shall  not  observe  the 

1  The  first  editions  add  :  "  and  he  was  saved." 

2  See  Jalkut.  Ex.  §  i68,  and  Menorath  Ha-Maor  §  Ixxx.  Eventually 
Jacob  escaped  from  Laban,  as  well  as  from  Esau.  The  first  editions  read  : 
"  Esau  attempted  to  sla\'  Jacob,  as  it  is  said,  '  The  days  of  mourning 
for  my  father  are  at  hand  ;  then  will  I  slay  my  brother  Jacob '  "  (Gen. 
xxvii.  41). 

3  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here ;  the  first  editions  quote  the 
latter  part  of  the  verse. 

*  The  first  editions  quote  (i  Sam.  xix.  1 1 )  only. 
°  To  Horeb,  which  was  outside  Palestine. 

*  This  is  missing  in  the  MS.,  but  it  occurs  in  the  first  editions. 

">  See  Cant.  Rab.  i.  6  ;  Tanna  de  be  Elijahu  Zutta  (viii.),  p.  187  ; 
Jalkut  to  I  Kings  §  217  ;  Agadath  Shir  Ha-Shirim,  p.  45,  quoted  by 
Schechter  in  his  Aspects  of  Rabbinic  Theology,  p.  205;  see  also  ibid., 
p.  52,  on  EUjah's  zeal. 

*  See  infra,  p.  370,  and  Jalkut.  Gen.  §  71. 

9  Phineas  is  identified  with  Elijah.  Just  as  we  find  in  the  New 
Testament  that  John  the  Baptist  was  held  to  be  EHjah,  see  Matt.  xi. 
14.  According  to  some  Jewish  authorities  Ehjah  was  a  priest,  see 
Tanna  de  be  Elijahu  Rab.  xviii.  pp.  97  f.  This  legend  occurs  also  in 
the  Book  of  the  Bee  (ed.  Budge),  p.  70. 

1"  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here. 

"  The  first  editions  and  Jalkut,  loc.  cit..  read  "  Israel," 


214  RABBI  ELIEZER 

covenant  of  circumcision   until  thou  seest   it  (done)  with 
thine  eyes. 

Hence  the  sages  ^  instituted  (the  custom)  that  people 
should  have  a  seat  of  honour  for  the  Messenger  of  the 
Covenant;  for  Elijah,  may  he  be  remembered  for  good,  is 
called  the  Messenger  of  the  Covenant,  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
the  messenger  of  the  covenant,  whom  ye  delight  in,  behold, 
he  Cometh  "  (Mai.  iii.  1).- 

*  See  Tur,  Joreh  Diali,  21)5  ;  Tania  Rabbathi,  96,  p.  loia.  and 
Halakhoth  Gedoloth  quoted  by  Schorr  in  p'?nn,  v.  38.1 

^  The  chair  for  EUjah  is  to  this  day  a  feature  at  every  circumcision. 
The  MS.  Gaster  and  the  first  editions  add  :  "  O  God  of  Israel !  Hasten 
and  bring  the  Messiah  in  our  lifetime  to  comfort  us,  and  may  he  restore  * 
our  hearts,  as  it  is  said  :  '  And  he  shall  restore  ^  the  heart  of  the  fathers 
to  the  children,  and  the  heart  of  the  children  to  the  fathers '  "  (Mai.  iv. 
6).*  According  to  this  reading  the  chapter  closes  with  a  rhyme. 
Luria  argues  that  as  the  verse  quoted  from  Malachi  speaks  of  Elijah, 
the  reading  might  originally  have  been  "  Elijah  "  in  place  of  the  word 
"  Messiah,"  or  perhaps  both  words  were  in  the  context.  See  infra, 
p.  344.     The  Oxford  MS.  reads  the  entire  verse  Mai.  iii.  i. 

^  Dr.  Buchler  observes:  "The  earliest  reference  known  besides 
this,  is  R.  Jacob  b.  Nissim  of  Kairwan  about  970  c.e.  Q"n  mmiK  (ed. 
Schlesinger)  12  ;  see  also  Giidema'in,  Erziehungswesen  in  Italien,  p.  28, 
n.  4  ;  Zunz,  Zur  Gesch.,  pp.  485.  590 ff. ;  and  Lewysohn,  D'jnao  mpo  93. 

*  Lit.  "  renew." 

»  The  R.V.  renders  "  turn." 

*  This  is  not  the  mission  of  the  Messiah,  but  of  Elijah,  the  great 
Reconciler. 


CHAPTER    XXX 

THE    TRIALS    OF    ABRAHAM    (continued) 

Abraham  and  Ishmael  [36a.  ii.] 

The  ninth  trial  (was  as  follows)  :  Ishmael  was  born  with 
(the  prophecy  of  the)  bow,^  and  he  grew  up  with  the  bow,^ 
as  it  is  said,  "  And  God  was  with  the  lad,  and  he  grew  .  .  .^ 
and  he  became  an  archer  "  (Gen.  xxi.  20).  He  took  bow 
and  arrows  and  began  to  shoot  at  the  birds.'*  He  saw  Isaac 
sitting  by  himself,  and  he  shot  an  arrow  ^  at  him  to  slay 
him.^  Sarah  saw  (this),  and  told  Abraham.  She  said  to 
him  :  Thus  and  thus  has  Ishmael  done  to  Isaac,  but  (now) 
arise  and  write  (a  will  in  favour)  of  Isaac,  (giving  him)  all 
that  the  Holy  One  has  sworn  to  give  ||  to  thee  and  to  thy 
seed.'  The  son  of  this  handmaid  shall  not  inherit  with  my 
son,  with  Isaac,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  she  said  unto  Abraham, 
Cast  out  this  bondwoman  and  her  son  "  {ibid.  10). 

Ben  Tema  ^  said :  Sarah  said  to  Abraham,  Write  ^  a  bill  of 

1  Perhaps  the  version  should  be,  "  Ishmael  was  born  under  (the 
constellation)  Sagittarius."  The  word  "  Kesheth  "  sometimes  means 
this  constellation,  or  it  might  indicate  "  liarshness." 

*  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  94  reads  :  "  Ishmael  was  born  and  grew  up  with 
the  bow."     Cf.  Isa.  xxi.  15. 

3  The  quotation  ends  here  in  the  MS.  ;  the  first  editions  quote  the 
latter  part  of  the  verse  only. 

«  See  Tosephta  Sotah  vi.  p.  ^08  ;  Jalkut,  he.  cit.,  and  Gen.  Rab.  Uii. 
15.  The  MS.  reads  ""Pugoth."  This  agrees  with  the  Oxford  MS. 
"  Puga  "  is  identified  with  '"'  Suga,"  the  name  of  a  bird.  See  T.B.  Baba 
Bathra,  gob. 

*  MS.  O.A.  167  reads  :  "  the  arrows."     Sec  Gen.  Rab.  liii.  11. 

*  Sec  Lekach  Tob,  Gen.  p.  47,  note  20,  for  other  parallels. 

7  Cf.  Geni.  XV.  "5  and  xvii.  7.  The  first  editions  add  :  "  By  thy  life." 
Luria  would  read  :  "  In  thy  hfe  time  "  and  connects  it  with  the  preceding 
sentence  :  "  Write  in  thy  life  time." 

*  This  is  missing  in  the  printed  editions  and  in  Jalkut,  Gen.,  loc,  cit., 
but  it  occurs  in  MS.  O.A.  167.      Ben  Tema  was  an  Amora, 

9  MS.  O.A.  167  reads  :  "  Arise  and  write." 

215 


216  RABBI  ELIEZER 

divorce,!  and  send  away  this  handmaid  and  her  son  from 
me  and  from  Isaac  my  son,  in  this  world  and  from  the  world 
to  come.  More  than  all  the  misfortunes  which  overtook 
Abraham,  this  matter  was  exceedingly  evil  in  his  eyes,  as  it 
is  said,  "  And  the  thing  was  very  grievous  in  Abraham's 
sight  on  account  of  his  son  "  {ibid.  11).- 

Rabbi  Jehudah  ^  said  :  In  that  night  the  Holy  One,  blessed 
be  He,  was  revealed  unto  him.  He  said  to  him  :  Abraham  ! 
Dost  thou  not  know  that  Sarah  was  appointed  to  thee  for  a 
wife  *  from  her  mother's  womb  ?  She  is  thy  companion,  and 
the  wife  of  thy  covenant ;  ^  Sarah  is  not  called  thy  handmaid, 
but  thy  wife  ;  ^  neither  is  Hagar  called  thy  wife,  but  thy 
handmaid  ;  and  all  that  Sarah  has  spoken  "  she  has  uttered 
truthfully.  Let  it  not  be  grievous  in  thine  eyes,  as  it  is 
said,  "  And  God  said  unto  Abraham,  Let  it  not  be  grievous 
in  thy  sight  "  {ibid.  12). 

Abraham  rose  up  early,**  and  wrote  a  bill  of  divorce, 
and  gave  it  to  Hagar,  and  he  sent  her  and  her  son  away  from 
himself,  and  from  Isaac  his  son,  from  this  world  and  from 
the  world  to  come,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Abraham  rose  up 
early  in  the  morning,  and  took  ^  bread  and  a  bottle  of  water  " 
{ibid.  14).  He  sent  her  away  ||  with  a  bill  of  divorcement, 
and  he  took  the  veil,!*'  and  he  bound  it  around  her  waist,  so 
that  it  should  drag  behind  her  to  disclose  (the  fact)  that 
she  was  a  bondwoman. ^^     Not  only  this,  but  also  because 

^  See  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xxi.  lo. 

^  The  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.,  loc.  cit.,  explains  that  this  was  due  to  the 
evil  deeds  of  Ishmael  in  the  future.  The  inference  in  our  Midrash  is 
derived  from  the  quotation,  and  it  was  only  in  this  instance  that  Scripture 
refers  to  the  sorrow  of  Abraham.     See  Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  308. 

3  MS.  O.A.  167  adds  :  "  the  Prince." 

*  The  Venice  edition  adds :  "  from  her  birth." 

°  i.e.  the  first  wife.  See  Mai.  ii.  14  ;  and  Targum,  in  loc,  and  cf. 
Rashi  on  Mai.  ii.  14. 

"  MS.  O.A.  167  adds  :  "  as  it  is  said  :  '  And  God  said,  But  Sarah  thy 
wife  '  "  (Gen.  xvii.  19).     This  verse  is  also  given  by  the  first  editions. 

'  MS.  O.A.  167  adds:  "  to  thee." 

'  MS.  O.A.  167  adds  :  "  in  the  morning."  See  Midrash  Haggadol, 
c.  309. 

*  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here,  but  "  etc.  "  is  added.  The 
first  editions  and  MS.  O.A.  167  continue  the  verse.  Luria  adds  :  "  And 
the  child." 

^^  See  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  95,  according  to  Jastrow,  T.D.  1452b.  for  a 
variant  reading.  Cf.  Gen.  Rab.  liii.  13.  The  Venice  edition  reads 
"  water-barrel  "  ;  cf.  Siphre,  Num.  §  115,  and  Jalkut,  Num.  §  750,  which 
reads  "  water- barrel."     Our  MS.  agrees  with  the  text  in  the  ist  ed. 

"  See  T.B.  Baba  Mezi'a,  87a. 


THE  TRIALS  OF  ABRAHAM       217 

Abraham  desired  to  see  Ishmael,  his  son,  and  to  see  the  way 
whereon  they  went. 

By  the  merit  of  our  father  Abraham  the  water  did  not  fail 
in  the  bottle,  but  when  she  reached  the  entrance  to  the 
wilderness,  she  began  to  go  astray  after  the  idolatry  of  her 
father's  house  ;  ^  and  forthwith  the  water  in  the  bottle 
was  spent,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  she  departed  and  wandered  " 
(ibid.).  Ishmael  was  seventeen  ^  years  old  (when)  he  went 
forth  from  the  house  of  Abraham,  and  Isaac  was  forty  ^ 
years  old.  By  the  merit  of  our  father  Abraham  the  water 
did  not  fail  in  the  bottle,  but  when  she  reached  the  entrance 
to  the  wilderness,  she  began  to  go  astray  after  the  idolatry 
of  her  father's  house ;  the  water  in  the  bottle  was  spent,^  and 
the  soul  of  Ishmael  was  faint  with  thirst. 

"And  she  departed  and  wandered"  (ibid.).  The  mean- 
ing of  "  and  she  wandered  "  is  merely  idolatry,  because 
it  is  written,  concerning  (this  root),^  "  They  are  vanity,  a 
work  of  delusion  "  ^  (Jer.  x.  15).'  He  went  and  cast  himself 
beneath  the  thorns  of  the  wilderness,^  so  that  the  moist- 
ure might  be  upon  him,  and  he  said  :  O  God  of  my  father 
Abraham  !  ^  Thine  are  the  issues  of  death ;  take  away  from  me 

1  The  first  editions  read:  "the  house  of  Pharaoh  her  father"; 
according  to  Rabbinic  legend  Hagar  was  the  daughter  of  Pharaoh. 
See  supra,  p.  190,  Gen.  Rab.  xlv.  2,  and  the  Book  of  Jashar  xv.  31. 

2  The  Venice  edition  gives  twenty-seven  years  for  Ishmael's  age. 

3  The  first  editions  read  :  "  ten  years."  The  "  forty  years  "  may 
refer  to  Isaac's  age  when  he  married  Rebecca  and  left  his  father's 
house  to  dwell  in  Sarah's  tent.  It  seems  very  probable  that  the  MS. 
reading  is  based  on  a  copy  which  read  "  four  "  years.  This  was  altered 
by  the  writer  of  our  MS.  into  "  forty."  Ishmael  was  thirteen  years 
older  than  Isaac,  and  as  the  former  was  seventeen  years  old  when  he 
left  Abraham's  house  Isaac  must  have  been  four  years  old.  See 
infra,  p.  225.  See  Gen.  Rab.  liii.  13,  according  to  which  Ishmael  was 
twenty-seven  years  old;  see  also  the  Book  of  Jashar  xxi.  14,  Jalkut, 
Gen.,  loo.  cit.,  and  Midrash  Haggadol,  loc.  cit. 

*  The  whole  of  this  sentence  thus  far  is  an  exact  repetition  of  a  few 
lines  above.  See  also  Midrash  Haggadol,  loc.  cit.,  for  the  same 
circumstance. 

^  Cf.  Isa.  xix.  13. 

'  The  root  of  this   word  (j?nni)  is  connected  apparently  with  the 
Hebrew  "to  err"  or  "  to  wander"  (nvn) ;  see  Zohar,  Gen.  ii8b. 
'  The  previous  verse  refers  to  the  images. 

*  Cf.  Jalkut,  Gen.,  loc.  cit.  The  phraseology  is  based  on  Job  xxx.  7. 
This  chapter  is  applied  to  Ishmael  by  the  Midrash.  The  next  few  words 
(up  to  "  upon  him  ")  are  wanting  in  the  printed  texts. 

^  Cf.  the  version  of  the  prayer  in  Jalkut,  Gen.,  loc.  cit.  The  printed 
editions  of  our  book  differ  here  from  our  MS.  The  first  editions  read 
thus  :  "  Sovereign  of  the  Worlds  !  If  it  be  Thy  pleasure  to  give  me 
water  to  drink,  give  me  to  drink  and  let  not  my  soul  depart  because  of 


218  RABBI  ELIEZER 

my  soul,  for  I  would  not  die  of  thirst.  And  He  was  entreated 
of  him,  as  it  is  said,  "  For  God  hath  heard  the  ||  voice  of  the 
lad  where  he  is"  (Gen.  xxi.  17).  The  welH  which  was 
created  at  twilight  "^  was  opened  for  them  there,  and  they 
went  and  drank  and  filled  the  bottle  with  water,  as  it  is 
said,  "  And  God  opened  her  eyes,  and  she  saw  a  well  of 
water  "  {ibid.  19).  And  there  ^  they  left  the  well,*  and  thence 
they  started  on  their  way,^  and  went  through  all  the  wilder- 
ness until  they  came  to  the  wilderness  of  Paran,  and  they 
found  there  streams  of  water,  and  they  dwelt  there,  as  it  is 
said,  "  And  he  dwelt  in  the  wilderness  of  Paran  "  (ibid.  21). 
Ishmael  sent  for  a  wife  from  among  the  daughters  ^  of 
Moab,  and  'Ayeshah '  was  her  name.  After  three  years  ^ 
Abraham  went  to  see  Ishmael  his  son,  having  sworn  to 
Sarah  that  he  would  not  descend  from  the  camel  in  the 
place  where  Ishmael  dwelt.  He  arrived  there  at  midday 
and  found  there  the  wife  of  Ishmael.  He  said  ^  to 
her  :  Where  is  Ishmael  ?  She  said  to  him :  He  has  gone 
with  his  mother  to  fetch  the  fruit  of  the  palms  ^^  from  the 
wilderness.  He  said  to  her  :  Give  me  a  httle  bread  and  a 
little  water,ii  for  my  soul  is  faint  after  the  journey  in  the 
desert.  She  said  to  him  :  I  have  neither  bread  nor  water. 
He  said  to  her  :  When  Ishmael  comes  (home)  tell  him  this 
II  story,  and  say  to  him  :  A  certain  old  man  came  from  the 
land  of  Canaan  to  see  thee,  and  he  said,  Exchange  ^^  the 

thirst  ;  for  death  by  thirst  is  unnatural,  and  it  is  harder  than  all  other 
(kinds  of)  death.     The  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  heard  his  prayer." 
^  See  infra,  p.  263. 

2  Of  the  eve  of  the  first  Sabbath  in  the  week  of  Creation.  See  supra, 
p.  124. 

3  In  the  wilderness  of  Beer-Sheba. 

*  See  infra,  pp.  268,  323. 

^  Lit.  "  they  lifted  up  their  feet." 

«  The  first  editions  read  :  "  fords."  The  reading  in  our  MS.  is 
the  correct  text. 

'  In  later  editions  other  readings  of  this  name  are  found,  namely, 
'"Essah  "  and  '"Ephah."     See  Grunbaum,  op.  cit.  p.  125. 

*  Cf.  the  narrative  in  the  Book  of  Jashar  xxi.  22  ff.  ;  Jalkut, 
Gen.,  loc.  cit..  and  Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  310. 

»  The  scribe  has  made  a  little  mistake  here  by  writing  "  She  said." 

1"  Luria  objects  to  the  text,  and  prefers  to  read,  "  fruit  of  the  broom- 
tree  "  ;  cf.  Job  XXX.  4.  See  Jalkut,  loc.  cit. ;  T.B.  Baba  Bathra,  75b  ; 
perhaps  the  text  should  read  :  "  fruit  and  broom-trees." 

"  The  first  editions  read  :  "  a  little  bread  and  dainties."  The 
Prague  edition  reads :  "  a  little  water  and  bread  and  dainties." 

1*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  That  the  door-sill  of  the  house  is  not 
good."     See  the  Book  of  Jashar  xxi.  31,  and  Jalkut,  loc.  cit. 


THE  TRIALS  OF  ABRAHAM       219 

threshold  of  thy  house,  for  it  is  not  good  for  thee.  When 
Ishmael  came  (home)  his  wife  told  him  the  story.  A  son  of 
a  wise  man  is  like  half  a  wise  man.  Ishmael  understood. 
His  mother  sent  and  took  for  him  a  wife  from  her  father's 
house,^  and  her  name  was  Fatimah.- 

Again  after  three  years  Abraham  went  to  see  his  son 
Ishmael,  having  sworn  to  Sarah  as  on  the  first  occasion 
that  he  would  not  descend  from  the  camel  in  the  place 
where  Ishmael  dwelt.  He  came  there  at  midday,  and  found 
there  Ishmael's  wife.  He  said  to  her  :  Where  is  Ishmael  ? 
She  replied  to  him  :  He  has  gone  with  his  mother  to  feed 
the  camels  in  the  desert.  He  said  to  her  :  Give  me  a  little 
bread  and  water,  for  my  soul  is  faint  after  the  journey  ^  of 
the  desert.  She  fetched  it  and  gave  it  to  him.  Abraham 
arose  and  prayed  before  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  for 
his  son,  and  (thereupon)  Ishmael's  house  was  filled  with  all 
good  things  of  the  various  blessings,^  When  Ishmael  came 
(home)  his  wife  told  him  what  had  happened,  and  Ishmael 
knew  that  his  father's  love  was  still  extended  to  him,  as 
it  is  said,  1|  "  Like  as  a  father  pitieth  his  sons  "  (Ps.  ciii. 
13).  After  the  death  of  Sarah,  Abraham  again  took 
(Hagar)  his  divorced  (wife),  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Abraham 
again  ^  took  a  wife,  and  her  name  was  Keturah  "  (Gen.  xxv. 
1).  Why  does  it  say  "  And  he  again  "  ?  Because  on  the 
first  occasion  she  was  his  wife,  and  he  again  betook  himself 
to  her.  Her  name  was  Keturah,  because  she  was  perfumed 
with  all  kinds  of  scents.® 

Another    explanation    of    Keturah    (is)  :     because    her 

^  From  Pharaoh's  house.  See  supra,  p.  1 90,  and  cf .  the  Book  of 
Jashar  xxi.  17. 

^  See  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xxi.  21,  and  Jalkut,  loc.  cit.  These  names 
Fatimah  and  'Ayeshah  point  to  Arabian  influence,  and  give  us  another 
terminus  a  quo  to  fix  the  date  and  locaUty  of  its  redaction.  'Ephah, 
mentioned  above  (p.  218,  note  7),  occurs  as  a  woman's  name  in 
I  Chron.  ii.  46. 

2  For  this  legend,  see  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  pp.  66  f.  with 
notes. 

*  Jalkut,  loc.  cit.,  reads  "food  and  blessing."  See  infra,  p.  328,  and 
cf.  Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  311. 

*  In  our  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here  ;  it  is  continued  in  the  first 
editions  as  in  our  version.  See  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xxv.  i,  and 
Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  375,  note  8,  where  the  parallel  passages  are 
given. 

*  The  Ishmaelites  in  the  wilderness  were  the  buyers  and  sellers 
of  precious  spices.     Cf.  Cant.  iii.  6,  and  Ezek.  xxvii.  21, 


220  RABBI  ELIEZER 

actions  were  beautiful  like  incense,^  and  she  bare  him 
six  sons,-  and  they  were  all  called  according  to  the  name 
of  Ishmael,^  as  it  is  said,  "  And  she  bare  him  Zimran  " 
{ibid.  2). 

Like  a  woman  sent  away  from  her  husband,  so  likewise 
Abraham  arose  and  sent  them  away  from  Isaac  his  son, 
from  this  world  and  from  the  world  to  come,  as  it  is  said, 
"  But  unto  the  sons  of  the  concubines,  which  Abraham 
had,^  Abraham  gave  gifts,  and  he  sent  them  ^  away  from 
Isaac  his  son  "  {ibid.  6),  by  a  deed  of  divorcement. 

Corresponding  to  the  name  of  Ishmael's  son  "  Kedar,  the 
sons  of  Kedar  were  so  called,  as  it  is  said,  "  Of  Kedar,  and 
of  the  kingdoms  of  Hazor  "  (Jer.  xlix.  28).  Corresponding 
to  the  name  of  Ishmael's  son  "  Kedemah  "  '  (Gen.  xxv.  15), 
the  "  sons  of  Kedem  "  were  so  called.^  Because  they  dwelt 
in  the  territory  belonging  to  Cain,  his  children  were  called 
"  sons  of  Cain,"  as  it  is  said,  "  Now  Heber  the  Kenite 
had  separated  himself  from  Cain  "  (Judg.  iv.  11).  Were 
not  all  the  sons  of  Cain  cut  off  ^  by  the  waters  of  the  Flood  ? 
But  because  they  dwelt  in  the  territory  of  the  children  of 
Cain,  his  children  were  called  "  sons  of  Cain,"  as  it  is  said, 
"  Nevertheless  ||  Cain  shall  be  wasted, ^°  as  long  as  Asshur 
shall  dwell  in  thy  place  "  (Num.  xxiv.  22).  "  Neverthe- 
less Cain  shall  be  wasted  away  "  by  fire,  through  the  seed 

1  The  Hebrew  for  "  incense"  (Ketoreth)  suggests  a  connection  with 
the  name  Keturah. 

^  The  first  editions  read  here  (instead  of  our  context)  the  following  : 
"Zimran,  and  Jokshan,  and  Mcdan  and  Midian,  and  Ishbak  and 
Shuah." 

^  The  meaning  is  not  quite  evident ;  does  it  mean  that  the  six  names 
have  some  part  of  their  spelling  in  common  with  the  various  letters 
of  the  name  Ishmael  ?  This  is  the  case  with  the  initial  letter  of  five 
names,  but  Zimran  is  the  exception. 

*  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here ;  it  is  continued  in  the  first 
editions. 

^  The  MS.  reads : "  'and  he  sent  them  away'  by  adeed  of  divorcement." 

*  The  first  editions  read  "  sons."  The  descendants  of  Ishmael 
intermarried  with  the  children  of  Keturah. 

'  In  the  MS.  the  word  has  been  partly  erased,  only  the  letters  ip 
are  legible. 

*  The  first  editions  add  :  "  as  it  is  said  :  '  The  children  of  Kedem  '  " 
(Jer.  xlix.  28). 

*  Cf.  Rabbi  Bechai's  commentary  on  Num.  xxiv.  22,  which  reads: 
"  Were  not  all  the  sons  of  Cain  cut  off  ?  "  according  to  our  text.  The 
later  editions  read:  "separated  at  the  generation  of  the  flood." 

*"  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here.  Our  translation  of  the 
Scripture  text  differs  from  the  usual  version. 


THE  TRIALS  OF  ABRAHAM       221 

of  Ishmael,  the  latter  shall  cause  the  kingdom  of  Assyria 
to  cease.i 

Balaam  said :  Of  the  seventy  nations  that  the  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  created  in  His  world,  He  did  not  put  His 
name  on  any  one  of  them  except  on  Israe/ ;  -  and  since  the 
Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  made  the  name  of  Ishmael  similar 
to  the  name  of  IsraeZ,  woe  to  him  who  shall  live  in  his  days, 
as  it  is  said,  "  Alas,  who  shall  live  when  God  establisheth 
him  ?  "  3  (ibid.  23). 

Rabbi  Ishmael  said :  In  the  future  the  children  oi 
Ishmael  will  do  fifteen  things  in  the  land  (of  Israel)  in  the 
latter  days,  and  they  are  :  They  will  measure  the  land  with 
ropes  ;  ^  they  will  change  a  cemetery  into  a  resting-place 
for  sheep  (and)  a  dunghill ;  they  will  measure  with  them 
and  from  them  upon  the  tops  of  the  mountains ; 
falsehood  will  multiply  and  truth  will  be  hidden ;  the 
statutes  will  be  removed  far  from  Israel ;  sins  will  be 
multiplied  in  Israel ;  worm-crimson  will  be  in  the  wool, 
and  he  will  cover  ^  with  insects  paper  and  pen ;  he  will  hew 
down  the  rock  of  the  kingdom,^  and  they  will  rebuild 
the  desolated  cities  and  sweep  the  ways ;  and  they  will 
plant  gardens  and  parks,  and  fence  in  the  broken  walls  of  the 
Temple  ;  and  they  will  build  a  building  in  the  Holy  Place  ; 
and  two  brothers  will  arise  over  them,'  princes  at  the  end  ; 

^  The  reference  may  be  to  the  Moslem  possession  of  Bagdad  in 
Babylon.  See  infra,  p.  350  ;  and  also  Rashbam,  in  loc.  (Num. 
xxiv.  22). 

^  Some  of  the  later  editions  add  here :  "  And  IshmaeZ,  as  it  is  said : 
'  And  thou  shalt  call  his  name  Ishmael  '  "  (Gen.  xvi.  11). 

*  By  giving  him  the  name  of  El.  "  Alas,  who  shall  live  when  he  is 
appointed  (with  the  name)  El,"  may  be  the  meaning  read  into  the 
verse  in  question,  or  probably  there  is  a  play  on  the  name  Ishmael 
and  the  last  two  words  Missumo  el.  The  usual  rendering  is,  "  Alas, 
who  shall  live  when  God  doeth  this."     See  Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  ^^St,. 

*  To  obtain  exact  dimension :  cf.  T.B.  Baba  Bathra,  103b. 

*  The  root  hap  means  to  be  decayed.  See  Isa.  xxxiii.  9  :  "  Lebanon 
mouldereth  "  ;  or  should  we  render  "  The  paper  will  be  decayed  with 
the  pen  "  ?  Literature  will  then  perish.  Krauss,  Studien  zur  Byzantisch- 
Jiidischen  Geschichte,  p.  145,  renders  the  preceding  clause:  "purple 
will  be  exceedingly  dear." 

*  The  tombs  of  the  Kings  of  Judah.  Ki-auss,  op.  cit.,  renders  here : 
"the  coinage  will  be  withdrawn  from  circulation." 

^  Or,  "  against  them,"  i.e.  the  two  CaUphs,  Mohammed  Alemin 
and  Abdallah  Almamum  (809-813  c.e.).  See  Graetz,  Geschichte, 
v.  pp.  1971.,  and  his  article  in  Frankel's  Monatsschrift,  1859,  p.  112. 
This  gives  us  again  a  date  for  determining  the  period  when  our  book 
was  finally  edited.  Krauss,  op.  cit.,  points  out  that  the  reference  in  the 
preceding  clause  is  to  the  Mosque  of  Omar,  the  foundation  of  which 


222  RABBI  ELIEZER 

and  in  t  leir  days  the  Branch,  the  Son  of  David,  will  arise, 

as  it  is  5,' aid,  '|  "  And  in  the  days  of  those  kings  shall  the  God 

of  heaven  set  up  a  kingdom,  which  shall  never  be  destroyed  " 

(Dan.  ii.  44). 

Rabbi  Ishmael  also  said  :   Three  wars  of  trouble  ^  will 

the  sons  of  Ishmael  in  the  future  wage  on  the  earth  in  the 

latter  days,  as  it  is  said,  "  For  they  fled  away  from  the 

swords  "  (Isa.  xxi.  15).     "  Swords  "  signify  only  wars,  one  in 

,  the  forest  of  Arabia,  as  it  is  said,  "  From  the  drawn  sword  " 

'ibid.);  another  on  the  sea,  as  it  is  said,  "  From  the  bent 

oow  "  (ibid.) ;  and  one  in  the  great  city  which  is  in  Rome,- 

which  will  be  more  grievous  than  the  other  two,  as  it  is  said. 
s 
"  And  from  the  grievousness  of  the  war  "  (ibid.).     From 

there  the  Son  of  David  shall  flourish  and  see  the  destruction 

of  ^  these  and  these,  and  thence  will  He  come  to  the  land 

of  Israel,   as  it  is  said,   "  Who  is  this  that  cometh   from 

Edom,^  with  crimsoned  garments   from  Bozrah  ?  this  that 

is  glorious  in  his  apparel,  marching  in  the  greatness  of  his 

strength  ?     I  that  speak  in  righteousness,  mighty  to  save  " 

{ibid.  Ixiii.  1). 

wcis  laid  by  the  Caliph  Omar  after  his  conquest  of  Jerusalem  in  636  c.e. 
In  the  next  line  we  lia\e  the  expression,  "  the  Branch,  the  son  of 
David,"  cf.  supra,  p.  201,  note  3,  and  see  also  the  Shemoneh  'Esreh, 
p.  49  (Singrr). 

'  Or,  "  commotion." 

*  The  later  editions  read  here  "  Aram,"  owing  to  the  Censor. 

^  The  Prague  edition  reads:  "the  idolatrs."  See  also  Graetz, 
Geschichte,  v.  pp.  441  ff.,  especially  p.  446,  on  the  connection  between 
our  book  and  the  Secrets  of  R.  Simeon  ben  Jochai.  The  latter  work, 
according  to  Graetz,  was  the  source  used  by  our  author.  The  theory 
of  Graetz  was  controverted  by  Steinschneider  in  Z  D.M.G.  xxviii.  pp. 
645  f.  The  Secrets  are  printed  in  Jellinek's  B.H.M.  iii.  p.  78.  A  very 
interesting  parallel  to  the  latter  part  of  this  chapter  of  P.R.E.  is'fo  be 
found  in  the  Book  of  the  Bee,  liii.  (pp.  i24flf.). 

*  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here;  it  is  continued  in  the  first 
editions. 


CHAPTER    XXXI 

THE    BINDING    OF   ISAAC    ON    THE    ALTAR    [38a.    i.] 

The  tenth  trial  was  (as  follows)  :  "  And  it  came  to  pass  after 
these  things,  that  God  did  prove  Abraham  "  (Gen.  xxii.  1). 
He  tried  Abraham  each  time  ^  in  order  to  know  his  heart, 
whether  he  would  be  able  to  perse vif  -^  id  keep  all  the 
commandments  of  the  Torah  -  or  not.  whilst  as  yet  the 

Torah  had  not  been  given,  Abraham  kept  all  the  precepts  ^  of 
the  Torah,  as  it  is  said,  "  Because  that  Abraham  obeyed 
my  voice,*  and  kept  my  charge,  my  commandments,  my 
statutes,  and  my  Torah  "  {ibid.  xxvi.  5).^  And  Ishmael 
went  repeatedly  from  the  wilderness  to  see  ||  his  father 
Abraham.^ 

Rabbi  Jehudah  said :  In  that  night  was  the  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  revealed  unto  him,  and  He  said  unto  him : 
Abraham  !    "  Take  now  thy  son,^  thine  only  son,  whom  thou 

^  See  Gen.  Rab.  Iv.  i,  and  Cant.  Rab.  i.  g. 

-  The  next  words,  up  to  "  as  it  is  said,"  are  not  in  the  printed 
editions. 

3  According  to  the  Book  of  Jubilees,  Abraham  not  only  enacted 
the  laws  of  tithes  (xiii.  25-29),  but  he  also  celebrated  the  feast  of 
first-fruits  of  the  grain  harvest  on  the  15th  of  Sivan  (xv.  i,  2),  and 
the  feast  of  Tabernacles  (xvi.  20-31)  ;  he  ordained  peace-offerings 
and  the  regulations  as  to  the  use  of  salt  and  wood  for  the  offerings, 
washings  before  sacrifices,  and  the  duty  of  covering  blood  (xxi.  7-17), 
and  prohibited  intermarrying  with  the  Canaanites  (xxii.  20,  xxv.  5), 
and  adultery  (xxxix.  6).  On  this  theme  see  Apoc.  Baruca  Ivii.  2,  and 
cf.  Ecclus.  xliv.  20. 

*  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here,  but  it  is  continued  in  the 
first  editions. 

*  See  T.B.  Joma,  28a  f. 

*  As  Abraham  had  visited  Ishmael,  the  latter  knew  that  his  father 
would  receive  him.  See  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xxii.  i,  and  Gen.  Rab.  h  . 
4,  for  the  story  of  the  dispute  between  Isaac  and  Ishmael,  and  for  the 
account  of  the  readiness  of  the  former  to  offer  up  his  life  to  the  service 
of  God. 

'  In  our  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here,  but  it  is  continued  in  the 
first  editions. 

233 


224  RABBI  ELIEZER 

lovest,  even  Isaac  "  {ibid.  xxii.  2).  And  Abraham,  having  pity 
upon  Isaac,^  said  before  Him  :  Sovereign  of  all  worlds  ! 
Concerning  which  son  -  dost  Thou  decree  upon  me  ?  Is  it 
concerning  the  son  lacking  circumcision,^  or  the  son  born  for 
circumcision  ?  He  answered  him :  "  Thine  only  son." 
He  rejoined  :  This  one  is  the  only  son  of  his  mother,  and  the 
other  son  is  the  only  son  of  his  mother.  He  said  to  him  : 
"  The  one,  whom  thou  lovest."  He  said  to  Him  :  Both  of 
them  do  I  love.*     He  said  to  him  :   "  Even  Isaac." 

"  And  offer  him  there  for  a  burnt  offering  "  ^  {ibid.). 
He  spake  to  Him  :  Sovereign  of  all  worlds  !  On  which 
mountain  hast  Thou  told  me  (to  offer  him)  ?  (God) 
answered  him  :  In  every  place  where  thou  dost  see  My 
glory  abiding  and  waiting  for  thee  there,  and  saying,''  This 
is  Mount  Moriah ; '  a^it  is  said,  "  Upon  one  of  the  mountains 
which  /  will  tell  U  \vh  "  {ibid.).^ 

Abraham  rose  up  ■  early  in  the  morning,  and  he  took 
with  him  Ishmael,  and  Eliezer,  and  Isaac  his  son,  and  he 
saddled  the  ass.  Upon  this  ass  did  Abraham  ride.  This 
was  the  ass,  the  offspring  of  that  ass  which  was  created  during 
the  twilight,^  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Abraham  rose  early  in  the 
morning,  and  saddled  his  ass  "  {ibid.  S).^^  The  same  ass  was 
also  ridden  upon  by  Moses  when  he  came  to  Egypt,  as  it  is 
said,  "  And  Moses  took  his  wife  and  his  sons,  and  set  them 
upon  the  ass  "  (Ex.  iv.  20).     This  ||  same  ass  will  be  ridden 

1  Luria  thinks  that  the  reading  should  be  :  "  The  Holy  One,  blessed 
be  He,  had  pity  upon  Isaac "  (and  ordered  that  Ishmael  should  be 
offered  as  an  atonement  for  his  past  evil  life).  See  Jalkut,  Gju.  §  90, 
Midrash  Hagi:;adol,  c.  317,  and  ci.  Wisdom  x.  5. 

2  See  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  p.  69,  and  of.  the  Liturgy  for 
the  second  day  of  the  New  Year,  ed.  Heidenheim,  pp.  34b  ff. 

3  Ishmael  had  been  born  thirteen  years  before  God  commanded  the 
rite  of  circumcision,  and  when  he  was  born  his  father  was  uncircum- 
cised.  but  when  Isaac  was  born  Abraham  was  circumcised.  On  the 
theme  of  the  "'Akedah  "  see  Gen.  Rab.  Iv.  i  f. 

*  See  T.B.  Synhedrin,  89b  ;  Gen.  Rab.  xxxix.  12. 
»  See  the  rest  of  this  quotation. 

«  The  first  editions  add  "  to  thee  "  ;  see  Jalkut,  Gen.,  loc.  cit. 

'  The  1st  ed.  reads  here :  "  the  altar." 

•The  first  editions  add:  "'Which  I  have  told  thee  of,'  is  not 
written  here,  but,  '  which  I  will  tell  thee  of.'  "  God  would  indicate 
to  Abraham  the  place  in  His  own  good  time:  of.  Gen.  Rab.  Iv.  S. 

*  Preceding  the  first  Sabbath  in  the  week  of  creation.  See  Aboth 
V.  9;  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  98  ;  Jalkut  on  Zech.  ix.  9  (ed.  King,  p.  48)  ;  and 
cf.  supra,  p.  124. 

10  This  quotation  should  probably  belong  to  the  previous  sentence, 
and  follow  the  word  "  ass." 


1 


%G  OF  ISAAC  ON  THE  ALTAR   225 

Pthe  future  by  the  Son  of  David,^  as  it  is  said, 
^  greatly,  O  daughter  of  Zion  ;  shout,  O  daughter  of 
^m  :  behold,  thy  king  cometh  unto  thee  :  he  is  just, 
)d  ;  2  lowly,  and  riding  upon  an  ass,  even  upon  a  colt, 
of  an  ass  "  ^  (Zech.  ix.  9). 

c  was  thirty-seven  years  old  *  when  he  went  to  Mount 

,  and  Ishmael  was  fifty  years  old.     Contention  arose 

a  Eliezer  and  Ishmael.     Ishmael  said  to  Eliezer  :    Now 

jraham  will  offer  Isaac  his  son  for  a  burnt  offering, 

4  upon  the  altar, ^  and  I  am  his  first-born  son,  I  will 

I  (the  possessions  of)    Abraham.     Eliezer    replied    to 

laying  :   He  has  already  driven  thee  out  like  a  woman 

?ed  from  her  husband,  and  he  has  sent  thee  ^  away  to 

ilderness,  but  I  am  his  servant,  serving  him  by  day  and 

ght,  and  I  shall  be  the  heir  of  Abraham.     The  Holy 

;  answered  them,  saying  to  them  :   Neither  this  one  nor 

one  shall  inherit.' 

n  the  third  day  they  reached  Zophim,^  and  when  they 
ned   Zophim  they  saw   the   glory   of  the   Shekhinah  ^ 

The  Messiah;  see  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  p.  71,  note  2, 
Jewish    Sources  of   the   Sermon   on    the    Mount,   p.    143,    for   the 
ige  interpretation  given   to   this   Messianic  function  by  Matthew 
1.  7),  and  cf.  Justin  Martyr,  Dial.  c.  Try  ph.  liii. 
^  In  the  MS.  this  first  part  of  the  verse  is  not  quoted. 
.  3  Later  Rabbinic  interpretation   appUed   this   verse   sometimes  to 
■  Messiah  ben  Joseph.     See  Ibn  Ezra,  in  loc. 

*  See  Tanna  de  be  EUjahu  Rab.  xxv.  p.  138,  and  cf.  Seder  "Olam 
.b.  i.  ;  Tosaphoth  to  T.B.  Jebamoth,  6ib  ;  Ex.  Rab.  i.  i,  and  the 
3vious  chapter  in  our  book. 

!  6  The  wording  here  is  based  on  Lev.  vi.  13. 

^  See  Jalkut,  loc.  cit. 

'See  Gen.  Rab.  Ivi.  i;  Midrash  Haggadol,  col.  320;  Tanchuma, 
\  loc.  For  the  story  see  also  the  Book  of  Jashar  xxiii.  22  ff.,  Pal. 
argum,  and  the  second  version  to  Gen.  xxii.  The  Church  Fathers  deal 
ith  the  theme  in  their  usual  style.  See  Ephraim  of  Syria  on  Jonah, 
;  Ambrose  On  Faith  in  Immortality ,  G.T.  i.  pp.  404  f.  ;  Zeno  of  Verona 
Dn  Patience,  5. 

*  i.e.  Mount  Moriah,  on  which  the  Temple  was  built ;  see  2  Chron.  iii. 
r.  See  Rashi  on  T.B.  Pesachim,  49a  ;  "Arukh,  ed.  Kohut,  vii.  33a;  and 
cf.  T.B.  Berakhoth,  6ib.  The  word  D'Sis  means  "  watch-towers." 
The  Midrash  Haggadol,  loc.  cit.,  reads  "  Zuphith."  Jubilees  (xviii.  13) 
agrees  with  our  book  in  identifying  the  mount  with  Mount  Zion.     See 

)also  Book  of  the  Bee,  xxv.  p.  43. 

^  This  passage  is  of  considerable  interest.  We  are  in  the  domain 
of  Philonic  interpretation  of  the  Bible.  Thus  Clement  of  Alexandria, 
under  the  influence  of  Philo's  allegorical  interpretation,  says  on  the 
text.  Gen.  xxii.  3,  4  :  "  Abraham,  when  he  came  to  the  place  which 
God  told  him  of  on  the  third  day,  looking  up,  saw  the  place  afar  off. 
For  the  first  day  is  that  which  is  constituted  by  the  sight  of  good  things  ; 

15 


226 


RABBI  ELIEZER 


resting  upon  the  top  of  the  mountain,  as  it  is  sa 
the  third  day  Abraham  Hfted  up  his  eyes,  and  saw^ 
afar   off"    (Gen.    xxii.    4).     What   did   he   see?     {^ 
a   pillar  of  fire  standing  from  the  earth  to  the  tf 
Abraham    imderstood  that   the   lad  had  been  acce 
the  perfect  burnt  offering.     He  said  to  Ishmael  and  . 
Do  ye  see  anything  upon  one  of  those  mountains  ? 
said  to  him  :    No.    He  considered  them  (as  dull)  as 
He   told   them  :    Since   ye  do  not  see  anything,  "  Al 
here  with  the  ass  "  {ibid.  5),^  with  such  who  are  sim 
the  ass.^ 

He  took  the  wood  and  placed  it  upon  the  back  of  h 
Isaac,  and  he  took  the  fire  and  the  knife  in  his  hand,  anc 
went  both  of  them  together.^    Isaac  said  to  his  father : 
father  !    Behold  the  fire  and  the  wood,  where  is  the  Ian 
the  burnt  offering  ?     He  replied  to  him  :  My  son  !    Tho 
the  lamb  for  the  burnt  offering,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Abrt 
said,  God  will  provide  ^  for  himself  the  lamb  "  {ibid.  8). 

Rabbi   Simeon  ^  said :   The   Holy   One,   blessed  be 

on  the  third,  the  mind 


fl 


and  the  second  is  the  soul's  best  desire 
ceives  spiritual  things  "  {Strom,  v.  ii). 

Our  book  identifies  the  place  (cipo)  with  the  Shekhinah,  just  as  Pft 
does  (De  Somniis,  i.  M.  i.  638,  C.W.  iii.  p.  213)  ;  see  Gen.  Rab.  Ivi.  "' 
and  cf.  the  valuable  note  in  Weinstein's  Ziir  Genesis  der  Agada,  p. 
The  representation  of  the  Shekhinah  as  a  "  Pillar  of  Fire  "  correspo 
with  Philo's  identification  of  the  Logos  with  the  "  Pillar  of  Clou 
which  at  night  became  the  "  Pillar  of  Fire  "  in  the  wilderness,  lead 
God's  people  to  the  Holy  Land ;  see  Hellenism  and  Christianity,  p. 
note.     According  to  Jubilees  xviii.  4  :  "  And  he  came  to  a  well  of  wcr 
and  he  said  to  his  young  men,  '  Abide  ye  here  with  the  ass.'  "     Df 
our  author  intentionally  vary  this  by  substituting  the  "  cloud 
the  well  ? 

1  The  first  editions  add  here :  "  He  said  to  his  son  Isaac :  My  so 
dost  thou  see  anything  upon  one  of  these  mountains  ?  He  said 
him  :  Yes.  (Abraham)  said  to  him  :  What  dost  thou  see  ?  He  repliei 
I  see  a  pillar  of  fire  standing  from  the  earth  up  to  the  heavens."  Si 
for  further  references  to  the  vision  of  Isaac  and  Abraham,  Gen.  Ra'J 
Ivi.  I,  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xxii.  4,  and  Tanchuma,  Vayeia.  §.Kxiii.,  whicll 
refers  to  "a  cloud  enwrapt  on  the  mountain."  See  also  jalkut.  Gen 
§  99,  and  the  Book  of  Jashar  xxiii.,  which  has  used  our  book. 

2  See  T.B.  Jebamoth,  62a ;  Gen.  Rab.  Ivi.  2  ;  Eccles.  Rab.  on  Eccles 
ix.  7;  T.B.  Kiddushin,  68a;  and  Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  320. 

3  "The  first  editions  add  :  "  Just  as  the  ass  does  not  see  anything, 
likewise  do  ye  not  see  anything,  as  it  is  said  :  '  And  Abraham  said  to 
his  young  men  :  Abide  ye  here  with  the  ass'  "  (Gen.  xxii.  5). 

*  Cf.  Gen.  xxii.  6. 

^  The  word  might  be  rendered  :  "  accept."  The  verse  might  be 
translated  thus  :  "  God  will  accept  for  Himself  the  lamb,  i.e.  my 
son." 

•  The  first  editions  read  :    "  Ishmael." 


BINDING  OF  ISAAC  ON  THE  ALTAR   227 

pointed  out  ^  the  altar  with  a  finger  to  Abraham  our  father, 
and  said  to  him  :  This  is  the  altar.  That  was  the  altar  ^ 
whereon  Cain  and  Abel  sacrificed ;  it  was  the  same  altar 
whereon  Noah^  and  his  sons  sacrificed,  as  it  is  said,* 
"  And  Abraham  built  the  altar  there "  {ibid.  9).  "  And 
Abraham  built  an  altar  there "  is  not  written  here,  but 
"  And  Abraham  built  the  altar  there."  That  was  the  altar 
whereon  the  first  ones  (of  old)  had  sacrificed.^ 

Isaac  said  to  his  father  Abraham  :  O  my  father  !  Bind  for 
me  my  two  hands,  and  my  two  feet,  so  that  I  do  not  curse  ^ 
thee ;  for  instance,  a  word  may  issue  from  the  mouth  because 
of  the  violence  and  dread  of  death,  and  I  shall  be  found  to 
have  slighted  ||  the  precept,  "Honour  thy  father"  (Ex.  xx,  12).'^ 
He  bound  his  two  hands  and  his  two  feet,  and  bound  him 
upon  the  top  of  the  altar,  and  he  strengthened  his  two  arms 
and  his  two  knees  ^  upon  him,  and  put  the  fire  and  wood  in 
order,  and  he  stretched  forth  his  hand  and  took  the  knife. 
Like  a  high  priest  ^  he  brought  near  his  meal  offering,  and 
his  drink  offering ;  i"  and  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  was 
sitting  and  beholding  the  father  binding  with  all  (his)  heart 
and  the  son  bound  with  all  (his)  heart.  And  the  ministering 
angels  ^^  cried  aloud  and  wept,  as  it  is  said,  "  Behold,  the 

^  The  Venice  edition  adds  :  "  with  the  finger  "  ;  see  infra,  pp.  382  f. 

*  See  supra,  pp.  153,  171;  see  also  Aboth  de  Rabbi  Nathan  (a) 
i.  p.  4a;  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  loi,  for  a  parallel  text.  The  first  editions 
add  :   "  whereon  the  first  man  brought  (his  offering)." 

3  See  supra,  p.  171,  note  8,  and  cf.  Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  321. 

*  The  first  editions  quote  Gen.  viii.  20  also. 

*  Luria  suggests  a  variant  reading,  based  on  Jalkut  Makhiri,  Ps. 
xxxvi.  5.  "  As  it  is  said :  '  And  Noah  built  an  altar  to  the  Lord.' 
'  Abraham  built  there  an  altar '  is  not  written  here,  but  '  and  he  built 
the  altar.'"  The  reading  in  Jalkut,  Gen.,  loc.  cit.,  is  similar;  see  also 
Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xxii.  9. 

•The  Venice  edition  reads:  "on  account  of  reflex  movement." 
Read  xma'B'3,  see  Pesikta  Rabbathi  xl.  (p.  170b),  Tanna  de  be 
Elijahu  Rab.  xxvii.  p.  138;  and  Tanna  de  be  Elijahu  Zutta  ii.  p.  174; 
and  cf.  Agadath  Bereshith  xxxi.  p.  02,  and  Griinbaum,  op.  cit.  p.  112. 

'  See  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xxii.  10,  and  Jalkut,  Gen.,  loc.  cit. 

*  See  Shocher  Tob,  Ps.  xx.  8,  p.  170. 

*  See  Lev.  Rab.  xxix.  gf.,  which  implies  that  the'Akedah  (Binding 
of  Isaac)  was  on  the  Day  of  Atonement,  so  that  the  service  of 
Abraham  on  that  occasion  might  be  considered  as  resembUng  that  of 
the  High  Priest. 

1"  The  meal  offering  and  the  drink  offering  accompanied  the  "  burnt 
offering  "  in  the  Tabernacle  and  Temple. 

11  Jubilees  xviii.  9  reads  :  "  And  I  (the  angel)  stood  before  Him, 
and  before  the  prince  of  the  Mastema,  and  the  Lord  said.  Bid  him  not 
to  lay  his  hand  on  the  lad," 


228  RABBI  ELIEZER 

Erelim  ^  cry  -  without ;  the  angels  of  peace  weep  bitterly  " 
(Isa.  xxxiii.  7).  The  ministering  angels  said  before  the  Holy 
One,  blessed  be  He  :  Sovereign  of  all  the  worlds  !  Thou 
art  called  merciful  and  compassionate,  whose  mercy  is  upon 
all  His  works  ;  ^  have  mercy  upon  Isaac,  for  he  is  a  human 
being,  and  the  son  of  a  human  being,  and  is  bound  before  Thee 
like  an  animal.  "  O  Lord,  Thou  preservest  man  and  beast "  ; 
as  it  is  said,  "  Thy  righteousness  is  like  the  mighty 
mountains  ;  -  thy  judgments  are  like  a  great  deep  :  O  Lord, 
thou  preservest  man  and  beast  "  (Ps.  xxxvi.  6). 

Rabbi  Jehudah  said :  When  the  blade  •*  touched  his  neck, 
the  soul  of  Isaac  fled  and  departed,  (but)  when  he  heard  His 
voice  from  between  the  two  Cherubim,^  saying  (to  Abraham), 
"  Lay  not  thine  hand  upon  the  lad  "  (Gen.  xxii.  12),  his 
soul  returned  to  liis  body,  and  (Abraham)  set  him  free,  and 
Isaac  stood  upon  his  feet.  And  Isaac  knew  «  that  in  this 
manner  the  dead  in  the  future  will  be  quickened.  He  opened 
(his  mouth),  and  said  :  Blessed  art  thou,  O  Lord,  who 
quickeneth  the  dead.^  || 

Rabbi  Zeehariah  said  :  That  ram,  which  was  created  at 
the  twilight,^  ran  and  came  to  be  offered  up  instead  of 
Isaac,  but  Sammael  ^  was  standing  by,  and  distracting  it, 
in  order  to  annul  the  offering  of  our  father  Abraham.  And 
it  was  caught  by  its  two  horns  in  the  trees,  as  it  is  said, 
"  And  Abraham  lifted  up  his  eyes,  and  looked,  and  behold, 

1  i.e.  angels ;  see  Kimchi's  Book  of  Roots,  s.v.  .tin.  Cf.  T.B. 
Chagigah,  5b  ;  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  p.  73,  note  i  ;  and  cf. 
Gen.  Rab.  Ivi.  5,  and  Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  322. 

*  The  quotation  ends  here  in  our  MS. 
^  Cf.  Ps.  cxlv.  9. 

••  Lit.  "  sword."     See  Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  323. 

*  See  supra,  p.  24.     Cf.  Heb.  xi.  19. 

«  The  first  editions  add  :  "  of  the  resurrection  of  the  dead  from  the 
Torah."  The  connection  with  the  word  Torah  is  not  quite  clear, 
and  the  word  should  be  probably  deleted.  See  Rokeach,  322,  and 
cf.  Brode's  comment,  in  loc.  The  Jalkut,  Gen.,  loc.  cit.,  reads :"  He 
knew  that  in  the  future  He  would  revive  the  dead." 

'  This  is  the  second  benediction  of  the  Shemoneh  'Esreh ;  see  Singer, 
p.  45.  The  benediction  is  appropriately  placed  in  Isaac's'  mouth,  for 
he  had  also  been  bound  unto  death  and  then  set  free.  The  benediction 
speaks  of  the  loosening  of  the  bound,  as  well  as  of  the  resurrection. 

8  Of  the  eve  of  the  first  Sabbath;  see  supra,  p.  12;. 

»  See  Jubilees  xviii.  12  :  "  And  the  prince  of  the  Mastema  was  put 
to  shame.  And  Abraham  Ufted  up  his  eyes  and  looked,  and  behold, 
a  single  ram  caught  and  it  came  (?)."  The  word  translated  "and 
distracting  it"  is  Masteno ;  it  reminds  one  of  Mastema  of  Jubilees. 
See  also  Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  324. 


BINDING  OF  ISAAC  ON  THE  ALTAR   229 

behind  him  a  ram  caught  in  the  thicket  by  its  horns  " 
(ibid.  13).  What  did  that  ram  do  ?  It  put  forth  its  leg  and 
took  hold  of  the  coat  of  our  father  Abraham,  and  Abraham 
looked,  saw  the  ram,  and  he  went  and  set  it  free.  He  offered 
it  up  instead  of  Isaac  his  son,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Abraham 
went  and  took  the  ram,^  and  offered  it  up  for  a  burnt  offering 
in  the  stead  of  his  son  "  (ibid.). 

Rabbi  Berachiah  said :  The  sweet  savour  (of  the  ram) 
ascended  before  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  as  though  it 
were  the  sweet  savour  of  Isaac,-  and  He  swore  that  He 
would  bless  him  ^  in  this  world  and  in  the  world  to  come, 
as  it  is  said,  "  By  myself  have  I  sworn,  saith  the  Lord, 
because  thou  hast  done  this  thing " ;  and  it  says,  "  That 
in  blessing  I  will  bless  thee,  and  in  multiplying  I  will 
multiply  thy  seed,  as  the  stars  of  the  heaven  "  {ibid.  16,  17). 
"  That  in  blessing "  (refers)  to  this  world ;  "  I  will  bless 
thee,"  in  the  world  to  come;  and  "I  will  greatly  multiply 
thy  seed,"  in  the  future  that  is  to  come. 

Rabbi  Chanina  ben  Dosa  said :  ^  From  that  ram,  which 
was  created  at  the  twilight,  nothing  came  forth  which  was 
useless.^  The  ashes  of  the  ram  ^  were  ||  the  base '  which 
was  upon  the  top  of  the  inner  altar.^  The  sinews  of  the 
ram  were  the  strings  ^  of  the  harp  whereon  David  played. 
The  ram's  skin  ^^  was  the  girdle  (around)  the  loins  of  Elijah, 
may  he  be  remembered  for  good,  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
they  answered  him,  He  was  an  hairy  man,  and  girt  with 

^  The  quotation  ends  here  in  our  MSS. 

^  See  ?ohar.  Gen.  120b. 

'  See  Jalkut,  loc.  cit.,  and  Apoc.  Baruch,  loc.  cit. 

*  See  Jalkut,  Isa.  §  436,  and  Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  325. 

*  See  Mishnah,  ZelDachim  ix.  5,  as  to  the  parts  of  a  burnt  offering 
which  were  not  offered  on  the  altar. 

*  See  supra,  p.  204,  and  of.  T.B.  ?ebachim,  62a. 

'  Or,  foundation.  Does  the  text  here  refer  to  the  horns  of  the 
altar  ?  or  should  the  text  read,  "  the  foundation  whereon  (stood)  the 
inner  altar"  ?     See  Midrash  Haggadol,  loc.  cit. 

*  The  first  editions  add  here  :  "as  it  is  said  :  '  And  Aaron 
shall  make  atonement  upon  the  horns  of  it  once  in  the  year  '  "  (Ex. 
XXX.  10). 

®  Read  Nimin  instead  of  Nebalim,  and  see  supra,  p.  127.  The 
first  editions  read  :  "  The  sinews  of  the  ram  were  ten,  corresponding 
to  the  ten  strings  of  the  harp,"  etc.  According  to  one  tradition  the 
harp  of  David  had  only  eight  strings,  and  it  is  the  harp  of  the  Messiah 
which  is  to  have  ten  strings.  See  Josephus,  Ant.  vii.  12.  3,  and  of. 
Pesikta  Rabbathi,  pp.  98b  f. 

'o  The  inference  here  is  drawn  from  the  word  '"Or"  (iij;),  leather. 


230  RABBI  ELIEZER 


o 


a  girdle  of  leather  about  his  loins  "  (2  Kings  i.  8).^  The  horn 
of  the  ram  of  the  left  side^  (was  the  one)  wherein  He  blew 
upon  Mount  Sinai,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  it  shall  come  to  pass, 
that  when  the  ram's  horn  soundeth  long  "  "*  (Josh.  vi.  5). 
(The  horn)  of  the  right  side,  which  is  larger  than  that  of 
thij  left,  is  destined  in  the  future  to  be  sounded  in  the 
world  that  is  to  come,^  as  it  is  said,  "  And  it  shall  come 
to  pass  in  that  day,  that  a  great  trumpet  shall  be  blown  " 
(Isa.  xxvii.  13);^  and  it  is  said,  "And  the  Lord  shall  be 
king  over  all  the  earth  "  (Zech.  xiv.  9). 

Rabbi  Isaac  said  :  Nothing  has  been  created  except 
by  the  merit  of  worship.  Abraham  returned  from  Mount 
Moriah  only  through  the  merit  of  worship,  as  it  is  said, 
"  We  will  worship,  and  come  again  to  you"  (Gen.  xxii.  5).^ 
The  Temple  was  fashioned  only  through  the  merit  of  worship, 
as  it  is  said,  "  Exalt  ye  the  Lord  our  God,  and  worship  " 
(Ps.  xcix.  5).^ 

'  The  first  editions  have  a  corrupt  quotation  based  on  2  Kings  i., 
verses  6  and  8.  The  MS.  only  quotes  the  few  words  :  "  He  was  an 
hairy  man,"  etc. 

-  See  Othijoth  de  Rabbi  'Akiba,  letter  T  ;  od.  J;  !li-.ck,  B.H.M.  iii.  p. 
31  ;   and  Rokeach.  203.     The  first  editions  read  :  "  the  two  horns." 

^  The  first  editions  read  here  :  "  Wherein  the  Holy  One,  blessed 
be  He,  blew  upon  Mount  Sinai."     See  Midrash  Haggadol.  loc.  cit. 

*  The  Oxford  MS.  and  th*^  first  editions  quote  Ex.  xix.  ig. 

*  The  first  editions  add  :  "  at  the  ingathering  of  the  exiles." 

*  The  inference  here  is  derived  from  the  word  "  great,"  implying 
the  right  side.  On  the  subject  of  the  Messianic  trump,  see  Abkath 
Rochel  i.,  and  cf.  i  Cor.  xv.  52. 

^  The  Midrash  Samuel  led.  Buber)  iii.  7  contains  a  good  parallel  text, 
which  is  much  fuller  than  our  MS.  It  adds  here  :  "  The  Israehtes  were 
redeemed  from  Egypt  only  in  consequence  of  worship,  as  it  is  said  : 
'And  the  people  bowed  the  head  and  worshipped'  (Ex.  xii.  27).  The 
Torah  was  given  only  through  the  merit  of  worship,  because  it  is  said  : 
'  And  worship  ye  afar  off  '  "  {ibid.  xxiv.  i).     See  jalkut,  Gen.  §  100. 

*  The  Midrash  Samuel,  loc.  cit.,  adds  here  :  "  The  dead  also  will 
only  be  quickened  through  the  merit  of  worship,  as  it  is  said  :  '  O 
come,  let  us  worship  and  bow  down  '  (Ps.  xcv.  6).  The  exiles  will 
only  be  gathered  in  again  owing  to  the  merit  of  worship,  as  it  is  said  : 
'  And  it  shall  come  to  pass  in  that  day.  that  a  great  trumpet  shall  be 
blown  ;  and  they  shall  come  which  were  lost  in  the  land  of  Assvria, 
and  they  that  were  outcasts  in  the  land  of  Egypt;  and  they  shall 
worship  the  Lord  in  the  holy  mountain  at  Jerusalem'  "  (Isa.  xxvii.  13). 
See  also  Gen.  Rab.  Ivi.  2,  and  Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  320!.  On  the  entire 
chapter  see  the  Book  of  Jashar  xxiii.  ;  Tanchuma  (ed.  Buber),  Gen.  p. 
57a,  b  ;  Tanchuma,  Vayera,  §  xxiii. ;  and  Midrash  Agadah,  Gen.  pp.  50  fi. 


CHAPTER    XXXII 

THE   DEATH   OF   SARAH   AND   THE    STORY    OF   ISAAC   AND 
REBECCA    [39b.    i.J 

Six  (people)  were  called  by  their  names  before  they  were 
created,^  and  they  are  :  Isaac,  Ishmael,  Moses,^  Solomon, 
Josiah,  and  King  Messiah.^ 

Whence  do  we  know  about  Ishmael  ?  Because  it  is  said, 
"  And  the  angel  of  the  Lord  said  unto  her,  Behold,  thou  art 
with  child,*  .  .  .  and  thou  shalt  call  his  name  Ishmael "  (Gen. 
xvi.  11).  Why  was  his  name  ||  called  Ishmael?^  Because 
in  the  future  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  will  hearken  to 
the  cry^  of  the  people  arising  from  (the  oppression)  which 
the  children  of  Ishmael  will  bring  about  in  the  land  in  the 
last  (days) ; '  therefore  was  his  name  called  Ishmael.^ 

^  In  Mekhilta,  Bo.  xvi.  p.  19a;  only  Isaac,  Solomon,  and  Josiah  are 
mentioned.  See  Agadath  Bereshith,  65,  and  Midrnsh  Hasgadol,  c.  246. 
In  T.J.  Berakhoth  i.  8  four  names  are  mentioned,  the  three  as  in  the 
Mekhilta  and,  in  addition,  Ishmael ;  cf.  Gen.  Rab.  xlv.  8.  In  T.B.  ChuUin, 
139b,  the  name  of  Moses  is  mentioned,  as  also  the  names  of  Mordecai, 
Esther,  and  Haman,  all  these  names  being  hinted  at  in  the  Torah.  Luria 
observes  that  Cyrus  (Is.  xliv.  28  and  xlv.  i)  should  have  been  mentioned 
in  the  list  of  people  named  before  their  birth.  This  fact  would  not  warrant 
the  inference  that  all  these  people  were  pre-existent.  This  reasoning 
is,  however,  often  applied  to  the  name  of  the  Messiah,  as  though  it 
meant  that  the  Messiah  pre-existed  because  his  name  was  named 
before  his  birth  ;  see  Hellenism  and  Christianity,  p.  i  7. 

2  The  first  editions  add  :   "  our  Rabbi,"  or  "  our  teacher." 
^  The  first  editions  read  :  "  the  name  of  the  Messiah."     The  Amster- 
dam edition  reads  :    "  our  Messiah."     The  first  editions  add  :    "  May 
the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  cause  him  to  come  speedily  in  our  days." 

*  The  first  editions  omit  this  part  of  the  verse,  and  give  the  second 
half  only. 

^  Ishma-e/  is  interpreted  as  meaning  "God  will  hear";  cl.  Gen.  xvi.  1 1 . 

*  The  first  editions  read  :   "  the  voice  of  the  cry." 

"  The  MS.  omits  "  days."  It  occurs  in  the  first  editions.  The  refer- 
ence is  to  the  time  of  woe  preceding  the  coming  of  the  Messiah.  See 
supra,  pp.  221  f.,  and  cf.  Matt.  xxiv.  3  ff.  for  the  Messianic  woes. 

*  The  first  editions  add  :  "  as  it  is  said,  '  God  shall  hear  and  answer 
them  '  "  (Ps.  Iv.  19).  The  Hebrew  for  "  God  shall  hear"  contains  the 
same  letters  as  the  Hebrew  word  Ishmael. 

231 


232  RABBI  ELIEZER 

How  do  wc  know  (this  with  reference  to)  Isaac  ?  Be- 
cause it  is  said,  "And  God  said,  Sarah  thy  wife  shall  bear 
thee  a  son  indeed  ;  and  thou  shalt  call  his  name  Isaac  " 
{ibid.  xvni.  19).  Why  was  his  name  called  Isaac  ?  ^  Be- 
cause Yad  (the  first  Hebrew  letter  of  Isaac  indicates)  the 
ten  trials  2  wherewith  our  father  Abraham  was  tried  ; 
and  he  withstood  them  all.  Zaddi  (the  second  letter 
indicates)  the  ninety  (years),  for  his  mother  was  ninety 
years  (at  the  birth  of  Isaac),  as  it  is  said,  "  And  shall  Sarah, 
that  is  ninety  years  old,  bear  ?  "  {ibid.  17).  Cheth  (the 
third  letter  points  to)  the  eighth  (day),  for  he  was  circum- 
cised on  the  eighth  day,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Abraham 
circumcised  his  son  Isaac,  being  eight  days  old  "  {ibid.  xxi.  4). 
Kuf  (the  fourth  letter  of  the  name  marks)  the  hundred 
(years),  for  his  father  was  an  hundred  years  old  (at  Isaac's 
birth),  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Abraham  was  an  himdred  years 
old  "  {ibid.  5). 

Whence  do  wc  know  about  Moses  ?  ^  Because  it  is  said, 
"  And  the  Lord  said.  My  spirit  shall  not  abide  in  man  for 
ever  in  their  going  astray  "  {ibid.  vi.  3).  What  is  the  im- 
plication (of  the  expression),  "  In  their  going  astray  "  ?  * 
Retrospectively  his  name  was  called  Moses.''  For  the  life 
of  Moses  was  one  hundred  and  twenty  years,  as  it  is  said, 
"  His  days  shall  be  an  hundred  and  twenty  years  "  {ibid.). 

Whence  do  we  know  concerning  Solomon  ?  Because 
it  is  said,  "  Behold,  a  son  shall  be  born  to  thee,  who  shall 
be  a  man  of  rest,  .  .  .  for  his  name   shall   be  Solomon  " 

1  See  Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  256  ;  Agadath  Bereshith,  53  ;  Gen.  Rab. 
liii.  7:  and  Tanchuma  (ed.  Buber),  Gen.  54a.  Jubilees  xvi.  3  says: 
"  And  we  told  her  (Sarah)  the  name  of  her  son,  as  his  name  is  ordained 
and  written  in  the  heavenly  tables,  (i.e.)  Isaac." 

^  The  Agadath  Bereshith,  loc.  cit.,  refers  to  the  Ten  Commandments. 
The  context  in  our  author  agrees  with  Tanchuma,  Korah,  ^  xii. 

^  See  T.B.  Chullin,  139b.  The  name  of  Moses  is  said  to  be  hinted 
at  in  Ps.  xviii.  i6  :  "He  drew  me  out  ('jb'S')  of  many  waters."  The 
word  Moses  is  connected  with  the  root  "  to  draw  out  "  in  Hebrew. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  The  word  '  in  their  going  astray '  has  the 
same  numerical  value  as  (the  name)  Moses"  (nB'D  =  MShH).  SccR.V.  inloc. 

°  B  =2,  Sh  =300,  G  =3,  M  =40  =345. 
M=40,  Sh=300,  H=5  =345- 

This  system  is  known  as  Gcmatria,  and  was  also  known  to  and  used 
by  some  of  the  Church  Fathers;  see  Irenaeus,  adv.  Har.  v.  xxx.  iff., 
where  he  speaks  of  the  number  of  the  name  of  the  Antichrist ;  see  also 
Clement  of  Alexandria,  Strom,  vi.  ch.  xi.  According  to  Jastrow,  T.D. 
239a,  this  word  is  a  transposition  of  the  word  ypa/xfiana,  "  accounts"; 
see  also'Arukh,  ed.  Kohut,  ii.  p.  309b. 


THE  DEATH  OF  SARAH  233 

(1  Chron.  xxii.  9).i  Why  was  his  name  called  Solomon  ? 
Because  his  name  was  called  Solomon  in  the  Aramaic 
language,  as  it  is  said,  "  I  will  give  peace  (Shalom)  and 
quietness  unto  Israel  in  his  days"  (ibid.).^  \\ 

Whence  do  we  know  about  Josiah  ?  Because  it  is  said, 
"  Behold,  a  child  shall  be  born  unto  the  house  of  David, 
Josiah  by  name  "  (1  Kings  xiii.  2),  Why  was  his  name 
called  Josiah  ?  (Because  he  was  as  acceptable)  ^  as  an 
offering  upon  the  altar ;  she  ^  said :  A  worthy  offering  let 
him  be  before  Thee.^  Therefore  was  his  name  called  Josiah, 
as  it  is  said,  "  And  he  cried  against  the  altar,"  etc.  {ibid.  2). 

Whence  do  we  know  concerning  King  Messiah  ?  Because 
it  is  said,  "  His  name  shall  endure  for  ever.  Before  the  sun 
his  name  shall  be  continued  (Yinnon)  "  (Ps.  Ixxii.  17).^ 
Why  was  his  name  called  Yinnon  ?  For  he  will  awaken ' 
those  who  sleep  at  Hebron  out  of  the  dust  of  the  earth, 
therefore  is  his  name  called  Yinnon,  as  it  is  said,  "  Before 
the  sun  his  name  is  Yinnon"  (ibid.). 

When  Abraham  returned  from  Mount  Moriah  in  peace,  the 
anger  of  Sammael  ^  was  kindled,  for  he  saw  that  the  desire 
of  his  heart  to  frustrate  the  offering  of  our  father  Abraham 

^  The  Venice  edition  reads  :  "  and  thou  shalt  call  his  name  Solomon, 
because."     See  Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  246. 

2  The  name  nchef  (Solomon)  is  connected  with  ai'^c  (peace) .  See 
also  2  Sam.  xii.  24,  with  Kimchi's  commentary  thereon.  The  Aramaic 
Sh'lama  (peace)  is  somewhat  similar  to  the  Hebrew  name  Sh'lomoh 
(=Solomon).  The  printed  texts  omit  the  words  "  his  name  was  called 
Solomon  in  the  Aramaic  language." 

^  The  words  in  brackets  do  not  occur  in  the  MS.,  but  they  are  found 
in  the  first  editions. 

*  The  reference  is  probably  to  the  mother.  The  first  editions  omit 
this. 

*  See  Jalkut  on  i  Kings  xiii.  §  200.  The  name  Josiah  (i.tivk')  is 
interpreted  as  though  it  were  Kin  'c  'n',  "  he  is  worthy  hke  a  lamb." 
The  next  sentence  is  found  only  in  the  MS. 

^  See' Arukh,  ed.  Kohut,  iv.  p.  141a,  s.v.  p:,  in  the  sense  of  "offspring  " ; 
cf.  Gen.  xxi.  23.  Gesenius  (Oxford  edition)  renders  Ps.  Ixxii.  17  : 
"  Let  his  name  have  increase."  See  Parchon's  Heh.  Diet,  s.v.,  and  note 
Jalkut,  loc.  cit.,  which  says  :  "  He  will  stir  up  all  the  evil  ones  of  the  earth 
(in  the  future)  "  ;  cf.  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  45,  and  Midrash  Hagajadol,  loc.  cit. 

''  See  Ibn  Ezra  on  this  verse  of  Ps.  Ixxii.  See  also  T.B.  Synhedrin, 
95a,  and  supra,  p.  230.  'Arukh,  loc.  cit.,  reads:  "in  the  future  he  will 
bring  to  life  those  who  sleep  in  the  dust,  therefore  is  his  name  called 
Yinnon."     See  also  supra,  p.  12. 

*  Midrash  Haggadol,  c.  324,  reads,  "Satan."  On  Sammael's  dis- 
comfiture see  Jubilees  xviii.  9  and  12.  The  name  Sammael  {i.e.  the 
Devil)  occurs  in  Christian  books,  e.g.  in  the  Acts  of  Andrew  and 
Matthew  (in  A.N.C.L.  xvi.  p.  362). 


234  RABBI  ELIEZER 

had  not  been  realized.  What  did  he  do  ?  He  went  and 
said  to  Sarah :  Hast  thou  not  heard  what  has  happened  in 
the  world  ?  She  said  to  him :  No.  He  said  to  her :  Thy 
husband,  Abraham,^  has  taken  thy  son  Isaac  and  slain  him 
and  offered  him  up  as  a  burnt  offering  upon  the  altar.'-  She 
began  to  weep  and  to  cry  aloud  three  times, ^  corresponding 
to  the  three  sustained  notes  (of  the  Shophar),"*  and  (she  gave 
forth)  three  bowlings  corresponding  to  the  three  discon- 
nected short  notes  ^  (of  the  Shopliar),  and  her  soul  fled,  and 
she  died.*" 

Abraham  came  and  found  that  she  was  dead.  Whence 
did  he  come  ?  From  Mount  Moriah,"  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
Abraham  came  to  mourn  for  Sarah  "  (Gen.  xxiii.  2). 

Rabbi  Jose  said  :  Isaac  observed  mourning  during  three 
years*  ||  for  his  mother.  After  three  years  he  married 
Rebecca,  and  forgot  the  mourning  for  his  mother.''  Hence 
thou  mayest  learn  that  until  a  man  marries  a  wife  his  love 
centres  in  his  parents.  When  he  marries  a  wife  his  love  is 
bestowed  upon  his  wife,  as  it  is  said,  "  Therefore  shall  a 
man  leave  his  father  and  his  mother,  and  he  shall  cleave  unto 
his  wife  "  {ibid.  ii.  24).  Does  a  man  then  leave  ^"  his  father 
and  mother  with  reference  to  the  precept,  "  Honour "  ?  ^^ 
But  the  love  of  his  soul  cleaves  unto  his  wife,  as  it  is  said, 
"  And  his  soul  clave  (unto  Dinah) "  {ibid,  xxxiv.  3) ;  and  it 
says,  "  And  he  shall  cleave  unto  his  wife  "  {ibid.  ii.  24). 

1  See  Tanchuma  (cd.  Buber),  Gvn.  :.jh;  Pesikta  Rabbullu  xl. ; 
Jalkut,  Gen.  sj  98  ;  T.B.  Gittin,  57b,  and  the  Book  of  Jashar  xxiii.  77. 
The  first  editions  omit  Abraham  and  read  "  the  old  man." 

-  The  first  editions  add  :  "  And  the  lad  wept,  and  cried  aloud  because 
he  could  not  be  saved." 

'  Lit.  "  weepings." 

*  i.e.  the  Teki'oth. 

*  This  is  the  "Teru'a";  cf.  MLshnah,  Rosh  Ha-Shanab  (iv.  9), 
p.  16a. 

*  See  Lev.  Rab.  xx.  2.  and  Eccles.  Rab.  to  Ecclcs.  ix.  i.  According 
to  these  Midrashim  it  is  Isaac  who  tells  Sarah  the  story  of  the  '  Akedah. 
See  Tanchuma,  in  loc.  According  to  this  version  Satan,  in  the  guise 
of  Isaac,  tells  the  tale.     See  also  Midrash  Haggadol.  !oc.  cit. 

'  See  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  in  loc.  According  to  the  Book  of  Jashar 
xxiii.  84,  Sarah  went  to  look  for  Abraham,  but  died  at  Hebron.  Also 
according  to  Jubilees  xix.  2,  Sarah  died  at  Hebron. 

*  At  the  'Akedah,  Isaac  was  37  years  old,  and  when  he  married 
Rebecca  he  was  40  years.  For  an  instance  of  three  years  of  mourning 
see  2  Sam.  xiii.  38 f.     See  Midrasli  Haspadol,  c.  388. 

•  "  Sarah  his  mother  "  is  the  reading  in  the  first  editions. 
'"Or"  forsake." 
*'  "  Honour  thy  father  and  thy  mother  "  (Ex.  xx.  12). 


THE  DEATH  OF  SARAH  235 

Rabbi  Jehudah  said:  Rebecca^  was  barren  for  twenty- 
years.  After  twenty  years  (Isaac)  took  Rebecca  and  went 
(^vith  her)  to  Mount  Moriah,  to  the  place  where  he  had  been 
bound,  and  he  prayed  on  her  behalf  concerning  the  concep- 
tion of  the  womb;  and  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  was 
entreated  of  him,^  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Isaac  intreated  the 
Lord  "  (ibid.  xxv.  21).  The  children  were  contending  with 
one  another  ^  within  her  womb  like  mighty  warriors,  as  it  is 
said,  "And  the  children  struggled  together  within  her  "  {ihid. 
22).  The  time  of  her  confinement  came  round,  and  her  soul  was 
nigh  unto  death  owing  to  her  pains.*  And  she  went  to  pray  in 
the  place  '  whither  she  and  Isaac  had  gone,  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
she  went  to  inquire  of  the  Lord  "  (ibid.).  What  did  the  Holy 
One,  blessed  be  He,«  do  ?  Jacob  took  hold  of  the  heels  of 
Esau  to  make  him  fall,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  after  that  came 
forth  his  brother,  and  his  hand  had  hold  on  Esau's  heel  " 
{ibid.  26).  Hence  thou  may  est  learn  that  the  descend- 
ants of  Esau  will  not  fall  until  a  remnant  ||  from  Jacob  will 
come  and  cut  off  the  feet  of  the  children  of  Esau  from  the 
mountain  of  Seir,  as  it  is  said,  "  Forasmuch  as  thou  sawest 
that  a  stone  was  cut  out  of  the  mountain  without  hands  " 
(Dan.  ii.  45).^  Another  Scripture  text  says,  "  Vengeance 
is  mine,  and  a  recompence,^  at  the  time  when  their  foot  shall 
slide  "  (Deut.  xxxii.  35). 

Rabbi  Tanchuma  ^  said :  The  two  lads  grew  up ;  the  one 
went  by  the  way  of  life,  and  the  other  went  by  the  way  of 
deathji"  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  boys  grew,  and  Esau  was  a 
cunning  hunter  "  (Gen.  xxv.  27).      Jacob  went  on  the  way 

^  The  Book  of  Jashar  xxvi.  3  says  :  "  And  Isaac  and  his  wife  rose  up 
and  went  to  the  land  of  Moriah  to  pray  there  and  to  seek  the  Lord." 
See  also  T.B.  Jebamoth,  64a,  and  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xxv.  21. 

^According  to  the  Midrash  Agadah,  Toledoth,  p.  21,  God  hearkened 
to  his  prayer  because  "  he  was  righteous  and  the  son  of  a  righteous 
man." 

^  See  Gen.  Rab.  Ixiii.  6  for  the  cause  of  the  struggle.  Cf.  Pal. 
Targum,  Gen.  xxv.  22. 

*  See  Book  of  Jashar  xxvi.  9 ;  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  no. 

°  The  Book  of  Jashar  xxvi.  10  says:  "And  she  went  to  the  land 
of  Moriah  to  seek  the  Lord  on  account  of  this." 

^  The  first  editions  omit  the  words  :  "  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be 
He." 

'  The  first  editions  quote  here  Dan.  ii.  34.    See  Josephus,  Ant.  x.  i  o.  4. 

*  The  MS.  only  quotes  thus  far,  the  first  editions  continue  the  verse. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  R.  Acha." 

'»  See  supra,  p.  102,  for  the  "  two  ways." 


236  RABBI  ELIEZER 

of  life,  for  he  was  dwelling  in  tents, ^  and  he  studied  the 
Torah  all  his  days.-  Esau  Avent  on  the  way  of  death, 
because  he  slew  Nimrod  and  his  son  Chavir,  and  he  almost 
sought  to  kill  Jacob  his  brother,  as  it  is  said,  "  The  days  of 
mourning  for  my  father  are  at  hand,  and  I  will  slay  my 
brother  Jacob"  (ibid,  xxvii.  41). 

Rabbi  Simeon  said  :  In  the  hour  when  Isaac  was  bound,  he 
lifted  up  his  eyes  heavenwards  and  saw  the  glory  of  the 
Shekhinah,  as  it  is  written,  "  For  man  shall  not  see  me  and 
live"  (Ex.  xxxiii.  20).  Instead  of  death  his  eyes  grew  dim  •' 
in  his  old  age,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  it  came  to  pass,  that  when 
Isaac  was  old,  that  his  eyes  were  dim,  so  that  he  could  not 
see  "  (Gen.  xxvii.  1).  Hence  thou  mayest  learn  that  the 
blind  man  is  as  though  he  were  dead.'* 

The  night-fall  of  the  festival  day  of  Passover  eame,^ 
and  Isaac  called  unto  Esau  his  elder  son,  and  said  :  O  my 
son  !  To-night  the  heavenly  ones  ^  utter  songs,^  on  this  night 
the  treasuries*  of  dew*  are  opened  ;  on  this  day  the  blessing 
of  the  dews  (is  bestowed).  Make  me  savoury  meat  whilst  I 
am  still  ahve,  and  I  will  bless  thee.  1|  The  Holy  Spirit  rejoined, 
saying  to  him  :  "  Eat  thou  not  the  bread  of  him  that  hath 
an  evil  eye,^"  neither  desire  thou  his  dainties  "  (Prov.  xxiii.  6). 
He  went  to  fetch  it,  and  was  delayed  there.^^  Rebecca  said 
to  Jacob  his  (other)  son  :  i-  On  this  night  the  treasuries  of  dew 

1  According  to  the  Targumim,  in  loc,  the  "  tents  "  are  the 
"  academies."     See  Jalkut,  Gen.,  loc.  cit. 

^  The  first  editions  read  :  "  And  Esau  the  wicked  was  going  the  way 
of  death  to  slay  our  father  Jacob,  as  it  is  said  :  '  The  days  of  mourning 
for  my  father  are  at  hand  ;  then  will  I  slay  my  brother  Jacob'  "  (Gen. 
xxvii.  41). 

^  See  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  pp.  78  f.,  and  of.  Jalkut,  Gen. 

§  114- 

*  See  T.B.  Nedarim,  64a,  and  Gen.  Rib.  l.xv.  10. 

*  See  supra,  p.  153.  See  also  the  Vilna  Gaon  on  Orach  Chayyim, 
583  (108).     Cf.  Heb.  xi.  20  on  the  theme  in  our  text. 

*  Jalkut,  Gen.,  loc.  c  it.,  reads  :  "  All  the  heavenly  ones  sing  a  song  "  ; 
see  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xxvii.  i . 

'  Pss.  cxiii.-cxviii. 

*  Cf.  Slavonic  Enoch  vi.  and  Eih.  Enoch  Ix.  20.  and  supra. 
p.  17,  for  this  expression;  and  see  T.B.  Chagigah,  12b;  and  T.B. 
Ta'anith,  4b. 

^  The  text  is  in  the  plural,  "  dews  "  here  and  throughout  the  chapter. 
The  prayer  for  dew  forms  part  of  the  liturgy  for  the  first  day  of 
Passover. 

"  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here. 

"  See  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  p.  82. 

^2  The  first  editions  read  :  "  Rebecca  said  to  Jacob,  O  my  son  !  " 


THE  DEATH  OF  SARAH  237 

will  be  opened,  and  on  this  night  the  angels  utter  a  song.^ 
Make  savoury  meat  for  thy  father,  that  he  may  eat  and 
whilst  he  still  lives  he  may  bless  thee. 

Now  (Jacob)  was  skilled  in  the  Torah,-  and  his  heart 
dreaded  the  curse  of  his  father.  His  mother  said  to  him  : 
My  son  !  If  it  be  a  blessing,  may  it  be  upon  thee  and  upon  thy 
seed  ;  if  it  be  a  curse,  let  it  be  upon  me  ^  and  upon  my  soul, 
as  it  is  said,  "  And  his  mother  said  to  him,  Upon  me  be 
thy  curse,  my  son  "  (Gen.  xxvii.  13).  He  went  and  brought 
two  kids  of  the  goats.  Were  two  kids  of  the  goats  the  food 
for  Isaac  ?  But  he  brought  one  as  a  Paschal  offering,^  and 
with  the  other  he  prepared  the  savoury  meat  to  eat ;  and  he 
brought  it  to  his  father,^  and  he  said  to  him :  "  Arise,  I  pray 
thee,  sit  and  eat  of  my  venison "  {ibid.  19).^  Isaac 
said  :  "  The  voice  is  the  voice  of  Jacob  "  {ibid.  22).  Jacob 
(declares)  the  unity  of  God.  "  The  voice  is  the  voice  of 
Jacob  "  ^  {ibid.)  in  the  meditation  of  the  Torah.  "  And 
the  hands  are  the  hands  of  Esau  "  {ibid.),  in  all  shedding  of 
blood  and  in  every  evil  death.  Not  only  this,  but  also  when 
they  proclaim  in  heaven,  "  The  voice  is  the  voice  of  Jacob," 
the  heavens  tremble.^  And  when  they  proclaim  on  earth, 
"  The  voice  is  the  voice  of  Jacob  "  {ibid.),  every  one  who  hears 

1  The  first  editions  add  :  "On  this  night  in  the  future  thy  children 
will  be  redeemed  from  the  power  of  bondage  ;  on  this  night  in  the  future 
they  will  sing  a  song."     See  T.B.  Sotah,  12b,  and  Wisdom  xviii.  6. 

*  He  should  have  fulfilled  the  desire  of  his  father ;  see  T.B.  Kid- 
dushin,  31a,  and  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xxvii.  6,  1 1. 

'  So  also  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xxvii.  13. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  Would  not  one  fgoat)  have  been  suffi- 
cient for  him  ?  As  it  is  said  :  '  The  righteous  eateth  to  the  satisfying 
of  his  soul  '  (Prov.  xiii.  25).  But  one  (goat)  corresponded  to  the 
Paschal  Lamb."  ^ 

*  The  first  editions  add  here  :  "  For  we  are  taught  in  a  Mishnah ; 
the  Pasclial  Lamb  is  brought  only  when  one  is  satisfied  with  food.  He 
entered,"  etc. 

«  See  Rashi,  in  loc. ;  Zohar,  Gen.  154a  ;  and  cf.  Derekh  Erez  Zutta  v. 
on  the  rule  as  to  eating  in  a  sitting  posture. 

'  The  unity  of  God  proclaimed  by  the  "  voice  of  Jacob"  is  applied 
to  the  declaration  of  the  children  of  Israel  who  exclaim  :  "  Hear,  O 
Israel,  the  Lord  is  our  God,  the  Lord  is  one  "  (Deut.  vi.  4). 

*  See  infra,  p.  282;  Gen.  Rab.  Ixvi.  4;  Pesikta  Rabbathi  xxi. 
p.  99b ;  Rokeach,  362.  The  ist  ed.  reads  here  :  "  And  when  they 
proclaim  on  earth,  'The  voice  is  the  voice  of  Jacob'  (Gen.  xx^'ii.  22), 
every  one  who  hears  and  does  not  obey,  his  portion  is  with  '  the  hands 
which  are  the  hands  of  Esau  '  "  [ibid.). 


'  See  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xxvii.  9,  and  Rashi  on  Gen.,  in  loc,  and 
T.B.  Pesachim,  114b. 


238  RABBI  ELIEZER 

will  make  his  portion  with  "  The  voice  which  is  the  voice  of 
Jacob."  And  every  one  ||  who  does  not  hear  and  does  not 
act  (obediently),  liis  portion  is  with  "  The  hands,  which  are 
the  hands  of  Esau." 

Rabbi  Jehudah  said :  Isaac  blessed  Jacob  with  ten 
blessings  concerning  the  dews  of  heaven  and  the  corn  of  the 
earth,  corresponding  to  the  ten  words  ^  whereby  the  world 
was  created,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  God  give  thee  of  the  dew 
of  the  heaven"  {ibid.  28);  "Let  peoples  serve  thee,  .  .  ." 
{ibid.  29).  When  Jacob  went  forth  from  the  presence  of 
his  father  Isaac,  he  went  forth  crowned  like  a  bridegroom, 
and  like  a  bride  in  her  adornment,'-  and  the  quickening  dew 
from  heaven  descended  upon  him,  and  refreshed  his  bones, ^ 
and  he  also  became  a  mighty  hero  ;  therefore  it  is  said, 
"  By  the  hands  of  the  mighty  Jacob,  from  thence  is  the 
shepherd,  the  stone  *  of  Israel  "  {ibid.  xlix.  24). 

^  Ma'amaroth  ;  see  Lev.  Rab.  xxxiv.  (end) ;   Deut.  Rab.  i.  14. 
"  See  supra,  pp.  40,  1121.  ;   and  cf.  Isa.  xlix.  18. 

*  The  words  are  based  on  Prov.  xv.  30. 

*  See  infra,  p.  268.     The  R.V.  should  be  noted. 


CHAPTER    XXXIII 

ELISHA   AND   THE    SHUNAMMITE    WOMAN  ^    [41a.    i.J 

"  And  2  Isaac  sowed  in  that  land  "  (Gen.  xxvi.  12).     Rabbi 
Eliezer  said  :    Did  Isaac  sow  the  seed  of  corn  ?  ^     Heaven 
forbid  !     But  he  took  all  his  wealth/  and  sowed  it  in  charity 
to  the  needy,  as  it  is  said,  "  Sow  to  yourselves  in  righteous- 
ness, reap  according  to  love  "  (Hos.  x.   12).^     Everything 
which  he  tithed,  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  sent  him  ''-^ 
return)  one  hundred  times  (the  value)  in  different  k' 
blessings,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  he  found  in  the  same 
hundredfold :  and  the  Lord  blessed  him  "  (Gen.  xxvi" 
Rabbi  Simeon  said :  Owing  to  the  power  of  ||  chai 
dead  will  be  quickened  ^  in  the  future.     Whence  do  W 
this  ?     From  Elijah  the  Tishbite.'     For  he  betook  I 

^  This  chapter  seems  to  be  the  Midrash  to  the  Haphtarah  of 
(Gen.  xvii.-xxii.),  illustrating   the   resurrection   experienced   by 
at  the  'Akedali.     The  Book  of  Jonah,  which  formed  the  conte 
Chapter  X.,  is  the  Haphtarah  in  the  afternoon  service  on  the  L 
Atonement. 

2  The  first  editions  read  :  "  It  is  written  :  '  And  Isaac  sowed,' ' 

*  The  patriarchs  were  not  to  settle  in  Canaan  ;  therefore  they 
not  devote  themselves  to  the  agricultural   life.     Their  wealth  wai. 
their  flocks,  which  could  be   easily  removed  as  occasion  demande 
See  Pal.  Targum,  Gen.  xxvi.  12  ;  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  iii  ;  and  infra,  p.  289 

*  Lit.  "his  mammon";  see  Jewish  Sources  of  the  Sermon  on  the 
Mount,  p.  109.  The  tithe  had  been  observed  by  Abraham;  see 
Gen.  xiv.  20,  and  therefore  Isaac  also  gave  a  tithe.  See  Num.  Rab. 
xii.  1 1 .     The  first  editions  read  :  "  But  he  took  a  tithe  of  all  his  wealth." 

*  See  Tanaa  de  be  Elijahu  Zutta  (ed.  Friedmann),  i.  p.  167. 

*  See  Prov.  xi.  4.  Isaac's  charity  and  righteousness  are  assumed 
here  to  have  been  the  cause  of  his  resurrection ;  another  cause 
was  the  '"Akedah";  see  supra,  p.  228.  The  first  benediction  of 
the  Shemoneh  '  Esreh,  as  we  have  already  seen,  refers  to  Abraham ; 
the  second  benediction  refers  to  the  resurrection,  and  therefore  to 
Isaac,  the  first  to  experience  this. 

'  The  dead  son  of  Elijah's  hostess  was  quickened  by  God  at  the 
request  of  the  prophet.  The  first  editions  add  here :  "  For  he  was 
going  from  mountain  to  mountain,  and  from  cave  to  cave."  This  is 
based  on  2  Kings  ii.  i  ff. 

239 

16   " 


240  RABBI  ELIEZER 

to  Zarephath,  and  a  woman  (who  was)  a  widow  received 
him  with  great  honour.^  She  was  the  mother  of  Jonah,'^ 
and  they  were  eating  and  drinking  ^  his  ^  bread  and  oil  ; 
he,  she,  and  her  son,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  she  did  eat,  and 
he  also  "  (1  Kings  xvii.  15).^ 

"  He  and  she  "  (indicate  that  it  was)  by  the  merit  of 

Elijah  that  they  had  to  eat.     After  (a  period  of)  days,  the 

son  of  the  woman  fell  sick  and  died,^   as  it  is  said,  "  And 

it  came  to  pass  after  these  things  that  the  son  of  the  woman 

fell  sick "   {ibid.    17).     The  woman   said   to   him   (Elijah)  : 

Tnou  didst  come  unto  me  ^  for  coition,  and  thou  wilt  bring 

my  sin  to  remembrance  against  me,  and  my  son  is  dead. 

Now  take  away  all  that  which  thou  hast  brought  ^  to  me, 

and  give  me  my  son.     Elijah,  may  he  be  remembered  for 

good,  arose  and  prayed  before   the   Holy  One,  blessed    be 

He,  and  said   before   Him  :    Sovereign   of  all   the  worlds  ! 

T    ■'  not  enough  (to  endure)  all  the  evils  which  have  befallen 

t  also  this  woman ;  for  I  know  ^°  that  out  of  sorrow 

on  has  she  spoken  of  a  matter  which  has  not  occurred, 

le  has  brought  against  me  to  vex  me.^^     Now  let 

generations  learn  ^^  that  there  is  a  resurrection  of  the 

nd  restore  the  soul  of  this  lad  within  him  ;    and  He 

•  giving  him  the  Uttle  she  possessed  and  trusting  in  his  word. 
ina  de  be  EHjahu  Rab.  xviii.  p.  97. 

•e  T.J.  Sukkah  v.  i.  55a;   Gen.   Rab.  xcviii.   11;   and  see  also 
ii.  226. 

.'he   Jalkut,   i   Kings,   §209,  omits  the  words   "and  drinking"; 
.B.  Berakhoth,  35b.     People  did  not  drink  oil,  it  was  eaten  with 
d,  etc. 

■  The  first  editions  read  "  her  "  here. 

^  The  first  editions  add  :  "  Rabbi  Levi  said  :  It  is  written,  '  He  and 

le,'  but  we  read,  '  She  and  he.'  "     The  Massorites  afford  numerous 

examples  of  this  variation  in  the  reading  of  the  written  text.     See 

Berliner,  Midrash  Keri  and    Kethib;   see   also  Cant.   Rab.  ii.  4;   and 

Kimchi  on  i  Kings  xviii.  15;  and  cf.  J.E.  viii.  368. 

*  The  text  does  not  state  that  the  child  died  ;  see  Maimonides, 
Moreh  Nebukhim,  i.  42  ;  Kimchi,  in  loc. ;  cf.  T.B.  Niddah,  yob,  and  T.B. 
Chullin,  7b. 

'The  MS.  and  first  editions  add:  "for  coition."  The  text  reads: 
"  Thou  art  come  unto  me  to  bring  my  sin  to  remembrance  and  to  slay 
my  .son"  (1  Kings  xvii.  18).  The  Midrash  connect.s  nx'a  ("coiHon") 
with  T\«z  {"  thou  art  come")  ;  see  Gesenius  (Oxford  ed.)  p.  q8a. 

*  The  blessing  on  the  meal  and  oil. 

*  Lit.  "  which  have  come  over  my  head." 

1"  Luria  holds  that  the  text  should  read:  "  For  Thou  knowest " ; 
cf.  Jalkut,  loc.  cit. 

"  The  printed  editions  read :  "  to  provoke  me  "  :  cf.  Job  ix.  20. 
'*  From  the  resurrection  of  her  son. 


ELISHA  AND  THE  SHUNAMMITE    241 

was  entreated  of  him,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  Lord  hearkened 
unto  the  voice  of  EHjah  "  {ibid.  22).  Another  Scripture 
text  says,  "  And  Elijah  ||  took  the  child  .  .  .  See,  thy  son 
liveth  "  {ibid.  23).i 

Rabbi  Joshua  ben  Korchah  said  :  Art  thou  astonished 
at  this  ?  -  Do  not  be  astonished,  come  and  see,  (learn) 
from  Elisha,  the  son  of  Shaphat,  for  no  woman  was  able 
to  gaze  at  his  face  without  dying ;  and  he  went  from  mount 
to  mount,  and  from  cave  to  cave,  and  he  went  to  Shimem, 
and  a  great  woman  received  him  with  great  honour.  She 
was  a  sister  of  Abishag,^  the  Shvmammite,  the  mother  ^  of 
Oded,  the  prophet,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  it  fell  on  a  day,  that 
Elisha  passed  to  Shunem  "  (2  Kings  iv.  8),  and  the  woman 
said  to  her  husband  :  This  man  of  God  is  (holy),^  no  woman 
is  able  to  gaze  at  his  face  without  dying ;  but,^  "  Let  us 
make,  I  pray  thee,  a  little  chamber  on  the  wall ;  and  let  us 
set  for  him  there  a  bed,  and  a  table,  and  a  stool,  and  a 
lampstand  "  {ibid.  10).  And  every  time  that  he  passes  he 
can  turn  thither  into  the  chamber,''  as  it  is  said,  "  And  it 
fell  on  a  day,  that  he  came  thither,  and  he  turned  into  the 
chamber  "  {ibid.  11).  And  he  called  for  the  Shunammite, 
as  it  is  said,  "  And  he  said.  Call  her.  And  when  he  had 
called  her,  she  stood  at  the  door  "  {ibid.  15).  Why  did 
she  stand  at  the  door  ?  Because  she  was  imable  to  gaze 
at  his  face,^  so  that  she  should  not  die.     He  said  to  her  : 

^  This  concludes  the  exposition  of  R.  Simeon  on  the  Resurrection 
and  Charity.     The  second  quotation  is  not  given  in  the  printed  texts. 
2  That  charity  causes  the  dead  to  be  quickened. 
^  Abishag  hved  at  the  close  of  David's  reign ;  see  J.E.  i.  66. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  the  wife  of  Iddo."  Iddo  lived  in  the  reign 
of  Jeroboam.  See  Seder 'Olam  Rab.  xx. ;  and  cf.  T.B.  Synhedrin,  89b 
and  104a;  Tanchuma.  Toledoth,  §  xii.  Jalkut,  2  Kings  §  228,  reads: 
"The  mother  of  Iddo  the  prophet."  Luria,  with  fine  judgment,  suggested 
that  Iddo  of  the  printed  texts  should  be  corrected  into  "  Oded,"  the 
prophet  who  lived  in  the  reign  of  Asa.  See  2  Chron.  xv.  8 ;  see  also 
Rashi  on  2  Kings  iv.  8,  where  our  P.R.E.  is  mentioned. 

*  "  Holy"  is  not  in  the  MS.,  but  it  occurs  in  the  first  two  editions. 

*  "  As  it  is  said  "  is  added  by  the  first  editions ;  it  does  not  occur 
in  the  parallel  context  in  Jalkut,  Kings,  loc.  cit.,  which  reads  as  our  MS., 
"  But  '  Let  us  make,'  "  etc. 

'The  first  editions  and  Jalkut,  loc.  cit.,  add:  "  They  built  it,  and 
prepared  and  arranged  it.  After  some  time  ^  he  passed  by  Shunem 
and  turned  in  to  the  chamber." 

*  See  Lev.  Rab.  xxiv.  6,  and  Sepher  Chassidim  (ed.  Fi'ankfort, 
1724),  178. 

1  Lit.  "  days." 
16 


242  RABBI  ELIE^ER 

"  At  this  season,  when  the  time  cometh  round,  thou  shalt 
embrace  a  son  "  {ibid.  16),  the  fruit  of  thy  womb.  She  said 
to  him :  My  lord  is  very  old,  and  the  way  of  women  has 
departed  from  me,  ||  and  it  is  impossible  to  do  this  thing.^ 
"  Nay,  my  lord,  thou  man  of  God,  do  not  lie  unto  thine 
handmaid  "  {ibid.).'^ 

Rabbi  Zechariah  said  :  "  He  will  fulfil  the  desire  of  them 
that  fear  him  "  (Ps.  cxlv.  19).^  The  Holy  One,  blessed  be 
He,  fulfilled  the  desire  of  the  prophet.  She  conceived  and 
bare,  and  the  child  grew.  He  went  forth  to  refresh  ^  him- 
self, and  to  look  at  the  reapers.  A  mishap  overtook  him,^ 
and  he  died,  as  it  is  said,  "  It  fell  on  a  day,  that  he  went 
out  to  his  father  to  the  reapers"  (2  Kings  iv.  18);  this 
restrained  them  (from  work)  until  he  came  (among  them),^ 
and  he  died,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  he  sat  on  her  knees  till 
noon,  and  then  died  "  {ibid.  20). 

The  woman  went  to  Mount  Carmel,  and  fell  on  her  face 
to  the  ground  before  Elisha,  saying  to  him  :  Would  that  my 
vessel  ^  had  remained  empty  !  But  it  was  filled,  and  now 
its  contents  are  spilt.  The  prophet  answered :  Everything 
which  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  doeth.  He  telleth  to 
me,  but  He  has  hidden  this  matter,  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
when  she  came  to  the  man  of  God  ^  .  .  .  and  Gehazi  came 
near  to  thrust  her  away  "  ^  {ibid.  27).  What  is  the  meaning 
of  "  to  thrust  her  away  "  ?  To  teach  us  that  he  put  his  hand 
upon  (her)  pride,  which  was  upon  her  breasts, ^°  as  it  is  said, 
"  And  the  man  of  God  said.  Let  her  alone  ^^  .  .  .  and  the 
Lord  hath  hid  it  from  me,  and  hath  not  told  me  "  {ibid.), 

1  Luria's  reads:  "  This  thing  cannot  possibly  be." 
^  See  Kimchi,  in  loc,  who  uses  the  same  words  as  our  author,  based 
on  the  quotation  in  our  context  in  connection  with  Ps.  cxlv.  19. 
3  Cf.  T.B.  MegiUah,  27a. 

*  See'Arukh.  ed.  Kohut  vi.  p.  288b,  s.v.  3D ;  cf.  Lam.  ii.  18. 

*  See  T.J.  Jebamoth  xv.  2,  i4d. 

*  The  phrase,  "  this  restrained  them  until  he  came,"  is  in  Aramaic 
and  occurs  only  in  our  MS.  Its  meaning  is  doubtful.  Is  it  an  old 
Targum  ? 

'  See  2  Kings  iv.  3  ;  'Sd  (vessel;  is  used  euphemistically  here,  mean- 
ing "  womb." 

*  In  our  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here. 

*  The  Midrash  here  has  a  play  on  the  word  "  lehadphah,"  inter- 
preting it  as  though  it  were  "  lehod  japhjah,"  "  the  glory  of  her  beauty," 
i.e.  the  breasts;  see  T.B.  Berakhoth,  lob,  and  T.J.  Jebamoth  ii.  4.  3d. 

'^  See  Lev.  Rab.,  loc.  cit. 

"  The  rest  of  the  verse  given  by  our  MS.  is  omitted  in  the  printed 
editions. 


ELISHA  AND  THE  SHUNAMMITE     243 

He  took  the  staff  which  was  in  his  hand,  and  gave  it  to 
Gehazi,  saying  to  him  :  Do  not  speak  with  thy  mouth  any 
word  at  all ;  know  that  ^  thou  goest  and  placest  the  staff 
upon  the  face  of  the  lad,  that  he  may  live. 

Now  as  for  Gehazi,  the  matter  was  laughable  in  his 
eyes,-  and  to  every  man  whom  he  met  ||  he  said  :  Dost  thou 
believe  that  this  staff  will  bring  the  dead  to  life  ?  Therefore 
he  did  not  succeed  ^  until  (Elisha)  went  on  foot  and  put  his 
face  ^  upon  the  face  (of  the  child),  and  his  eyes  upon  his 
eyes,  and  his  hands  upon  his  hands,  and  he  began  to  pray 
before  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He :  Sovereign  of  all  the 
worlds  !  Just  as  Thou  didst  perform  miracles  by  the  hand 
of  Elijah,  my  master,  and  brought  the  dead  to  life,  likewise 
let  this  child  live ;  and  He  was  entreated  of  him,  as  it  is 
said,  "  Then  he  returned,  and  walked  in  the  house  once 
to  and  fro ;  and  went  up,  and  stretched  himself  upon 
him"  (ibid.  35);  "and  the  child  sneezed  seven  times" 
{ibid.). 

Rabbi  Azariah  ^  said  :  Know  thou  the  efficacy  of  charity.^ 
Come  and  see  from  the  instance  of  Shallum,'  son  of  Tikvah, 
who  was  one  of  the  important  men  of  his  generation,  giving 
charity  every  day.  What  did  he  do  ?  He  filled  the  bottle 
with  water,  and  sat  at  the  entrance  of  the  city,  and  he  would 
give  water  to  every  person  who  came  on  the  way,  restor- 
ing his  soul  to  him.^  On  account  of  the  charity  which 
he   did,   the   Holy  Spirit  rested   upon   his  wife,^   as  it    is 

1  The  first  editions  read  here  "  whilst  "  and  omit  "  know  that." 

2  Lit.  "  before  him."     On  Gehazi  see  J.E.  v.  580  f. 

^  His  want  of  faith  led  to  his  failure  to  restore  the  child.  Moreover, 
he  did  not  beUeve  that  he  was  dead,  because  he  told  Elisha  "  the 
lad  is  not  awaked  "  (2  Kings  iv.  31). 

*  Jalkut,  loc.  cit.,  reads :  "  His  mouth  "  ;  this  agrees  with  the  text  in 
2  Kings  iv.  34.  Perhaps  Luria's  suggestion  that  the  reading  should 
be :  "  his  face  .  .  .  and  his  hands  "  is  correct.  John  of  Damascus, 
op.  cit.  iv.  34,  refers  to  the  virginity  of  Elisha  ;  this  idea  occurs  also  in 
Ambrose  and  other  Christian  writers.  See  also  Clement.  "  Two  Epistles 
concernina,'  Virginity,"  xiv.  (A.N.C.L.  xiv.  p.  393). 

*  The  Prague  edition  reads :  "  Rabbi  Zechariah  "  ;  this  is  also  Brode's 
reading, 

*  To  cause  the  dead  to  be  quickened. 

'  See  Siphre,  Num.  §  78,  and  J.E.  xi.  227. 

^  To  feed  the  hungry  is  to  restore  his  soul  ;   cf.  Lam.  i.  11. 

9  As  to  whether  it  also  re.sted  on  him  see  J.E. ,  loc.  cit.,  andcf.  Jalkut, 
loc.  cit.,  which  reads  "  upon  him  "  ;  see  T.B.  Megillah,  14b,  and  Kimchi 
on  2  Kings  xxii.  14,  who  quotes  the  entire  passage  from  our  P.R.E.  ; 
he  does  not,  however,  read  "  upon  him."     The  reason  why  the  Holy 


244  RABBI  ELIEZER 

said,i  "  So  Hilkiah  the  priest  .  .  .  went  unto  Huldah  the 
prophetess,  the  wife  of  Shalhim,  the  son  of  Tikvah  "  (ibid. 
xxii.  14).  Originally  his  name  was  "  the  son  of  Sachrah  "  ;  - 
just  as  thou  dost  say,  "  Merchandise  is  better^  than  the  cir- 
culation of  money  "  (Prov.  iii.  14).  One  Scripture  text  ||  says, 
"The  son  of  Sachrah."^  When  her  husband  died,  the 
charitable  deeds  of  her  husband  ceased,^  and  all  Israel  went 
forth  to  show  loving-kindness  to  Shallum,  son  of  Tikvah. 
But  they  spied  the  band,^  and  they  cast  the  man  into  the 
sepulchre  of  Elisha,'  and  he  came  to  life,  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
as  soon  as  the  man  touched  the  bones  of  Elisha,  he  revived  " 
(2Kingsxiii.  21);  and  afterwards  he  begat  Chanameel,^  as  it 
is  said,  "  Behold,  Chanameel  the  son  of  Shallum  thine  uncle 
shall  come  unto  thee  "  (Jer.  xxxii.  7). 

Rabbi  Eliezer  ^  said  :  Know  thou  the  power  of  charity.^" 
Come  and  see  from  (the  instance  of)  Saul,  the  son  of  Kish, 
who  removed  the  witches  and  the  necromancers  from  off 
the  earth,  and  once  again  he  loved  that  which  he  had  hated.^^ 
He  went  to  En  Dor,  to  the  wife  ^'^  of  Zephaniah,  the  mother 
of  Abner,  and  he  inquired  of  her  for  himself  by  the  familiar 
spirit,  and  she  brought  for  him  Samuel  the  prophet,  and 

Spirit  rested  upon  Huldah  is  probably  suggested  by  the  special  manner 
of  her  husband's  charity  in  pouring  out  water  for  the  thirsty  ;  cf . 
Isa.  xliv.  3,  and  Joel  ii.  28. 

1  Insert  idkjb'. 

2  See  I  Chron.  xxxiv.  22  :  "  the  son  of  Hasrah,"  i.e.  "  CAasrah  " — 
this  becomes  "  SacArah  "  by  interchanging  the  first  two  letters  of 
the  name,  just  as  the  Massorites  have  done  with  the  name  "  Tikvah  " 
in  this  verse.  "  Sachrah  "  means  "  merchandise."  See  also  2  Kings 
xxii.  14. 

'  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here ;  it  is  continued  in  the  Venice 
edition. 

*  This  quotation  is  unknown  to  me  ;  see,  however,  previous  note  (-). 

*  The  Hebrew  word  for  ceased  is  "  Chasrah."  The  Jalkut,  in  loc, 
reads:  "The  charity  of  her  husband  failed  that  righteous  woman  "  ; 
cf.  T.B.  Synhedrin,  47a,  and  T.B.  ChuUin,  loc.  cit. 

^  The  first  editions  add  :    "  that  was  coming  against  them." 
'  Cf.  Ecclus.  xlviii.  13. 

*  See  J .E.  vi.  p.  203,  s.v.  Hanameel,  son  of  Shallum  and  Huldah. 
'  The  first  editions  read :  "  Chananiah  ben  Teradion." 

'"  The  text  here  is  probably  corrupt.  Instead  of  reading,  "  the 
power  of  charity,"  we  should  perhaps  read,  "  the  power  of  righteous 
people."  Luria  thinks  that  the  whole  phrase  is  out  of  place.  The 
narrative  fits  in  better  at  the  end  of  Chapter  XXXI. 

1'  See  Targum  on  i  Sam.  xxviii.  7  ff. ;  Lev.  Rab.  xxvi.  7;  Midrash 
Samuel  xxiv. 

'^  Kimchi,  on  i  Sam.  xxviii.  7,  reads :  "to  a  woman  who  had  a  familiar 
spirit,  Zephaniah."  See  also  Midrash  Samuel,  loc.  cit.,  and  Lev.  Rab., 
loc.  cit. 


ELISHA  AND  THE  SHUNAMMITE     245 

the  dead  saw  Samuel  ascending,  and  they  ascended  with 
him,i  thinking  that  the  resurrection  of  the  dead  had  come,^ 
and  the  woman  beheld,  and  she  became  very  much  confused, 
as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  king  said  unto  her,  Be  not  afraid  : 
for  what  seest  thou?"  (1  Sam.  xxviii.  13).^  Some  say: 
Many  righteous  men  like  (Samuel)  came  up  with  him  in 
that  hour.* 

Rabbi  Eliezer  said  :  All  the  dead  will  arise  at  the 
resurrection  of  the  dead,  dressed  in  their  shrouds.^  Know 
thou  that  this  is  the  case.  Come  and  see  from  (the 
analogy  of)  the  one  who  plants  (seed)  in  the  earth.  He 
plants  naked  ^  (seeds)  ||  and  they  arise  covered  with  many 
coverings ;  and  the  people  who  descend  into  the  earth 
dressed  (with  their  garments),  will  they  not  rise  up  dressed 
(with  their  garments)  ?  ^  Not  only  this,  but  come  and  see 
from  Chananiah,  Mishael,  and  Azariah,  who  went  down  into 
the  fiery  furnace  dressed  in  their  garments,^  as  it  is  said,® 
"  And  the  satraps  .  .  .  being  gathered  together,  saw  these 
men,  that  the  fire  had  no  power  upon  their  bodies  .  .  . 
neither  were  their  hosen  changed  "  (Dan.  iii.  27).  Learn  ^" 
from  Samuel,  the  prophet,  who  came  up  clothed  with  his 

*  See  T.B.  Chagigah,  4b,  and  cf.  Ascension  of  Isaiah  ix.  17. 

^  Jalkut,  ii.  §  140,  adds  that  Samuel  brought  Moses  with  him.  Think- 
ing it  was  the  great  Day  of  the  Last  Judgment,  Moses  would  testify 
on  behalf  of  Samuel  ;  see  Midrash  Samuel,  loc.  cit. 

^  "  For  what  dost  thou  see  ?  "  is  added  by  Luria. 

*  Perhaps  this  sentence  is  a  gloss  added  by  some  copyist,  taken 
from  Midrash  Samuel  or  Lev.  Rab.,  loc.  cit. 

^  The  first  editions  read  :  "  and  they  will  ascend  in  their  garments. 
From  what  dost  thou  learn  this  ?  "  Luria  reads  :  "  When  all  the 
dead  arise,"  etc.  On  the  analogy  employed  by  our  author,  see 
I  Cor.  XV.  36  ff.,  where  the  same  thought  occurs,  and  cf.  T.B. 
Kethuboth,  iiib;  T.B.  Synhedrin,  96D ;  and  Jalkut,  loc.  cit.,  which 
reads  :  "  clothed  in  their  shrouds." 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  From  the  seed  in  the  earth,  by  an 
inference  a  minori  ad  majus  with  reference  to  wheat.  What  happens 
to  the  (seed  of)  wheat  ?  It  is  buried  in  a  naked  condition  and  it  comes 
forth." 

'  The  first  editions  read  :  "  how  much  more  so  will  this  apply 
to  the  righteous  who  were  buried  with  their  garments."  See  i  Cor. 
XV.  42  ff.  for  a  similar  discussion.  See  Gen.  Rab.  xcvi.  6  ;  T.B. 
Sabbath,  114a;  Semachoth  ix.  on  the  question  as  to  whether  the 
garments  used  at  the  burial  will  be  the  garments  of  the  resurrection. 

*  The  first  editions  add  :  "  and  they  came  out  in  their  garments, 
as  it  is  said,  '  Nor  was  the  hair  of  their  head  singed  '  "  (Dan.  iii.  27). 

*  See  T.B.  Synhedrin,  92b  ;    and  Sepher  Chassidim,  §  11 29. 

^°  The  first  editions  read  :    "  And  again,  from  whom  canst  thou 
learn  this." 


246  RABBI  EIJEZER 

robe,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  she  said,  An  old  man  cometh  up ; 
and  he  is  covered  with  a  robe  "  (1  Sam.  xxviii.  14). 

Rabbi  Jochanan  ^  said  :  All  the  prophets  prophesied 
in  their  lifetime,  and  Samuel  prophesied  in  his  lifetime, 
and  after  his  death,  because  Samuel  said  to  Saul  :  If  thou 
wilt  hearken  to  my  advice  to  fall  by  the  sword,  then 
shall  thy  death  be  an  atonement  for  thee,^  and  thy 
lot  ^  shall  be  with  me  in  the  place  where  I  abide.''  Saul 
barkened  to  his  advice,  and  fell  by  the  sword,  he  and  all 
his  sons,"*  as  it  is  said,  "  So  Saul  died,  and  his  three 
sons  "  {ibid.  xxxi.  6).  Why  ?  So  that  his  portion  might 
be  with  Samuel  the  prophet  in  the  future  life,  as  it  is 
said,  "  And  to  morrow  shalt  thou  and  thy  sons  be  with 
me  "  {ibid,  xxviii.  19).  What  is  the  meaning  of  "  Avith 
me  "  ?  Rabbi  Jochanan  said  :  With  me  in  mv  division  in 
heaven.^ 

Hillel,  the  Elder,  said  :  Samuel  spake  to  Saul,  saying,  Was 
it  not  enough  for  thee  that  thou  didst  not  hearken  ||  unto 
His  voice,  neither  didst  thou  execute  His  fierce  anger  upon 
Amalek, '  but  thou  dost  also  inquire  ^  through  one  possessed 
of  a  familiar  spirit,^  and  thou  seekest  (to  know  the  future). 
Woe  is  the  shepherd,  and  woe  is  his  flock !  For  on  thy 
account  has  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  given  Israel  thy 
people  into  the  hands  of  the  Philistines,  as  it  is  said,  "  More- 
over, the  Lord  will  deliver  Israel  also  with  thee  into  the  hand 
of  the  Philistines  "  {ibid.). 

*  The  first  editions  read  :    "  Nathan." 

*  Death  as  an  atonement  is  discussed  by  Schechter,  Aspects, 
pp.  304,  307  f.     See  also  T.B.  Synhedrin,  44b,  on  this  theme. 

^  See  Dan.  xii.  13  for  a  parallel  expression. 

*  See  Midrash  Samuel,  loc.  cit.  ;  and  compare  the  words  which  are 
said  to  have  been  spoken  by  the  Founder  of  Christianity  to  the  penitent 
thief,  Luke  xxiii.  43. 

*  The  text  quoted  in  support  of  this  continues  :  "  and  his 
armour-bearer,  and  all  his  men."  In  i  Chron.  x.  6  the  reading  is  : 
"  So  Saul  died,  and  his  three  sons  ;  and  all  his  house  died 
together."  The  Targum  to  this  passage  renders  "  his  house  "  by 
"  the  men  of  his  house."  The  first  editions  read  :  "  he  and  all  his 
house." 

*  See  Lev.  Rab.,  loc.  cit.,  and  T.B.  Berakhoth,  12b,  which  is 
probably  the  source  of  the  Midrash,  and  cf.  Midra'-li  Samud    x. 

'  See  infra,  ]>.  3S8. 

*  Lit.  "  to  inquire  through  one  possessed  of  a  familiar  spirit  and 
to  seek."  The  first  editions  read  :  "  Thou  art  come  to  inquire  for 
thyself  through  one  possessed  of  a  familiar  spirit." 

*  See  Gesenius  (Oxford  edition),  s.v.  3iw. 


ELISHA  AND  THE  SHUNAMMITE     247 

Rabbi  Tachanah  ^  said :  Israel  was  exiled  ^  to  Babylon, 
and  did  not  forsake  their  evil  deeds.  Ahab,  son  of  Kolaiah, 
and  Zedekiah,  son  of  Maaseiah,^  became  lying  healers,'* 
and  they  healed  the  wives  of  the  Chaldeans,  and  came  unto 
them  for  coition.^  The  king  heard  thereof,  and  commanded 
that  they  should  be  burnt.  They  both  said  :  Let  us  say 
that  Joshua,  the  son  of  Jehozadak,  was  with  us,  and  he  will 
save  ^  us  from  the  burning  with  fire.  They  said  to  him :  O 
our  lord,  O  king,  this  man  was  with  us  in  every  matter. 
The  king  commanded  that  the  three  should  be  burnt  by  fire. 
And  the  angel  Michael  ^  descended  and  saved  Joshua  from 
the  fiery  flames,  and  brought  him  up  before  the  throne  of 
glory,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  he  shewed  me  Joshua,^  the 
high  priest"  (Zech.  iii.  1);  and  the  other  two  were  burnt 
by  fire,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  of  them  shall  be  taken  up 
a  curse.  .  .  .  The  Lord  make  thee  like  Zedekiah  and  like 
Ahab,  whom  the  king  of  Babylon  roasted  in  the  fire " 
(Jer.  xxix.  22).  It  is  not  written  here  "  whom  the  king 
of  Babylon  burnt  with  fire,"  but  "  whom  he  roasted,"  ^ 
hence  we  learn  ||  that  his  ^°  hairs  were  singed  on  account 
of  their  sins,  as  it  is  said,  "  In  the  pride  of  the  wicked 
the  poor  is  hotly  pursued  "  (Ps.  x.  2).  Whence  do  we 
know  that  he  was  delivered  ?  Because  it  is  said,  "  And 
the  Lord  said  unto  Satan,  The  Lord  rebuke  thee,  O 
Satan.  ...  Is  not  this  a  brand  plucked  out  of  the  fire  ?  " 
(Zech.  iii.  2). 

Rabbi  Jehudah  said  :  When  Nebuchadnezzar  brought  a 

1  The  first  editions  read  "  Jochanan."  This  is  also  the  reading  in 
the  Jalkut  Makhiri  on  Zech.  iii.  i,  p.  35  (ed.  Greenup). 

^  The  first  editions  read  "  went  up."  This  story  is  one  of  the 
versions  of  the  Susanna  narrative  ;  see  BriiU's  Jahrhucher,  iii.  pp.  8  fi'., 
where  Origen  is  quoted,  who  knew  the  story  and  refers  to  Zedekiah 
and  Ahab. 

^  See  Jer.  xxix.  21,  23. 

*  See  T.B.  Synhedrin,  93a  ;  Tanchuma,  Vajikra,  §  vi.  The  incident 
may  be  based  on  Job  xiii.  4.     Cf.  Ezek.  xiii.  6,  and  xxii.  28. 

^  See  also  Jalkut  ii.  §  309  ;  Pesikta  de  R.  Kahana  xxv.  pp.  164b. 

*  See  T.B.  Chulhn,  7a.  The  first  editions  read  :  "  Let  Joshua, 
the  son  of  Jehozadak,  a  righteous  man,  come  with  us  and  we  shall 
be  saved  through  his  merit." 

'  Cf.  Zohar,  Gen.  104a. 

*  The  MS.  reads  "  Jehozadak  "  ;  the  verse  is  correctly  quoted  in 
the  first  editions. 

*  Jalkut  Makhiri,  Zech.,  loc.  cii.,  adds  :  "  like  these  ears  of  corn  he 
roasted  them."     Is  this  part  of  the  original  text  ? 

1"  i.e.  Joshua's. 


248  RABBI  ELIEZER 

false  accusation  ^  against  Israel  to  slay  them,  he  set  up  an 
idol  in  the  plain  of  Dura,  and  caused  a  herald  to  proclaim  : 
Any  one  who  docs  not  bow  down  to  this  idol  shall  be  burnt 
by  fire.     Israel  did  not  trust  in  the  shadow  -  of  their  Creator, 
and  came  with  their  wives  and  sons  and  bowed  down  to 
the  idolatrous  image  ^ — except  Daniel,  whom  they  called  by 
the  name  of  their  God,*  and  it  would  have  been  a  disgrace 
to  them  to  burn  him  ^  in  fire,  as  it  is  said,  "  But  at  the  last 
Daniel  came  in  before  me  "  ^  (Dan.  iv.  8).     And  they  took 
Chananiah,  Mishael,  and  Azariah,  and  put  them  into  the 
fiery  furnace,  and  the  angel  Gabriel  ^  descended  and  saved 
them  from  the  fiery   furnace.^     The   king  said  to  them  :  ^ 
Ye  knew  that  ye  had  a  God  who  saves  and  delivers ;  why 
have  ye  forsaken   your   God   and   worshipped   idols   which 
have  no  power  to  deliver  ?     But  just  as  ye  did  in  your  own 
land  and  destroyed  it,  so  do  ye  attempt  to  do  in  this  land, 
(namely)  to  destroy  it.     The  king  commanded,  ||  and  they 
slew  all  of  them.     Whence  do  we  know  that  they  were  all 
slain  by  the  sword  ?     Because  it   is  said,   "  Then  said  he 
unto  me.  Prophesy  .  .  .  O  breath,  and  breathe  upon  these 
slain,  that  they  may  live  "  (Ezek.  xxxvii.  9).^" 

Rabbi  Phineas  said  :    After  twenty  years,   when  all  of 
them  had  been  slain  in  Babylon,^^  the  Holy  Spirit  rested  upon 

*  Lit.  "  wantonness  of  words  "  ;  baseless  charges.    Cf.  Deut.  xxii.  14. 

17- 

^  See  supra,  p.  62,  for  this  expression. 

^  See  T.B.  Megillah,  12a  ;  Cant.  Rab.  vii.  6.  The  image  is  discussed 
in  T.B.  Berakhoth,  58b. 

*  See  Luria's  reading.  Daniel  was  called  Belteshazzar.  "  Bel  " 
is,  of  course,  a  name  of  a  Babylonian  image  or  god. 

^  i.e.  Daniel. 

*  The  verse  continues  :  "  whose  name  was  Belteshazzar,  according 
to  the  name  of  my  God." 

'  In  Jalkut,  on  Ezek.  xxxvii.  §  375,  the  reading  is  Michael  ;  see  Gen. 
Rab.  xhv.  13.  Our  reading  agrees  with  T.B.  Pesachim,  ii8a  ;  Pesikta 
Rabbathi,  p.  i6ob  ;  Ex.  Rab.  xviii.  5  ;  and  see  Jalkut  on  Dan.,  in  loc, 
and  T.B.  Synhedrin,  95b.  It  is  noteworthy  that  Daniel  is  not  men- 
tioned here  ;   he  was  therefore  not  cast  into  the  fiirnace. 

*  See  Rabbinic  Philosophy  and  Ethics,  p.  55,  note  1. 

*  The  Hebrews  who  had  worshipped  his  image. 

"  See  Tanna  de  be  Elijahu  Rab.  v.  p.  24,  and  J.E.  ix.  202  f. 

"  See  T.B.  Synhedrin,  92b,  and  Tanchuma,  Noah,  §  x. :  "On  the  day 
when  the  three  companions  were  delivered  Ezekiel  quickened  the  dead 
in  the  valley  of  Dura."  See  Pal.  Targum,  Ex.  xiii.  17,  on  the  sons  of 
Ephraim,  who  were  slain  for  attempting  to  leave  Egypt  before  the 
appointed  time.  See  also  Shibbole  Ha-Leket,  219.  According  to  one 
authority  in  T.B.  Synhedrin,  loc.  cit.,  "  the  whole  incident  was  indeed  a 
parable." 


ELISHA  AND  THE  SHUNAMMITE     249 

Ezekiel,  and  brought  him  forth  into  the  plain  of  Dura,  and 
called  unto  him  very  dry  bones,  and  said  to  him  :  Son  of 
Man  !  What  dost  thou  see  ?  He  answered :  I  see  here 
dry  bones.  (The  Spirit)  said  to  him :  Have  I  power  to 
revive  them  ?  The  prophet  did  not  say  :  i  Sovereign  of 
all  the  worlds  !  Thou  hast  power  to  do  even  more  than 
(this)  here ;  but  he  said  :  "  O  Lord  God,  thou  knowest " 
{ibid.  3),  as  though  he  did  not  believe ;  ^  therefore  his  own 
bones  were  not  buried  in  a  pure  land,^  but  in  an  unclean 
land,  as  it  is  said,  "And  thou  shalt  die  in  a  land  that  is 
unclean  "  (Amos  vii.  17).''  "  Prophesy  over  these  bones  " 
(Ezek.  xxxvii.  4).  He  said  before  Him  :  Sovereign  of  all  the 
worlds  !  What !  will  the  prophecy  bring  upon  them  flesh 
and  sinews  and  bones  ?  ^  Or  will  the  prophecy  bring  upon 
them  all  the  flesh  and  bones  which  cattle,  beast,  and  bird 
have  eaten,  and  they  (also)  have  died  in  the  land  ?  ^  Im- 
mediately the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  caused  His  voice 
to  be  heard,  and  the  earth  shook,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  as  I 
prophesied  there  was  a  thundering,  and  behold  an  earth- 
quake "  {ibid.  7),  II  and  every  animal,  beast,  and  bird  which 
had  eaten  thereof  and  died  in  another  land  ^  the  earth 
brought  together,  "  bone  to  his  bone  "  {ibid.y 

Rabbi  Joshua  ben  Korchah  said :  There  came  down 
upon  them  the  quickening  dew  ^   from  heaven,  which   was 

*  The  first  editions  omit  the  negative.  The  later  editions  {e.g. 
Amsterdam  and  Prague)  read  :    "  he  should  have  said." 

2  See  Gen.  Rab.  xix.  ii  ;  Zohar,  Num.  200a  ;  Jalkut,  Kings,  §  244. 

*  i.e.  the  land  of  Israel. 

■•This  quotation  from  Amos  is  very  strange,  inasmuch  as  it  is 
applied  to  Ezekiel  as  a  prophecy  concerning  his  burial.  Moreover, 
the  prophet  refers  to  death,  which  might  be  quite  distinct  from  the 
burial  of  the  prophet.  See  Tanna  de  be  Elijahu  Rab.,  loc.  cit.,  and  cf. 
/.£■.  V.  315  f.,  for  further  parallels  to  this  story. 

^  Read  here  "  skin,"  as  in  the  text  of  Ezek.  xxxvii.  8. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  in  another  land."  This  is  probably 
the  correct  reading,  as  it  occurs  again  in  this  section,  and,  therefore, 
what  was  missing  would  have  to  be  miraculously  restored  by  God. 
The  prophet  had  his  doubts  as  to  whether  this  would  or  could  be 
accomplished.  Interesting  parallels  to  this  discussion  are  to  be  found 
in  the  writings  of  the  Church  Fathers ;  see  Athenagoras,  "  Resurrection 
of  the  Dead,"  ch.  iv.,  and  Tertullian,  mentioned  infra,  p.  251,  note. 

^  The  words  from  "  every  animal  "  till  "  another  land  "  occur  only 
in  our  MS. 

8  See  Jalkut,  Ezek.  §  375:  "He  caused  His  voice  to  be  heard 
from  between  the  two  Cherubim  "  ;  see  supra,  p.  228,  and  cf.  Ps. 
xcix.  I. 

*  See  infra,  p.  260. 


250  RABBI  ELIEZER 

like  a  fountain/  which  was  bubbling  and  bringing  forth 
water;  so  likewise  (the  bones)  were  moving  and  bringing 
forth  upon  themselves  flesh,  (other)  bones  ^  and  sinews,  as 
it  is  said,  "  And  I  beheld,  and  lo,  there  were  sinews  upon 
them,  and  flesh  came  up,  and  skin  covered  them  above  " 
{ibid.  8).  He  said  to  him  :  Prophesy  imto  the  wind,  as  it 
is  said,  "  Then  said  he  unto  me.  Prophesy  unto  ^  the  wind. 
.  .  .  Come  from  the  four  winds,  O  breath,  and  breathe 
upon  these  slain,  that  they  may  live  "  {ibid.  9).  In  that 
hour  the  four  winds  of  the  heaven  went  forth,  and  opened 
the  treasure-house  of  the  souls,  and  each  spirit  returned  to 
the  body  of  flesh  of  man,  as  it  is  said,  "  So  I  prophesied 
as  he  commanded  me,  and  the  breath  came  into  them,  and 
they  lived,  ...  an  exceeding  great  army"  {ibid.  10);  and  it 
is  written  about  Egypt,  "  And  the  children  of  Israel  were 
fruitful,  .  .  .  and  waxed  exceeding  mighty "  (Ex.  i.  7). 
What  is  the  meaning  of  "  exceeding  "  ?  Just  as  in  the  latter 
case  there  were  600,000  (men),  so  in  the  former  case  there 
were  600,000  (men),  and  they  all  stood  upon  their  feet  except 
one  man.  The  prophet  said  :  Sovereign  of  all  the  worlds  ! 
What  is  the  nature  of  this  man  ?  He  answered  him  :  He 
gave  out  money  for  usury,*  and  he  took  with  interest.  ||  As 
I  live,  he  shall  not  live.  In  that  hour  the  Israelites  were 
sitting  and  weeping,  and  saying  :  We  hoped  for  light,  and 
darkness  came.  We  hoped  to  stand  up  with  all  Israel  at 
the  resurrection  of  the  dead,  and  now  "  our  hope  is  lost  " 
(Ezek.  xxxvii.  11).  We  hoped  to  arise  so  as  to  be  gathered 
with  all  Israel,  and  now  "  we  are  clean  cut  off  "  {ibid.).  In 
that  hour  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  said  to  the  prophet : 
Therefore,  say  to  them.  As  I  live,  I  will  cause  you  to  stand 
at  the  resurrection  of  the  dead  in  the  future  that  is  to 
come,  and  I  will  gather  you  with  all  Israel  ^  to  the  land,  as 

*  This  is  also  the  reading  in  Jalkut.  Ezekiel,  loc.  cit. 

-Instead  of  "bones"  we  should  probably  read  "skin";  see 
supra,  p.  240,  note  5. 

3  The  MS.  reads  incorrectly  "  against." 

*  See  Jalkut  on  Ezekiel,  loc.  cit.,  which  reads  :  "  And  he  took  usury 
and  he  shall  not  Uve  (eternally)."  This  is  based  on  Ezek.  xviii.  S. 
See  Ex.  Rab.  xxxi.  3,  and  see  Tosaphoth  T.B.  Baba  Mezi'a,  yob,  catch- 
word, "Thou  mayest  lend";  cf.  Pal.  Targum.  i;x.  xiii.  17.  See  also 
Tosaphoth  Sotali,  5a. 

*  The  Venice  edition  reads  here  :  "  for  the  ingathering  of  the 
exiles  to  the  land  of  Israel."  On  the  vision  in  Ezek.  xxxvii.  see  Cant. 
Rab.    vii.    9.      Maimonides,    Moreh    Nebukhim,    ii.   4G,    regarded    the 


ELTSHA  AND  THE  SHUNAMMITE     251 

it  is  said,  "  Behold,  I  will  open  your  graves,  and  cause  you 
to  come  up  out  of  your  graves  .  .  .  and  I  will  bring  you 
into  the  land  of  Israel.  .  .  .  And  I  will  put  my  spirit  in 
you,  and  ye  shall  live"  {ibid.  12,  14). 

"resurrection"  as  a  prophetic  vision;  see  T.B.  Synhedrin,  /or.  cit., 
for  the  Talmudic  account.  The  doubt  of  Ezekiel  is  noted  by  Tertulhan, 
On  the  Resurrection  of  the  Flesh,  xxx.  In  this  passage  the  Church 
Father  interprets  the  vision  in  a  Uteral  sense,  rejecting  the  allegorical 
meaning  which  was  given  to  the  vision  in  his  day.  Justin  Martyr 
[First  Apology,  Hi.)  refers  to  this  prophecy  as  pointing  to  the 
resurrection  to  be  brought  about  by  the  Christian  Messiah  at  his 
second  coming  ;  his  words  are  :  "  By  Ezekiel  the  prophet  it  was  said  : 
'  Joint  shall  be  joined  to  joint,  and  bone  to  bone,  and  flesh  shall 
grow  again  ;  and  every  knee  shall  bow  to  the  Lord,  and  every  tongue 
shall  confess  Him  '  "  (Ezek.  xxxvii.  7,  8,  and  Isa.  xlv.  23).  This  may 
serve  as  a  fair  illustration  of  the  method  of  quoting  the  Hebrew 
Scriptures  by  the  Church  Fathers. 


CHAPTER  XXXIV 

THE  RESURRECTION  OF  THE  DEAD  [43b.  ii.] 

"  See  now  that  I,  even  I,  am  he,^  and  there  is  no  God 
with  me  "  (Deut.  xxxii.  39).  Only  the  Holy  One,  blessed 
be  He,  said :  "  /  am  "  in  this  world,  and  "  /  am  "  in  the 
world  to  come ;  /  am,  the  one  who  redeemed  Israel  from 
Egypt,  and  I  am  the  one  who,  in  the  future,  will  redeem 
them  at  the  end  of  the  fourth  kingdom ;  therefore  it  is  said, 
"  I,  even  I,  am  he,  and  there  is  no  God  with  me  "  {ibid.). 
Every  nation  who  say  that  there  is  a  second  God,  I  will 
slay  them  as  with  a  second  death  ^  ||  which  has  no  resurrection ; 
and  every  nation  who  say  that  there  is  no  second  God,  I 
^vill  quicken  them  for  the  eternal  life.  And  in  the  future  I 
will  slay  those  (first  mentioned)  and  quicken  these,  therefore 
it  is  said,  "  I  kill,  and  I  make  alive  "  (ibid.).  I  have 
wounded  ^  Jerusalem  and  her  people  on  the  day  of  My  anger, 
and  in  great  mercy  *  I  will  heal  them,''  therefore  it  is  said, 
"  I  have  wounded,  and  I  will  heal "  {ibid.).  Neither  any  angel 
nor  any  seraph  ^  will  deliver  the  wicked  from  the  judgment 
of  Gehinnom,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  there  is  none  that  can 
deliver  out  of  my  hand  "  {ibid.). 

Rabbi  Jochanan  ^  said  :    All  the  dead  will  arise  at  the 

1  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here,  in  the  first  editions  the  verse 
is  continued  and  the  first  editions  add  :  "  What  purpose  has  the  text  in 
saying  twice  '  I,  even  I '  ?  "  See  Pal.  Targum,  h:  loc,  and  Othijoth  de  R. 
"Akiba  (B.H.M.  iii.  p.  i"),  letter  n  :  "  I  was  before  the  world,  and  I  am 
after  the  world."  See  also T.B.  Berakhoth,  9b,  Jalkut,  Diut.  §  041',.  and 
cf.  Methodius,  "  On  the  Resurrection,"  v.  (A.N.C.L.  xiv.  p.  141). 

2  This  is  based  on  Dan.  xiii.  2.  Cf.  Rev.  xx.  (>,  14,  xxi.  8,  and  see 
Midrash  Tannaim,  ed.  Hoffmann,  p.  202,  and  Siphre,  Deut.  §  329. 

3  God  destroyed  Jerusalem,  and  He  will  rebuild  it;  cf.  Lam.  i.  17. 
*  Cf.  Isa.  liv.  7,  II  f.,  and  Jer.  xxxiii.  6.  q. 

^  See  Isa.  xxx.  26,  and  cf.  Shochcr  Tob,  Ps.  cxlvii.  (end). 
«  "  '  I,  even  I,'  says  God,  '  I  will  deliver  them,  I  alone."  " 
^  The  first  editions  read  "  Jonathan." 

3$3 


RESURRECTION  OF  THE  DEAD     253 

resurrection  of  the  dead,  except  the  generation  of  the  Flood,^ 
as  it  is  said,  "  The  dead  shall  not  live,  the  deceased  (Re- 
phaim)  -  shall  not  rise  "  (Isa.  xxvi.  14).  "  The  dead  (who) 
shall  not  live  "  refer  to  the  heathens,  who  are  like  the  carcase  of 
cattle ;  ^  they  shall  arise  for  the  day  of  judgment,^  yet  they 
shall  not  live ;  but  the  men  of  the  generation  of  the  Flood, 
even  for  the  day  of  judgment  they  shall  not  arise,  as  it  is 
said,  "  The  Rephaim  shall  not  rise  "  (ibid.).  All  their  souls 
become  winds,^  accursed,  injuring  ^  the  sons  of  men,  and 
in  the  future  world  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  will  destroy 
them  out  of  the  world,  so  that  they  should  not  do  harm  to  a 
single  Israelite,  as  it  is  said,  "  Therefore  hast  thou  visited 
and  destroyed  them,^  and  made  all  their  memory  to  perish  " 
(ibid.).^ 

Rabbi  Zechariah  said  :  The  sleep  at  night  is  like  this 
world,  and  the  awakening  of  the  morning  ^  is  like  the 
world  to  come.  And  just  as  |1  in  the  sleep  of  the  night  a 
man  lies  down  and  sleeps,  and  his  spirit  wanders  over  all 
the  earth,  and  tells  him  in  a  dream  i"  whatever  happens,  as  it 
is  said,  "  In  a  dream,  in  a  vision  of  the  night  .  .  .  then  he 
openeth  the  ears  of  men  "  (Job  xxxiii.  15,  16),  Hkewise  (with) 
the  dead,  their  spirit  wanders  over  all  the  earth,  and  tells 
them  all  things  ^^  that  happen  in  the  world,  but  they  are  silent 
and  (yet)  they  give  song  and  praise  to  God,  who  will  quicken 
them  in  the  future,  as  it  is  said,  "  Let  the  saints  exult 
in  glory  "  ^'^  (Ps.  cxiix.  5).     The  awakening  in  the  morning 

1  Cf.  T.B.  Synhedrin,  107b,  and  Aboth  de  Rabbi  Nathan  (a)  xxxvi. 
pp.  53b  a. 

2  The  Rephaim  (giants)  are  the  men  of  the  generation  of  the  Flood. 
See  supra,  pp.  160  f.,  167,  and  Gen.  Rab.  xxxi.  12. 

^  i.e.  doomed  to  destruction.  Cf.  the  directions  laid  down  for  the 
conduct  of  Christians  towards  heathens,  in  Clement,  "Two  Epistles  con- 
cerning Virginity,"  vi.  (A.N.C.L.  xiv.  pp.  387f.).    See  supra, -p.  208,  n.  7, 

*  In  the  Messianic  age,  or,  rather,  at  the  close  of  the  reign  of  Messiah. 
^  Or,  "  spirits  who  injure." 

*  Or,  "  Demons  unto  man  ";  see  Jalkut,  Isa.  in  loc. 

'  The  quotation  ends  here  in  the  MS.,  it  is  continued  in  the  first 
editions. 

*  See  Zohar,  Gen.  25b. 

» This  is  based  on  Isa.  xxvi.  19.  Cf.  Hippolytus  (ed.  Achelis), 
p.  107. 

1"  See  Eccles.  x.  20,  and  see  Midrash  Rab.  thereon  ;  cf.  T.B.  Berak- 
hoth,  1 8b,  Gen.  Rab.  xiv.  9,  and  supra,  p.  87. 

'^  This  is  also  the  reading  of  the  Venice  edition. 

12  Even  in  the  grave  the  saints  continue  to  glorify  God.  See  Ps. 
cxlix.  5  ;  Jalkut,  i  Kings,  §  169  ;  and  Shocher  Tob  on  Ps.  xxx.  p.  117b. 


254  RABBI  ELIEZER 

is  like  the  future  world.  A  parable  ^ — unto  what  is  the 
matter  to  be  likened  ?  To  a  man  who  awakens  out  of  his 
sleep,  in  like  manner  will  the  dead  awaken  in  the  future 
world,  as  it  is  said,  "  O  satisfy  us  in  the  morning  with  thy 
loving-kindness  "  -  {ibid.  xc.  14). 

The  voices  of  five  (objects  of  creation)  ^  go  from  one 
end  of  the  world  to  the  other,  and  their  voices  are  inaudible.* 
When  people  cut  down  the  wood  of  the  tree  ^  which  yields 
fruit,  its  cry  goes  from  one  end  of  the  world  to  the  other, 
and  the  voice  is  inaudible.  When  the  serpent  sloughs  off 
its  skin,*^  its  cry  goes  from  one  end  of  the  world  to  the  other 
and  its  voice  is  not  heard."  When  a  woman  is  divorced 
from  her  husband,**  her  voice  goeth  forth  from  one  end  of 
the  world  to  the  other,  but  the  voice  is  inaudible.^  When 
the  infant  ||  comes  forth  from  its  mother's^"  womb.^^  When 
the  soul  departs  from  the  body,^-  the  cry  goes  forth  from  one 
end  of  the  world  to  the  other,  and  the  voice  is  not  heard. 
The  soul  does  not  go  out  of  the  body  until  it  beholds  the 
Shekhinah,  as  it  is  said,  "  For  man  shall  not  sec  me  and 
live  "  (Ex.  xxxiii.  20).i3 

^  The  parable  is  only  found  in  our  MS.  Cf.  i  Cor.  xv.  20,  51  ; 
I  Thess.  iv.  14  ;  and  Eph.  v.  14. 

^  The  verse  continues  :  "  and  let  us  sing  and  rejoice  all  our  day.-'." 
See  Jalkut  Makhiri  on  Ps.  xc.  p.  44a;  T.B.  Berakhoth,  i8b.  "The 
wicked  sleep  the  eternal  sleep,  never  to  awaken  in  the  future."  Cf.  Jer. 
li.  30  and  Targum,  in  loc. 

^  Brodc  and  Luria  read  "  six."  In  fact  there  are  "  six "  cases 
enumerated  according  to  the  t&yit  of  the  first  printed  editions.  The 
MS.  has  five  instances  only. 

*  See  T.B.  Joma,  20b,  where  four  examples  only  are  given.  Jalkut, 
I'salms,  §  743,  has  used  our  author.  See  Gen.  Rab.  vi.  7.  The  first  edi- 
tions add  :  "  and  they  are." 

*  This  maj'  be  based  on  Deut.  xx.  19.  See  also  Jer.  xlvi.  22  and 
Targum  thereon. 

®  See  supra,  p.  99,  Gen.  Rab.  xx.  5.  Cf.  The  Baraitha  of  the  32 
Middoth,  No.  14,  ed.  Reifmaun,  pp.  33!. 

^  The  first  editions  omit :  "  The  voice  goeth  forth  from  one  end  of 
the  world  to  the  other."  It  occurs  in  the  Amsterdam  edition.  Cf.  J':^r. 
xlvi.  22. 

®  See  Mai.  ii.  14-16. 

*  The  first  editions  add  :  "  When  a  wife  is  with  her  husband  at  the 
first  coition,  her  voice  goeth  forth  from  one  end  of  the  world  to  the 
other,  but  the  voice  is  inaudible." 

1"  Sec  Isa.  xxvi.  17,  and  xlii.  14  ;  T.B.  Joma,  loc.  cit.,  and  Lev. 
Rab.  xxvii.  7. 

"  The  first  editions  add  :  "  the  cry  goeth  forth  from  one  end  of  the 
world  to  the  other,  and  the  voice  is  not  heard." 

'-  See  T.B.  Joma,  loc.  cit. 

''  See  Siphre,  Num.  §  103  ;  Siphra  (beg.),  and  infra,  p.  430. 


RESURRECTION  OF  THE  DEAD     255 

Rabbi  Ze'era^  said:  All  the  souls  go  forth  and  are 
gathered,  each  man's  soul  to  the  generation  of  his  fathers 
and  to  his  people.^  The  righteous  with  the  righteous,^  and 
the  wicked  with  the  wicked,  for  thus  spake  the  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  to  Abraham  :  "  But  thou  shalt  go  to  thy 
fathers  in  peace  "  (Gen.  xv.  15).*  And  when  the  soul  goes 
forth  from  the  body,^  then  the  righteous  come  to  meet 
them,^  and  say  to  them :  Come  unto  peace  !  One  verse 
says,  "  Therefore,  behold,  I  will  gather  thee  to  thy  fathers, 
and  thou  shalt  be  gathered  to  thy  grave  in  peace  "  (2  Kings 
xxii.  20).^ 

Rab  Huna  *  said :  All  Israel  ^  who  die  outside  the 
land  (of  Israel),  their  souls  ^"  are  gathered  into  the  land 
(of  Israel),  as  it  is  said,  "  Yet  the  soul  of  my  lord  shall 
be  bound  in  the  bundle  of  the  living  "  ^^  (1  Sam.  xxv.  29). 
All  the  heathens  who  die  ^-  in  the  land  of  Israel  have  their 
souls  cast  outside  the  land  (of  IsraeP^),  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
the  souls  of  thine  enemies,  them  shall  he  sling  out,  as  from 
the  hollow  of  a  sling  "  (ibid.),  (even)  beyond  the  land  (of 
Israel). 

In  the  future  world  the   Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  will 

1  The  first  editions  read  '"Azariah." 

2  Death  reunites,  whereas  in  hfe  separation  and  dispersion  are 
frequent  experiences.     See  Ps.  xUx.  ig. 

^  See  Jalkut,  Gen.  §  77,  and  Eccles.  Rab.  to  Eccles.  iii.  9. 

*  The  first  editions  read  here  :  "  When  the  soul  goes  forth  from  the 
body,  is  this  peace  ?  But  the  angels  come  to  meet  (it)  and  say  to  it : 
Peace,  as  it  is  said  :  '  He  entereth  into  peace  ;  they  rest  in  their  beds  ' 
(Isa.  Ivii.  2).  Another  verse  says:  'Thou  shalt  be  gathered  to  thy 
grave  in  peace  '  "  (2  Kings  xxii.  20). 

*  Luria  suggests  that  the  text  should  read  :  "  What  is  the  peace  ?  " 
(Is  there  any  peace  for  the  body  when  the  soul  leaves  it  ?)  See  also 
T.B.  Sabbath,  152b.  See  the  Book  of  the  Bee  Ivi.  pp.  131  ff.  for  a 
parallel  to  our  text. 

*  i.e.  the  souls.  See  Rokeach,  313,  which  has  used  P.R.E.  ;  the  read- 
ing here  is:  "  The  righteous  come  before  the  souls."  See  also  T.B. 
Kethuboth,  104a,  and  Num.  Rab.  xi.  7. 

''  Cf.  2  Chron.  xxxiv.  28.  Our  MS.  has  omitted  part  of  the  verse, 
the  first  editions  read  the  latter  part  only. 

*  The  first  editions  read  "  Rabbi  Chanina." 

*  The  later  editions  read  :   "  All  the  righteous." 
1"  Immediately  after  death. 

11  The  land  of  the  living  is  the  Holy  Land  ;  when  David  was  an  exile 
from  the  Holy  Land  he  cries  that  he  cannot  worship  God.  See  i  Sam. 
xxvi.  19. 

1^  Some  of  the  later  editions  read  :  "  All  the  dead  (bodies)  of  the 
wicked."  The  Amsterdam  and  Prague  editions  read  :  "  All  the  dead 
(bodies)  of  the  idolaters." 

'3  This  is  the  reading  of  the  Amsterdam  and  Prague  editions. 


256  RABBI  ELIEZER 

take  hold  of  the  corners  of  the  land  of  Israel,  and  shake  it 
(free)  from  all  unclean  (things),^  as  it  is  said,  "  That  it  might 
take  hold  of  the  ends  of  the  earth,-  and  the  wicked  be  shaken 
out  of  it  "  (Job  xxxviii.  13). 

A  man  has  three  friends  |i  in  his  lifetime,  and  they  are  :  his 
sons  and  his  household,^  his  money,  and  his  good  deeds. 
At  the  hour  of  a  man's  departure  from  the  world  he  gathers 
his  sons  and  his  household,  and  he  says  to  them  :  I  beg  of  you 
to  come  and  save  me  from  the  judgment  of  this  evil  death.* 
They  answer  him,  saying  to  him  :  Hast  thou  not  heard 
that  there  is  no  one  who  can  prevail  over  the  day  of  death  ? 
and  is  it  not  written  thus,  "  None  of  them  can  by  any  means 
redeem  his  brother  "  (Ps.  xhx.  7)  ?  ^  "  For  the  redemption  of 
their  soul  is  costly  "  ^  {ibid.  8).  And  he  has  his  money  fetched, 
and  says  to  it :  '  I  beseech  thee,  save  me  from  the  judgment  of 
this  evil  death.     It  answers  him,  saying  :    Hast  thou  not 

1  The  first  editions  add  :  "  like  a  man  shakes  a  garment  and  casts 
out  all  that  is  therein  and  throws  this  away." 

2  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here ;  it  is  continued  in  the  first 
editions. 

3  Cf.  Aboth  vi.  9,  Jalkut,  Isa.  §  494  ;  Jalkut,  Ps.  §  834,  reads 
"  household."  Bachja  in  Kad  Ha-Kemach.  s.v.  Sax,  pp.  i2a-b, 
quotes  P.R.E.  and  reads  :  "  his  wife  and  his  sons."  The  latter 
reading  is  to  be  found  in  the  first  editions.  Cf .  also  Menorath  Ha-.Maor, 
278.  See  Israel  Levi's  article  on  this  passage  in  R.E.J,  xviii. 
pp.  83  ff.,  where  he  discusses  the  influence  of  "  Barlaam  and  Josaphat  " 
in  this  parable.  "  Barlaam  and  Josaphat  "  was  written  in  the  seventh 
century  probably,  and  was  known  to  the  author  of  P.R.E.  in  its  Greek 
or  Arabic  or  Syrian  version.  See  also  Geiger,  Was  hat  Mohammed,  etc., 
p.  93,  and  J.E.  ii.  pp.  ^^(yi. 

*  This  is  an  explanation  of  Ps.  xlix.  5,  "Why  should  I  fear  in  the 
days  of  evil  ?  "  (i.e.  death). 

*  "  The  first  editions  read  here  :  "  Even  his  money  which  he  loves 
cannot  redeem  him,  as  it  is  said  :  '  Nor  give  to  God  a  ransom  for  him ' 
(Ps.  xlix.  7).     Why?" 

«  Siphre,  Deut.  §  329,  says  :  "If  they  give  to  Him  all  the  money  in  the 
world  they  would  not  be  able  to  give  Him  his  ransom."  The  first 
editions  add  here  the  following :  "  And  this  thing  must  be  let  alone  '  for 
ever'  (P.-.  xlix.  8).  but  go  towards  peace  and  rest  on  thy  couch,  and 
stand  for  thy  lot  at  the  end  of  days,  and  may  thy  lot  be  with  the  pious 
of  the  world.'     When  he  sees  (things)  in  this  way."  - 

'  The  first  editions  add  :  "  For  thee  have  I  toiled  very  much  by 
night  and  by  day."  See  Eccles.  v.  10-15  on  the  folly  of  heaping  up 
wealth. 


1  Note  here  the  universalism  of  this  wish.  The  pious  of  the 
world,  not  merely  the  pious  of  Israel,  are  the  denizens  of  Paradise. 
On  the  "  pious  of  the  world,"  see  Toscphta  Synhedrin  xiii.  p.  43  t-  The 
latter  pnrt  of  the  paragraph  is  based  on  Dan.  xii.  13. 

*  How  his  family  are  powerless  to  help  him. 


RESURRECTION  OF  THE  DEAD     257 

heard,  "  Riches  profit  not  in  the  day  of  wrath  "  ^  (Prov. 
xi.  4)  ?  He  (then)  has  his  good  deeds  fetched,  and  he 
says  to  them :  I  beseech  you,  come  and  deHver  me  from 
the  judgment  of  this  evil  death, ^  And  they  answer  him 
and  say  to  him  :  ^  Before  thou  goest,  verily,  we  will  go 
in  advance  of  thee,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  charity  delivereth 
from  death "  (ibid.).  Does  then  charity  deliver  from 
death?  (This  refers)  to  an  evil  death  only.  Another 
Scripture  says,  "  And  thy  righteousness  shall  go  before 
thee,^  the  glory  of  the  Lord  shall  be  thy  rearward  "  (Isa. 
Iviii.  8).5 

All  the  seven  days  of  mourning  the  soul  goeth  forth 
and  returneth  from  its  (former)  home  to  its  sepulchral 
abode,  and  from  its  sepulchral  abode  to  its  (former)  home.^ 
After  the  seven  days  of  mourning  the  body  !|  begins  to  breed 
worms,'  and  it  decays  and  returns  to  the  dust,^  as  it  originally 
was,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  dust  returns  to  the  earth  as  it 
was  "  ^  (Eccles.  xii.  7).  The  soul  goes  forth  and  returns  to 
the  place  whence  it  was  given,  from  heaven,  as  it  is  said,  "And 
the  soul  1°  returns  unto  God  who  gave  it "  (ibid.).  And  whence 
do  we  learn  that  the  soul  has  been  given  from  heaven  ?  ^^ 
Come  and  see.     When  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  formed 

'  i.e.  the  day  of  death.  The  text  might  be  rendered  "  the  day  of 
passing  away  "  (from  this  life).     Cf.  Eccles.  viii.  8. 

*  The  first  editions  add  here  :  "  and  strengthen  yourselves  with  me/ 
and  do  not  leave  me  to  depart  from  the  world,  for  ye  still  have  hope 
for  me  that  I  may  be  saved."  * 

*  The  first  editions  add  :    "  Go  towards  peace." 

*  The  quotation  ends  here  in  the  MS.,  it  is  continued  in  the  first 
editions. 

^  In  Jalkut,  Isa.  loc.  cit.,  the  verse:  "And  righteousness  delivereth 
from  death"  (Prov.  x.  2)  is  quoted.  This  is  also  to  be  found  in  the 
Kad  Ha-Kemach,  loc.  cit. 

®  This  sentence  is  omitted  in  the  printed  editions.    See  4  Ezra  vii.  3 1 . 

''  See  Rokeach,  313,  based  upon  our  author;  cf.  T.B.  Sabbath,  152a, 
and  T.J.  Mo'ed  Katan  iii.  5.  82b. 

8  See  T.B.  Niddali,  69b,  and  T.B.  Sabbath,  152b.  The  return  to 
dust  is  considerably  later  than  the  first  seven  days  after  death. 

^  The  next  sentence  is  not  found  in  the  printed  editions. 
10  The  MS.  text  does  not  agree  with  the  M.T.    "  Nephesh,"  which 
we  have  rendered  soul,  should  be  "  ruach,"  spirit. 
"  i.e.  by  God. 

1  Because  all  my  relatives  and  friends  have  forsaken  me.  For  the 
phraseology,  cf.  Dan.  x.  19. 

2  The  next  verse  (9)  in  Ps.  xlix.  says  :  "  and  let  him  live  for  ever." 
This  is  the  petition  of  one's  good  deeds,  the  only  true  and  lasting  friend 
of  man. 

17 


258  RABBI  ELIEZER 

man,  he  did  not  have  in  him  the  spirit.^  What  did  the  Holy 
One,  blessed  be  He,  do  ?  He  breathed  with  the  spirit  of 
the  breath  of  His  mouth,  and  cast  a  soul  -  into  him,  as  it 
is  said,  "  And  he  brcatlicd  into  his  nostrils  the  breath  of 
life  "  (Gen.  ii.  ly 

Rabbi  Ishmael  *  said  :  All  the  bodies  crumble  ^  into 
the  dust  of  the  earth,  until  nothing  remains  of  the  body 
except  a  spoonful  of  earthy  matter.^  In  the  futvire  life, 
when  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  calls"  to  the  earth  to 
return  all  the  bodies  deposited  with  it.'*  that  which  had  become 
mixed  with  the  dust  of  the  earth,  like  the  yeast  which  is 
mixed  with  the  dough,  improves  and  increases,  and  it  raises 
up  all  the  body.^  When  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  calls 
to  the  earth  to  return  all  the  bodies  deposited  with  it,  that 
which  has  become  mixed  with  the  dust  of  the  earth,  im- 
proves and  increases  and  raises  up  all  the  body  without 
water.i"  Forthwith  the  earth  quakes  and  the  mountains 
tremble,^^  and  the  graves  are  opened,^-  and  the  stones  of  the 
graves  are  scattered  about  one  from  the  other,  as  it  is  said, 
"  And  the  Lord  God  shall  save  them  ||  in  that  day  as  the 
flock  of  his  people  :  ^^  for  they  shall  be  as  the  stones  of  a 
crown,  Hfted  on  high  over  his  land  "  (Zech.  ix.  16). 

Rabbi  Azariah  said :  All  the  souls  are  in  the  hands  of 

1  The  first  editions  read  :  "  the  spirit  of  the  soul."  See  supra. 
p.  78,  n.  2.     Cf.  Tertullian,  On  the  Resurrection,  v. 

2  Or,  "  breath." 

3  The  breath  of  life  came  from  God  and  returns  to  Him. 

*  The  first  editions  read  "  Simeon." 
"  Read  pyi:3,  and  cf.  supra,  p.  yj. 

*  Or,  "  rottenness."  See  T.J.  Nazir  vii.  2,  56b,  and  Lev.  Rab.  xviii.  i. 
The  Venice  edition  adds  here  :  "  And  it  becomes  mixed  with  the  dust 
of  the  earth  like  yeast,  which  is  mixed  with  the  dough." 

'  The  Voice  of  God  will  usher  in  the  resurrection,  see  supra, 
p.  249  ;  see  also  Othijoth  de  R. 'Akiba;  B.H.M.  iii.  p.  60.  Cf.  4  Ezra 
vii.  32  ;  .-Kpoc.  Baruch  xi.  4  ;   i  Thess.    iv.  13,  i  ;  ;  and  2  Pet.  iii.  4. 

*  Cf .  infra,  p.  335.  The  earth  holds  the  bodies  until  the  resur- 
rection. The  day  of  death  is  called  the  "  day  of  Account "  (Isa.  x.  3)  ; 
cf.  Num.  xvi.  29,  "  the  visiting  of  every  man." 

*  The  first  edition  adds:  "without  water."  This  became  in  the 
Venice  edition  :  "  \vithout  a  blemish."  See  T.B.  Synhedrin,  91a,  and 
Gen.  Rab.  xcv.  i. 

i<*  This  sentence  is  not  in  the  printed  texts.  It  is  practically  a 
repetition  of  the  previous  sentence.  The  first  editions  read  instead  : 
"  like  the  leaven  which  improves  and  increases  the  dough." 

"  See  T.B.  Sotah,  36b.  See  .\rabic  version  of  4  Fzra  vii.  32  (ed. 
Box,  p.  119). 

12  See  Ezek.  xxxvii.  13. 

13  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here. 


RESURRECTION  OF  THE  DEAD     259 

the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  as  it  is  said,  "  In  whose  hand 
is  the  soul  of  every  living  thing  "  ^  (Job  xii.  10).  A  parable 
— to  what  is  the  matter  like  ?  To  a  person  who  was  going 
in  the  market  with  the  key  of  his  house  in  his  hand.  As  long 
as  the  key  is  in  his  hand,  all  his  money  is  in  his  hand.  Like- 
wise the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  has  the  key  of  the  graves,^ 
and  the  key  of  the  treasure-houses  of  the  souls ;  ^  and  He 
will  restore  every  spirit  to  the  body  of  flesh  of  man,  as  it  is 
said,  "  Thou  sendest  forth  thy  spirit,*  they  are  created ;  ^ 
and  thou  renewest  the  face  of  the  ground  "  ^  (Ps.  civ.  30). 

The  soul  is  like  its  Creator.^  Just  as  the  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  sees  and  is  not  visible,  so  the  soul  sees  and  is 
not  visible.^  Just  as  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  has  no 
sleep  in  His  presence,^  so  the  soul  does  not  sleep.i"  Just  as 
the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  bears  His  world,ii  so  the  soul 
bears  all  the  body.i-  All  souls  are  His,  as  it  is  said,  "  Behold, 
all  souls  are  mine  "  (Ezek.  xviii.  4). 

Rabbi  Jehudah  said  :  From  the  day  when  the  Temple  was 
destroyed,  the  land  (of  Israel)  is  broken  down  on  account  of 
the  wickedness  of  those  who  dwell  therein ;  like  a  man  who  is 
sick  and  has  no  power  to  stand,  so  is  the  land  broken  down  and 
is  without  power  to  yield  her  fruits,  as  it  is  said,  "  The  earth 
also  is  polluted  under  the  inhabitants  thereof"  (Isa.  xxiv.  5).^^ 

In  the  future  life  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  will  cause 

^  After  death.  The  parable  illustrates  this  idea.  This  does  not 
agree  with  the  interpretation  given  in  Siphre,  Num.  §  139,  quoted  in 
Jalkut  on  Job,  in  loc. 

2  SeeT.B.Taanith2b,  "Fori  am  the  Lord,  when  I  open  your  graves." 

*  The  first  editions  add  here:  "In  the  future  life  the  Holy  One, 
blessed  be  He,  will  open  the  graves,  and  He  will  open  the  treasure- 
houses  of  the  souls."  See  4  Ezra  iv.  35,  vii.  32  ;  T.B.  Chagigah,  12b  ; 
and  Siphre  Dent,  §  344. 

*  Thereby  reviving  the  spirit  of  man.  Cf.  Athenagoras,  Resurrection 
of  the  Dead,  xxv. 

*  In  the  MS.  and  the  first  editions  the  quotation  ends  here. 

*  The  earth  will  be  renewed  after  the  resurrection. 

'  Luria  adds  :  if  one  may  so  without  irreverence."  On  this  ex- 
pression, see  Bacher,  Terminologie,  i.  pp.  72  f. 

®  See  T.B.  Berakhoth,  loa,  and  Deut.  Rab.  ii.  37,  where  six 
points  of  similarity  are  enumerated  ;  cf.  Lw.  Rab.  iv.  8.  On  God's 
seeing,  cf.  Jer.  xxiii.  24 ;  on  God's  invisibility,  see  Ex.  xxxiii.  20  and 
Isa.  xlv.  15.  See  similar  theories  in  TertuUiau,  de  Anima,  xlv.  ;  and 
Methodius,  Banquet,  vi.  i. 

*  See  Ps.  cxxi.  4  ;  and  Gen.  Rab.  xiv.  9. 

^0  See  supra,  p.  86. 

^1  See  Isa.  xlvi.  4. 

12  Cf.  Luria's  reading. 

1^  See  the  earlier  part  of  the  verse. 


260  RABBI  ELIEZER 

the  reviving  dew  to  descend,  and  He  will  quicken  the  dead 
and  renew  all  things,  as  it  is  said,  "  Thy  dead  shall  live  " 
{ihid.  xxvi.  19).  They  are  the  Israelites,  who  died  trusting 
in  His  name.  ||  ''My  dead  bodies  shall  arise"  {ihid.).  They 
are  the  heathens,  who  are  like  the  carcase  of  the  beast :  ^  they 
shall  arise  for  the  day  of  judgment,  but  they  shall  not  live. 
"  Awake  and  sing,  ye  that  dwell  in  the  dust  "  {ihid.).  They 
are  the  righteous,  for  they  dwell  -  in  the  dust.  "  For  thy  dew 
is  as  the  dew  of  light  "  {ibid.).  The  dew  of  the  righteous 
is  not  the  dew  of  darkness,^  but  (it  is)  the  dew  of  light,  as  it 
is  said,  "  For  thy  dew  is  as  the  dew  of  hght  "  {ihid.) ;  and  it 
gives  healing  to  the  earth,  as  it  is  said,  "  And  the  earth  shall 
cast  forth  the  dead  "  *  {ihid.).  And  what  is  the  meaning  of 
"  And  the  earth  shall  cast  forth  the  dead  "  ?  ^ 

Rabbi  Tanchum  said  ^  :  On  account  of  the  seed  of  the 
earth,  when  it  is  commanded,  (it)  discharges  the  dew  for 
the  resurrection  of  the  dead.''  From  what  place  does  it 
descend  ?  From  the  head  of  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be 
He ;  for  the  head  of  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He,  is  full  of 
the  reviving  dew.  In  the  future  life  the  Holy  One,  blessed 
be  He,  will  shake  His  head  ^  and  ^  cause  the  quickening  dew 
to  descend,^"  as  it  is  said,  "  I  was  asleep,!^  but  my  heart 
waked  ^-  .  .  .  for  my  head  is  filled  with  dew,  my  locks  with 
the  drops  of  the  night  "  (Cant.  v.  2). 

*A  similar  statement  occurs  in  Tertiillian,  On  the  Resurrection, 
A.N.C.L.  XV.  p.  311. 

^  The  righteous  dead  are  called  "  living."  See  T.B.  Sotah,  5a.  and 
T.B.  Berakhoth,  i8a.  Cf.  4  Ezra  vii.  3^,  36,  61  to  illustrate  the  pre- 
ceding part  of  the  paragraph. 

3  The  dew  of  nature  descends  at  night  (see  Job  xxix.  19),  and  is 
called  "  the  dew  of  darkness."  There  is  also  "  the  dew  of  light," 
which  is  the  heavenly  or  spiritual  dew. 

*  Rephaim  ;  the  root  of  this  word  means  "  to  heal."  See  Cant.  Rab. 
on  Cant.  v.  2. 

6  The  first  editions  read  :  "  What  is  the  meaning  of  '  it  giveth  healing 
to  the  earth  '  ?  " 

*  This  is  probably  a  gloss,  copied  from  T.J.  Berakhoth  v.  2.  9b. 
It  is  only  this  sentence  which  belongs  to  Rabbi  Tanchum.  Perhaps 
the  saying  is  merely  that  the  earth  will  disgorge  the  dead  entrusted 
to  its  keeping. 

'  See  Luria's  reading,  and  Jalkut,  i  Kings,  §  207. 

*  See  Zohar,  Gen.  130a,  and  Singer,  p.  79,  for  the  "dew  of  light," 
based  on  Isa.  xxvi.  19. 

»  See  Luria's  reading. 

10  The  first  editions  add  :  "  and  He  will  revive  the  dead." 
"  The  righteous  sleeps  in  death,  but  his  heart  is  ever  awake  ;  his 
soul  is  fed  by  the  Divine  dew  which  will  effect  the  resurrection. 
^^  The  quotation  ends  here  in  our  MS. 


CHAPTER  XXXV 

THE   VISION    OF   JACOB   AT    BETHEL   [45b   i.] 

"  Better  is  the  end  of  a  thing  than  the  beginning  thereof  " 
(Eccles.  vii.  8).  The  first  blessings  wherewith  Isaac  blessed 
Jacob  were  concerning  the  dews  of  heaven,  and  concerning 
the  corn  of  the  earth,i  as  it  is  said,  "  And  God  give  thee  of 
the  dew  of  heaven,^  and  of  the  fatness  of  the  earth  "  (Gen. 
xxvii.  28).  The  final  blessings  were  the  blessings  of  the 
foundation  of  the  world,  and  in  them  there  is  no  (interriiption),^ 
either  in  this  world  or  in  the  world  to  come,  as  it  is  said, 
"  And  God  Almighty  bless  thee  "  (ibid,  xxviii.  3).  And  he 
further  added  unto  him  the  blessing  of  Abraham,  ||  as  it  is 
said,  "  And  may  he  give  thee  the  blessing  of  Abraham,*  to 
thee  and  to  thy  seed  with  thee  "  ^  {ibid.  4).  Therefore  (say)  ^  : 
"  Better  is  the  end  of  a  thing  '  than  the  beginning  thereof  " 
(Eccles.  vii.  8).  "  Better  is  the  patient  in  spirit  than  the  proud 
in  spirit"  (ibid.).^  "Better  is  the  patient  in  spirit" — this 
(saying)  is  applicable »  to  our  father  Jacob,  for  every  day 
he  was  patient  in  spirit,  and  he  spake  all  kinds  of  words  of 

1  i.e.  material  blessings  of  this  earthly  life. 

2  In  the  MS.  and  the  first  editions  the  quotation  ends  here. 

^  There  is  a  lacuna  in  the  MS.  ;  the  space  is  just  sufficient  for  the 
word  which  occurs  in  the  Oxford  MS.  or  in  the  first  editions,  and  which 
means  "  interruption." 

*  In  the  MS.  the  quotation  ends  here  ;  it  is  continued  in  the  first 
editions. 

*  The  verse  continues  :  "  that  thou  mayest  inherit  the  land  of 
thy  sojoumings." 

*  This  occurs  in  the  first  editions,  and  is  missing  in  the  MS. 

''  The  reference  is  to  the  iinal  blessing  of  Jacob.  The  blessings  which 
he  received  instead  of  Esau  were  but  a  cause  of  anguish  and  sorrow 
to  him  as  far  as  material  benefits  were  concerned  ;   cf.  Job  viii.  7. 

*  The  first  editions  read  :  "  '  Better  is  slowness  to  anger  than  the 
proud  in  spirit.'  '  Better  is  slowness  to  anger,'  this  (saying),"  etc.  The 
Oxford  MS.  agrees  with  our  text. 

*  Read  apv'a  tidk. 

26X 


262  RABBI  ELIEZER 

entreaty.^  (The  words)  "  than  the  proud  in  spirit  "  {ibid.) 
refer  to  the  wicked  Esau,  because  every  day  he  was  eating 
the  flesh  of  that  which  he  had  hunted.  Owing  to  his  pride  he 
did  not  give  any  of  his  food  to  Jacob.  Once  he  went  out  to 
hunt  but  he  did  not  meet  with  any  success.  He  saw  Jacob 
eating  lentil  food,  and  he  desired  this  in  his  heart,  and  he  said 
to  him  :  "  Let  me  gulp  down,  I  pray  thee,  some  of  that  red 
pottage  "  (Gen.  xxv.  30).  Jacob  said  to  him  :  Thou  camest 
forth  red  at  thy  birth  from  thy  mother  ;  (now^  thou  dost 
desire  to  eat  (this)  red  food ;  therefore  he  called  his  name 
"  Edom  "  (red),  as  it  is  said,  "  And  Esau  said  to  Jacob  " 
(ibid.). 

Rabbi  Eliezer  said  :  Lentils  are  the  food  of  mourning  ^  and 
sorrow.  Know  thou  that  this  is  so,  for  when  Abel  had  been 
killed,  his  parents  were  eating  lentil  food  (as  a  sign)  of  their 
mourning  for  him  in  mourning  and  sorrow.^  And  Jacob  was 
eating  lentil  food  in  mourning  and  sorrow^  because  the 
kingdom,  the  dominion,  and  the  birthright  belonged  to 
Esau.  Moreover,  on  that  day  Abraham,  his  grandfather, 
died.^  The  Israelites  eat  lentil  food  in  mourning  and  sorrow 
on  account  of  the  mourning  ||  and  sorrow  for  the  Temple,^ 
and  on  account  of  the  exile  of  Israel.  Hence  thou  mayest 
learn  that  the  children  of  Esau  will  not  fall  until  a  remnant 
from  Israel  shall  come  and  give  to  the  children  of  Esau  lentil 

1  The  MS.  reads  "  Pangeoth,"  so  also  in  first  editions.  Jastrow 
corrects  this  and  reads  Pagneoth  (entreaty)  ;  see  T.D  1135a  ;  his  refer- 
ence to  our  book  on  11 86a  must  be  corrected  so  as  to  read  Chapter 
XXXV.  According  to  Luria  the  reading  should  be  :  "  Every  day  he 
ate  plain  food."  The  Oxford  MS.  has  :  "  Every  day  he  ate  food  which 
wa.-^  disqualHTd  "  (for  th'-  altar). 

2  See  T.B.  Baba  Bathra,  i6b  ;  Pal.  Targ.  Gen.  xxv.  29,  and  Gen. 
Rab.  Ixiii.  14.  Ct.  Jerome,  Epist.  xxii.  ad  Paulam.  quoted  in  JQR- 
vi.  227,  and  Briill  in  Kobak's  Jeschurun.  viii.  31  ff. 

^  The  first  editions  add  :  "  And  when  Haran  was  burned  in  the 
furnace  of  the  Chaldecs,  his  parents  ate  lentil  food  (as  a  sign)  of  their 
mourning  for  him  in  mourning  and  sorrow." 

*  The  Venice  edition  adds  :  "  because  of  the  kingdom  and  the 
dominion  and  the  birthright  of  Esau." 

*  Luria  thinks  that  since  Jacob  was  wont  to  eat  lentils,  there  was 
no  special  reason  to  connect  this  circumstance  with  the  death  of 
Abraham.     See  Posikta  Rabbathi  xii.  p.  48a. 

*  The  custom  of  eating  lentils  on  the  eve  of  the  Fast  of  Ab  obtained 
formerly;  see  Tur  Orach  Chayyim,  552,  and  cf.  Gen.  Rab.,  loc.  cit., 
which  says  that  lentils  are  a  suitable  repast  for  mourners  because  they 
have  no  mouth  {i.e.  slit),  like  the  mourner  who  in  his  grief  is  struck 
dumb.  Moreover,  the  lentils  by  their  round  form  typify  the  going 
around  of  trouble  and  loss  in  this  world.     (Sec  J.E.  vii.  682.) 


VISION  OF  JACOB  AT  BETHEL     263 

food  in  mourning  and  sorrow,  and  will  take  away  from  them 
the  dominion  of  the  kingdom  and  the  birthright,  which 
Jacob  acquired  from  (Esau)  by  oath,  as  it  is  said,  "  And 
Jacob  said,  Swear  to  me  this  day  ;  and  he  sware  unto  him  " 
{ibid.  33). 

Rabbi '  Akiba  said  :  Every  place  where  our  forefathers  went, 
the  well  went  in  front  of  them,  and  they  i  dug  three  times 
and  found  it  before  them.^  Abraham  dug  three  times  and 
found  it  before  him,  as  it  is  s